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Progression of the silicate cathode materials used in lithium ion batteries
LiYing Bao,Wei Gao,YueFeng Su,Zhao Wang,Ning Li,Shi Chen,Feng Wu
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2013, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-012-5583-3
Abstract: Poly anionic silicate materials, which demonstrate a high theoretical capacity, high security, environmental friendliness and low-cost, are considered one of the most promising candidates for use as cathode materials in the next generation of lithium-ion batteries. This paper summarizes the structure and performance characteristics of these materials. The effects of different synthesis methods and calcination temperature on the properties of these materials are reviewed. Materials that demonstrate low conductivity, poor stability, cationic disorder or other drawbacks, and the use of various modification techniques, such as carbon-coating or compositing, elemental doping and combination with mesoporous materials, are evaluated as well. In addition, further research topics and the possibility of using these kinds of cathode materials in lithium-ion batteries are discussed.
Composite cathode and anode films for rechargeable lithium batteries
Dihua Guan,Li Jiang,Wei Zhou,Guoquan Yang,Gang Wang,Sishen Xie
Chinese Science Bulletin , 1998, DOI: 10.1007/BF02883925
Abstract: Recently the rechargeable Li and Li-ion polymer batteries have improved due to development of Li-ion conductive gel electrolytes and of high energe granting intercalation compounds. In our laboratory the composite cathodic film, the composite carbon anode film and PVC-based electralyte film were successfully prepared by casting procedures. Cycling experiments of the cells with Li or composite carbon anode in contact with PVC-based electrolyte and composite cathode were performed. Relatively good performance of the cell with Li anode, the composite cathode and LiPF6-EC-DEC electrolyte was achieved in that over 50 cycles were possible with minimal capacity loss upon cycling. The same cell with PVC-based electrolyte was cycled over 20 cycles. Replacing Li anode by composite carbon anode, the cell behaved like the latter. It is found that appropriate amount of carbon content is helpful to improving specific capacity.
Sulfurized Carbon: A Class of Cathode Materials for High Performance Lithium/Sulfur Batteries  [PDF]
Sheng S. Zhang
Frontiers in Energy Research , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fenrg.2013.00010
Abstract: Liquid electrolyte lithium/sulfur (Li/S) batteries cannot come into practical applications because of many problems such as low energy efficiency, short cycle life, and fast self-discharge. All these problems are related to the dissolution of lithium polysulfide, a series of sulfur reduction intermediates, in the liquid electrolyte, and resulting parasitic reactions with the Li anode. Covalently binding sulfur onto carbon surface is a solution to completely eliminate the dissolution of lithium polysulfide and make the Li/S battery viable for practical applications. This can be achieved by replacing elemental sulfur with sulfurized carbon (SC) as the cathode material. This article reviews the current efforts on this subject and discusses the syntheses, electrochemical properties, and prospects of the SC as a cathode material in the rechargeable Li/S batteries.
Composite cathode and anode films for rechargeable lithium batteries

Dihua Guan,Li Jiang,Wei Zhou,Guoquan Yang,Gang Wang,Sishen Xie,

科学通报(英文版) , 1998,
Abstract: Recently the rechargeable Li and Li-ion polymer batteries have improved due to development of Li-ion conductive gel electrolytes and of high energe granting intercalation compounds. In our laboratory the composite cathodic film, the composite carbon anode film and PVC-based electralyte film were successfully prepared by casting procedures. Cycling experiments of the cells with Li or composite carbon anode in contact with PVC-based electrolyte and composite cathode were performed. Relatively good performance of the cell with Li anode, the composite cathode and LiPF6-EC-DEC electrolyte was achieved in that over 50 cycles were possible with minimal capacity loss upon cycling. The same cell with PVC-based electrolyte was cycled over 20 cycles. Replacing Li anode by composite carbon anode, the cell behaved like the latter. It is found that appropriate amount of carbon content is helpful to improving specific capacity.
Thermal Stability of Nickel-based Lithium Transition Metal Oxides as the Cathode Materials for Lithium-ion Batteries
锂离子电池镍系正极材料的热稳定性研究进展

YUAN Rong-Zhong,QU Mei-Zhen,YU Zuo-Long,
袁荣忠
,瞿美臻,于作龙

无机材料学报 , 2003,
Abstract: Lithium nickel oxide as the positive electrode of rechargeable lithium ion batteries with a high energy density and lower cost has aroused more and more interests. However, LiNiO2 has a few disadvantages which prevent this material from being used as a cathode material for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. Poor thermal stability is one of its major disadvantages. In this paper, the progress in recent researches on the thermal behavior of full-lithiated, electrochemically delithiated Li1_xNi02 and the thermal decomposition mechanism were reviewed, and the studies for developing nickel-based lithium transition metal oxides with improved thermal stability as cathode materials were summarized.
Synthesis, Characterization and Performance Evaluation of an Advanced Solid Electrolyte and Air Cathode for Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries  [PDF]
Susanta K. Das, Jianfang Chai, Salma Rahman, Abhijit Sarkar
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering (MSCE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/msce.2016.41012
Abstract:

