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NOx and HC emission control using water emulsified diesel in single cylinder diesel engine  [PDF]
K. Kannan,M. Udayakumar
Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: This paper reports on the effect of water emulsified diesel fuel combustion on brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and NOx and hydrocarbon emissions in a diesel engine. The experiments were conducted on a single cylinder four stroke cycle direct injection diesel engine at constant speed with a fuel injection pressure of 200 bars. Tests were conducted using commercial diesel fuel and diesel fuel with 10% and 20% water by volume. From the test results, it was found that the water emulsification has a potential to improve brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption. The NOx and HC emissions were found to decrease with increase in water percentage in the emulsified diesel.
Experimental study on D I diesel engine performance and emission characteristics (NOx) with COME- diesel blends  [PDF]
P. Venkateswara Rao,M. Lokanadha Rao
Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The biodiesel from edible oils is non-toxic, biodegradable and renewable alternate fuel that can be used as a substitute for diesel in diesel engines. The objective of present work is to study performance and emission characteristics of single cylinder, direct injection diesel engine with coconut oil methyl ester (COME) and blends with diesel in varying proportions. Experiments were conducted when the engine fuelled with pure diesel and the blends of diesel- COME by volume for full load range. The exhaust conditions were measured using exhaust gas analyzer similarly AVL smoke meter for measuring smoke density. Results were compared graphically in performance of the engine for specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, exhaust temperatures and in exhaust emissions for concentrations of NOx and smoke density.
The effect of EGR rates on NOX and smoke emissions of an IDI diesel engine fuelled with Jatropha biodiesel blends  [PDF]
M. Gomaa, A.J. Alimin, K.A. Kamarudin
International Journal of Energy and Environment , 2011,
Abstract: The depletion of fossil fuels and the worst impact on environmental pollution caused of their burning have led to the search for renewable clean energies. Nowadays, there are many sources of renewable energy. Biodiesel is just one source, but a very important one. Biodiesel has been known as an attractive alternative fuel although biodiesel produced from edible oil is very expensive than conventional diesel. Therefore, the uses of biodiesel produced from non-edible oils are much better option. Currently Jatropha biodiesel (JBD) is receiving attention as an alternative fuel for diesel engine. However, previous studies have reported that combustion of JBD emitted higher nitrogen oxides (NOX), while hydrocarbon (HC) and smoke emissions were lower than conventional diesel fuel. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is one of the techniques being used to reduce NOX emission from diesel engines; because it decreases both flame temperature and oxygen concentration in the combustion chamber. Some studies succeeded to reduce NOX emission from biodiesel fuelled engines using EGR; but they observed increase in smoke emission with increasing engine load and EGR rate. The aim of the present work is to investigate the effect of EGR on an indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine fuelled with JBD blends in order to reduce NOX and smoke emissions. A 4-cylinder, water-cooled, turbocharged, IDI diesel engine was used for investigation. Smoke, NOX, carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were recorded and various engine performance parameters were also evaluated. The results showed that, at 5% EGR with JB5, both NOX and smoke opacity were reduced by 27% and 17% respectively. Furthermore, JB20 along with 10% EGR was also able to reduce both NOX and smoke emission by 36% and 31%, respectively compared to diesel fuel without EGR.
PERFORMANCE AND EXHAUST GAS EMISSIONS ANALYSIS OF DIRECT INJECTION CNG-DIESEL DUAL FUEL ENGINE  [PDF]
RANBIR SINGH,SAGAR MAJI
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Existing diesel engines are under stringent emission regulation particularly of smoke and particulate matter in their exhaust. Compressed Natural Gas and Diesel dual fuel operation is regarded as one of the best ways to control emissions from diesel engines and simultaneously saving petroleum based diesel fuel. Dual fuel engineis a conventional diesel engine which burn either gaseous fuel or diesel or both at the same time. In the present paper an experimental research was carried out on a laboratory single cylinder, four-stroke variable compression ratio, direct injection diesel engine converted to CNG-Diesel dual fuel mode to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of pure diesel first and then CNG-Diesel dual fuel mode. The measurements were recorded for the compression ratio of 15 and 17.5 at CNG substitution rates of 30% and 60% and varying theload from idle to rated load of 3.5kW in steps of 1 up to 3kW and then to 3.5kW. The results reveal that brake thermal efficiency of dual fuel engine is in the range of 30%-40% at the rated load of 3.5 kW which is 11%-13% higher than pure diesel engine for 30% and 60% CNG substitution rates. This trend is observed irrespective of the compression ratio of the engine. Brake specific fuel consumption of dual fuel engine is found better than pure diesel engine at all engine loads and for both CNG substitution rates. It is found that there is drastic reduction in CO, CO2, HC, NOx and smoke emissions in the exhaust of dual fuel engine at all loads and for 30% and 60% CNG substitution rates by employing some optimum operating conditions set forth for experimental investigations in this study.
