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On the Function of Boredom  [PDF]
Shane W. Bench,Heather C. Lench
Behavioral Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/bs3030459
Abstract: Boredom is frequently considered inconsequential and has received relatively little research attention. We argue that boredom has important implications for human functioning, based on emotion theory and empirical evidence. Specifically, we argue that boredom motivates pursuit of new goals when the previous goal is no longer beneficial. Exploring alternate goals and experiences allows the attainment of goals that might be missed if people fail to reengage. Similar to other discrete emotions, we propose that boredom has specific and unique impacts on behavior, cognition, experience and physiology. Consistent with a broader argument that boredom encourages the behavioral pursuit of alternative goals, we argue that, while bored, attention to the current task is reduced, the experience of boredom is negative and aversive, and that boredom increases autonomic arousal to ready the pursuit of alternatives. By motivating desire for change from the current state, boredom increases opportunities to attain social, cognitive, emotional and experiential stimulation that could have been missed. We review the limited extant literature to support these claims, and call for more experimental boredom research.
A cooperate-defect model for the spread of deviant behavior in social networks  [PDF]
Sarah Rajtmajer,Christopher Griffin,Derek Mikesell,Anna Squicciarini
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: We present a game-theoretic model for the spread of deviant behavior in online social networks. We utilize a two-strategy framework wherein each player's behavior is classified as normal or deviant and evolves according to the cooperate-defect payoff scheme of the classic prisoner's dilemma game. We demonstrate convergence of individual behavior over time to a final strategy vector and indicate counterexamples to this convergence outside the context of prisoner's dilemma. Theoretical results are validated on a real-world dataset collected from a popular online forum.
Managing Deviant Behavior and Resistance to Change  [cached]
Akinlolu Ayodeji Agboola,Rafiu Oyesola Salawu
International Journal of Business and Management , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v6n1p235
Abstract: The paper focuses on how to manage deviant behaviors and resistance to change. Case study method was used to examine practical implementation of change processes in some selected organizations. It was discovered that change affects four basic aspects of the company: its strategy, technology, structure and employees. All these present individuals with new situations, new problems, challenges, ambiguity and uncertainty and threaten the status quo. Change influences authoritative allocation of both human and material resources and encourages competition which heats up the political climate in organizations. Resistance to change might be expressed through deviant behaviors to truncate the process or prevent implementation. The study identifies proper education, effective communication, facilitation, motivation, negotiation, manipulation, co-optation and coercion as possible methods for managing resistance to change. The use of any of these methods or combination of some, however, depends on the type of organization, nature of resistance and stage of intervention. The paper concludes that capacity to manage deviant behavior and smoothly implement change is critical to organizational survival. Managing deviant behavior and resistance to change should be accorded strategic importance to facilitate effectiveness and efficiency in organizations.
Gender differences in Workplace Deviant Behavior of University Teachers and Modification Techniques  [cached]
Muhamamd Nadeem Anwar,Irfan Arif,Muhammad Sarwar,Riffat-un-Nisa Awan
International Education Studies , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ies.v4n1p193
Abstract: Any behavior that does not conform to social organizational norms is deviance. This study was conducted to test whether there is any difference in organizational deviance and interpersonal deviance behavior, deviance behavior of male-female university teachers. All teaching staff of the University of Sargodha was target population and for convenience fifty lecturers of post graduate level were selected randomly for the sample. Of these respondents 26 were male and 24 were female. A broad and theoretically derived measure of deviant behavior in the workplace was used. This measure was developed by Rebecca J. Benett (University of Toledo) and Sandra L. Robinson (University of British Columbia). The results of this study reveal that the ratio of organization deviance in the university’s workspace is more dominant as compared to interpersonal deviance and the male teaching staff of University of Sargodha is more deviant at workplace as compared to female teaching staff.
Agreeableness and Conscientiousness as Antecedents of Deviant Behavior in Workplace  [cached]
Farhadi H.,Fatimah O.,Nasir R.,Wan Shahrazad W. S.
Asian Social Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v8n9p2
Abstract: In recent years, there has been an increase in the interest of workplace deviant behavior (WDB) among industrial and organizational psychologists. Many scholars believe that WDB decreases overall organizational productivity. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of both agreeableness and conscientiousness (two factors of big five model of personality traits) with deviant behavior. The study also looked at the role of two demographic factors (gender and age) on deviant behavior in workplace. Data were collected from 212 subjects who were working as civil servants in Malaysia using a set of questionnaire that measures the variables studied. The results showed that personality traits predicted workplace deviant behavior. There were negative relationships between agreeableness and conscientiousness with workplace deviance. Although the findings of the present study showed differences in WDB between subjects with different age levels, it was unable to find differences in WDB between subjects with different gender. Implications for future research are discussed.