Synthesis and characterization of a tri-layered solid electrolyte and oxygen permeable solid air cathode for lithium-air battery cells were carried out in this investigation. Detailed fabrication procedures for solid electrolyte, air cathode and real-world lithium-air battery cell are described. Materials characterizations were performed through FTIR and TGA measurement. Based on the experimental four-probe conductivity measurement, it was found that the tri-layered solid electrolyte has a very high conductivity at room temperature, 23C, and it can be reached up to 6 times higher at 100C. Fabrication of real-world lithium-air button cells was performed using the synthesized tri-layered solid electrolyte, an oxygen permeable air cathode, and a metallic lithium anode. The lithium-air button cells were tested under dry air with 0.1 mA - 0.2 mA discharge/ charge current at elevated temperatures. Experimental results showed that the lithium-air cell performance is very sensitive to the oxygen concentration in the air cathode. The experimental results also revealed that the cell resistance was very large at room temperature but decreased rapidly with increasing temperatures. It was found that the cell resistance was the prime cause to show any significant discharge capacity at room temperature. Experimental results suggested that the lack of robust interfacial contact among solid electrolyte, air cathode and lithium metal anode were the primary factors for the cell’s high internal resistances. It was also found that once the cell internal resistance issues were resolved, the discharge curve of the battery cell was much smoother and the cell was able to discharge at above 2.0 V for up to 40 hours. It indicated that in order to have better performing lithium-air battery cell, interfacial contact resistances issue must have to be resolved very efficiently.

STUDIES ON THE STRUCTURE OF AMORPHOUS MoS3 AS CATHODE MATERIALS IN LITHIUM BATTERIES
二次锂电池电极材料非晶态MoS3的结构研究

GUO CHANG-LIN,LU CHANG-WEI,SHEN DING-KUN,YU ZHI-ZHONG,
郭常霖
,陆昌伟,沈定坤,俞志中

物理学报 , 1985,
Abstract: The structure of amorphous MoS3 as the cathode materials in lithium batteries was studied by using X-ray diffraction method and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results revealed that the structure of amorphous MoS3 is built by homogeneously eandomly stacking of the MoS2 basic unit S-Mo-S sand wich layvs and the amorphous sulphus chains Sn.
Hydrothermal Synthesis and Electrochemical Characterization of a-MnO2 Nanorods as Cathode Material for Lithium Batteries
Yanyan Yang, Lifen Xiao, Yanqiang Zhao and Fengyun Wang
International Journal of Electrochemical Science , 2008,
Abstract: One dimensional(1-D) a- MnO2 nanorods with diameters of 10~20nm are directly prepared by hydrothermal treatment of g- MnO2. When used as lithium intercalation cathode, the a- MnO2 nanorods have delivered specific capacity of 220, 189 and152mAh/g at the current of 10, 50, and 100mA/g respectively. Also, the nanorods have exhibited quite good cycling stability with a cycling capacity of 130mAh/g after the 25th cycle. The results demonstrated a possible use of the a-MnO2 nanorods as a competitive cathode material for rechargeable lithium battery.
Cation mixing (Li0.5Fe0.5)2SO4F cathode material for lithium-ion batteries

Sun Yang,Liu Lei,Dong Jin-Ping,Zhang Bin,Huang Xue-Jie,

中国物理 B , 2011,
Abstract: We study the crystal structure of a triplite-structured (Li0.5Fe0.5)SO4F with full Li+/Fe2+ mixing. This promising polyanion cathode material for lithium-ion batteries operates at 3.9 V versus Li+/Li with a theoretical capacity of 151 mAh/g. Its unique cation mixing structure does not block the Li+ diffusion and results in a small lattice volume change during the charge/discharge process. The calculations show that it has a three-dimensional network for Li-ion migration with an activation energy ranging from 0.53 eV to 0.68 eV, which is comparable with that in LiFePO4 with only one-dimensional channels. This work suggests that further exploring cathode materials with full cation mixing for Li-ion batteries will be valuable.
High Tap Density Spherical Cathode Material Synthesized via Continuous Hydroxide Coprecipitation Method for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries  [PDF]
Shunyi Yang,Xianyou Wang,Xiukang Yang,Ziling Liu,Qiliang Wei,Hongbo Shu
International Journal of Electrochemistry , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/323560
Abstract: Spherical precursor with narrow size distribution and high tap density has been successfully synthesized by a continuous hydroxide coprecipitation, and is then prepared by mixing the precursor with 6% excess followed by calcinations. The tap density of the obtained powder is as high as 2.61?g? . The powders are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), particle size distribution (PSD), and charge/discharge cycling. The XRD studies show that the prepared has a well-ordered layered structure without any impurity phases. Good packing properties of spherical secondary particles (about 12?μm) consisted of a large number of tiny-thin plate-shape primary particles (less than 1?μm), which can be identified from the SEM observations. In the voltage range of 3.0–4.3?V and 2.5–4.6?V, delivers the initial discharge capacity of approximately 175 and 214?mAh?g?1 at a current density of 32?mA?g?1, and the capacity retention after 50 cycles reaches 98.8% and 90.2%, respectively. Besides, it displays good high-temperature characteristics and excellent rate capability. 1. Introduction During the past decade, lithium ion batteries have been extensively investigated and widely used; they are not only required to enable the moderately charge/discharge rates applications like mobile phone and portable computer but also to meet an increasing need for new applications such as electric vehicles, which need power sources with both high energy and high power density. Layered LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 is of great interest as a promising cathode material for lithium secondary batteries because of its higher theoretical capacity (280?mAh?g?1) and better structural stability [1–5]. However, some problems, such as uneasy preparation of stoichiometric phases [6], low tapping density [7], and poor rate capability [8], have to be overcome before it is massively applied in the lithium ion battery industry. Recently, the effects of cobalt doping on the structure and electrochemical behavior of LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 had been reported by Li et al. [9], and the results showed that cobalt doping for LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 can easily form stoichiometric Li[Ni0.5Mn0.5?x Cox]O2 compounds, which possess good electronic conductivity, and thus owning good rate capability. In the series of LiNi0.5Mn0.5?x CoxO2, Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 can be considered as one of the most promising cathode materials for the application of lithium ion battery, because this composition compromises between the increase of the discharge capacity due to the Co3+ and the
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