NOX EMISSION CONTROL TECHNIQUES WHEN CI ENGINE IS FUELLED WITH BLENDS OF MAHUA METHYLE ESTERS AND DIESEL
M.V.Mallikarjun,Venkata Ramesh Mamilla,G. Lakshmi Narayana Rao
International Journal of Engineering Sciences and Emerging Technologies , 2013,
Abstract: Producing and using renewable fuels for transportation is one approach for a sustainable energy future worldwide. Renewable fuels also substantially reduce contributions to global climate change. In the transportation sector, ethanol produced from biomass shows promise as a future fuel for spark-ignited engines because of its high octane quality. Ethanol, however, is not a high quality compression ignition fuel. Ethanol can be easily converted through a dehydration process to produce Diethyl Ether (DEE), which is an excellent compression-ignition fuel with higher energy density than ethanol. DEE has long been known as a cold start aid for engines, but little is known about using DEE as a significant component in a blend or as a complete replacement for diesel fuel.This paper attempts to identify the potential of blending DEE with diesel transportation fuel. Engine tests were conducted with 5% 10%, 15% and 20% DEE/Diesel blends. The nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions are high and it is necessary to reduce this emission before using methyl ester as a fuel for diesel engines. In the present work, retardation of injection timing and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) are used to reduce the same. However UBHC, CO and particulate emissions increase when retarding the injection timing. But these pollutants are low compared to normal diesel operation. Injection timing of 20.90CA bTDC is found to give optimum results. The adopted concept of exhaust gas recirculation showed considerable reduction in nitrous oxides and slight improvement in bTE for 10% of EGR when the engine is operated at an optimal blend. Further diethyl ether is used as an additive and engine emissions particularly NOx found to be at reasonable level for 10% of DEE addition by not compromising in thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption.
The Performance and NOX Emissions of a IDI diesel Engine at Distinct EGR Rates Fuelled With JB100, JB80, JB60, JB40, JB20 & Diesel.
P. Suresh Kumar,Francis Antony,P. K. Sahoo
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: Engineers have proposed various solutions towards reducing pollutant emissions, especially nitrogen oxides (NOX), from indirect injection diesel engines. The aim of the present work is to investigate the influence of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates on Jatropha biodiesel (JB), diesel and their blends. A indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine was tested by diesel,100% biodiesel (JB100), blends of 20% diesel and 80% biodiesel ( JB80) ,and other blends like JB60, JB40,and JB20. The engine characteristics with Jatropha biodiesel were compared against those obtained using diesel fuel. From the results, it is observed that the biodiesel performance and emission are lower than that of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emission of Jatropha biodiesel is more than that of diesel fuel. The EGR system reduces NOX emissions by recirculation small amount of exhaust gases into the intake manifold. The main focus of this dissertation is on finding out the best or the most suitable blend of biodiesel which when used gives out least automotive NOx emissions using a EGR sysrem. A single cylinder water cooled IDI diesel engine was used for investigation. Smoke , NOx ,CO, CO2 emissions were recorded and various engine performance parameters were also evaluated . The results and discussion based on the effect EGR system on engine performance and emission characteristics of JB20, JB40, JB60, JB80, JB100 and diesel fuel without EGR rates and with EGR rates. The performance parameters and NOx emissions are measured and recorded for diesel fuel and JB and their blends. The results showed that, at15% EGR diesel, JB 20 at 25% EGR, JB 40 at 15% EGR, JB 60 at 20% EGR, JB 80 at40% EGR, and JB 100 at 5% EGR, the NOx emissions are effectively reduced by 10.1%,11.94%,13.4%,15.2%,19.85%, and 24.8%respectively.