Location and Gender Differences in Deviant Behavior among Primary School Teachers  [cached]
Muhamamd Sarwar,Riffat-un-Nisa Awan,Muhammad Alam,Muhammad Nadeem Anwar
International Journal of Business and Management , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v5n12p97
Abstract: Any behavior that does not conform to social organizational norms is considered deviant. Observing school timings, teaching classes regularly and behaving properly with students and colleagues are basic school norms. This study was conducted to test whether there is any deviation in organizational, interpersonal, behavior, among rural-urban male-female primary school teachers. The results revealed higher organizational deviations among primary school teachers as compared to interpersonal deviation. Male teachers show greater degree of deviation. The remedial measures demand incentives (performance based promotion), motivation, appreciation, proper monitoring system and training facilities.
The Moderating Effects of Collectivistic Orientation on Psychological Ownership and Constructive Deviant Behavior  [cached]
Yang Woon Chung,Hyoung Koo Moon
International Journal of Business and Management , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v6n12p65
Abstract: Psychological ownership has been theorized to result in positive organizational consequences because feelings of ownership can increase an individual’s sense of responsibility and prioritize organizational interests. Previous studies have found psychological ownership to be significantly related to job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior; therefore, this study proposes psychological ownership to be significantly related to constructive deviant behavior because it is considered to be functional behavior that is intended to improve the organization’s well-being. Furthermore, this study investigates the moderating effects of collectivistic orientation on psychological ownership and constructive deviant behavior. The study sampled 465 Korean employees and has found psychological ownership to be significantly related to innovative constructive deviant behavior and interpersonal constructive deviant behavior. For the moderating effects, collectivistic orientation moderated the relationships between psychological ownership and organizational constructive deviant behavior and interpersonal constructive deviant behavior.
The Action Mechanism of Social Exchange Relationship Perception on Organizational Citizenship Behavior: An Empirical Study in China  [cached]
Yanhan Zhu
International Journal of Business Administration , 2012, DOI: 10.5430/ijba.v3n2p84
Abstract: Starting from the exchange relationship and according to the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) model in dynamic psychology, this paper builds an action mechanism model of social exchange relationship and organizational citizenship behavior, taking the staff as the carrier, from the perspective of individual perception. Empirical studies show that affective job satisfaction has a steady and strong intermediary effect. Accordingly, the author proposes relevant suggestions for business management and practice.
Organizational Determinants of Workplace Deviant Behaviours: An Empirical Analysis in Nigeria  [cached]
Bamikole. O. Fagbohungbe,Gabriel A. Akinbode,Folusho Ayodeji
International Journal of Business and Management , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v7n5p207
Abstract: This study examines the relationship between employee’s organizational reactions and deviant behaviours in the workplace. Drawing on the organizational climate and workplace deviance literatures, we hypothesize that deviant workplace behaviours of males will be significantly different from that of their female counterpart. Likewise, that there will be a significant positive relationship between employees organisational reactions and various facets of deviant behaviour in the workplace. The study was anchored on Affective Events Theory, Agency Theory and Robinson & Bennett Typology of Deviance behaviour Theory. Six hundred and ninety six employees completed the surveys. The results supported our hypotheses. First, male participants were significantly different from their female counterparts on production deviance, personal aggression, political deviance and property deviance respectively. Specifically, production deviance, personal aggression and political deviance were higher among females than males. Second, multiple regression analysis revealed that organisational reaction variables (supervision, company identification, kinds of work, amount of work, co-workers, physical work conditions and financial rewards) are significant predictors of different facets of workplace deviant behaviours among workers. Finally, mean deviant behaviours of males at both controlled work environment and less controlled work environment was higher and significantly different from that of their female counterparts. Interaction between gender and work environment control was not significant as expected. The results were discussed in the light of extant literature on deviant workplace behavior, and implications for management practices.
Conceptual quantification of the dynamicity of longitudinal social networks  [PDF]
Shahadat Uddin,Mahendra Piraveenan,Arif Khan,Babak Amiri
Computer Science , 2013, DOI: 10.1109/SocialCom.2013.131
Abstract: A longitudinal social network evolves over time through the creation and/ or deletion of links among a set of actors (e.g. individuals or organizations). Longitudinal social networks are studied by network science and social science researchers to understand networke volution, trend propagation, friendship and belief formation, diffusion of innovation, the spread of deviant behavior and more. In the current literature, there are different approaches and methods (e.g. Sampsons approach and the markov model) to study the dynamics of longitudinal social networks. These approaches and methods have mainly been utilised to explore evolutionary changes of longitudinal social networks from one state to another and to explain the underlying reasons for these changes. However, they cannot quantify the level of dynamicity of the over time network changes and the contribution of individual network members (i.e. actors) to these changes. In this study, we first develop a set of measures to quantify different aspects of the dynamicity of a longitudinal social network. We then apply these measures, in order to conduct empirical investigations, to two different longitudinal social networks. Finally, we discuss the implications of the application of these measures and possible future research directions of this study.
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