Thevetia Peruviana biodiesel emulsion used as a fuel in a single cylinder diesel engine reduces NOx and smoke  [PDF]
Kandasamy Kannan T.A.,Rakkiyanna Gounderb Marappan
Thermal Science , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/tsci100810045k
Abstract: Biodiesel is a promising renewable alternative fuel for diesel. However, its adaptability is limited by its emission levels surpassing the existing emission norms. In this situation, it is essential to search for an economically apt way of reducing the pollutants so as to make biodiesel a viable proposition. Emulsified fuels have more priority in reducing Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) and smoke simultaneously than other fuels. In this study, Thevetia Peruviana biodiesel was emulsified with water in the ratios of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% to investigate the engine performance and emission characteristics. Emulsified fuels showed an improvement in brake thermal efficiency accompanied by the drastic reduction in NOx. From the detailed study it was found that 15% water emulsified fuel showed the best performance and less emission than the other combinations.
Economical and environmental assessments of compressed natural gas for diesel vehicle in Thailand
Prateep Chouykerd,Navadol Laosiripojana,Somchai Chanchaona,Chumnong Sorapipatana
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2008,
Abstract: The economic assessments for the use of compressed natural gas as fuel for several types of diesel vehicles, rarely pick up, non-fixed route truck and private truck, were studied. It is noted that two main technologies of diesel natural gas vehicle (NGV), i.e. dedicated retrofit and diesel dual fuel (DDF), were considered in this work. It was found that the dedicated retrofit needs higher investment costs than dual fuel, but can achieve higher diesel saving than dual fuel. In detail, the payback period of dual fuel non-fixed route truck was found to be identical to dual fuel private truck both in the cases of6 wheel and 10 wheel, while dedicated retrofit non-fixed route truck and private truck are also identical and have longerpay back period than dual fuel due to its higher conversion costs.This work also presents the emissions released from all types of engines especially green house gas CO2. It was found that, in the case of light duty diesel i.e. pickup truck, dedicated retrofit emitted high level of CO2 than both dual fuel and conventional diesel engines. For heavy duty i.e. non-fixed route truck and private truck vehicles, dedicated retrofit emitted a lower level of CO2 than normal diesel engine. Other pollutants from engine emission, i.e. hydrocarbon (HC),nitric oxide (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter, (PM) were also observed. The results indicated that, inthe case of light duty diesel, dedicated retrofit engine emits higher levels of HC and CO than diesel engine; in contrast, it emits lower level of NOx and PM than diesel and dual fuel. Dual fuel emits HC and CO higher than diesel and dedicated retrofit but emits lower level of NOx and PM than diesel. Lastly, for heavy duty diesel, it was demonstrated that non-fixed route truck and private truck heavy duty dedicated retrofit have potential to reduce emissions of HC, NOx, CO and PM when compared to normal heavy duty diesel. Engine efficiencies under dual fuel and dedicated retrofit operation were lower than that of the normal diesel engine.
Trade-off between NOx, Soot and EGR Rates for an IDI Diesel Engine Fuelled with JB5  [PDF]
M. Gomaa,A.J. Alimin,K.A. Kamarudin
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Nowadays, the focus on renewable energy and alternative fuels has increased due to increase oil prices, environment pollution, and also concern on preserving the nature. Biodiesel has been known as an attractive alternative fuel although biodiesel produced from edible oil is very expensive than conventional diesel. Therefore, the uses of biodiesel produced from non-edible oils are much better option. Currently Jatropha biodiesel is receiving attention as an alternative fuel for diesel engine. Previous studies reported that Jatropha biodiesel was found to emit higher nitrogen oxides and lower smoke emissions compared to ordinary diesel. Exhaust gas recirculation is an effective technique to reduce nitrogen oxides emission from diesel engines; because it enables to lower both flame temperature and oxygen concentration in the combustion chamber. Some studies succeeded to reduce nitrogen oxides emission from biodiesel fuelled engines using exhaust gas recirculation. However, they observed increase in soot emission. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimum trade-off between reduction in nitrogen oxides and increase in soot emissions using exhaust gas recirculation for a compression ignition engine fuelled with Jatropha based biodiesel. A 4-cylinder, water-cooled, turbocharged, an indirect injection diesel engine was used for investigation. Exhaust emission characteristics were recorded and various engine performance parameters were also evaluated. The results showed that, at 5% exhaust gas recirculation rate along with Jatropha biodiesel blend effectively reduced both nitrogen oxides and soot emissions by 27 and 11.3%, respectively, compared to diesel fuel without exhaust gas recirculation.
Effect of Two-Stage Fuel Injection Parameters on NOx Reduction Characteristics in a DI Diesel Engine  [PDF]
Kyusoo Jeong,Donggon Lee,Sungwook Park,Chang Sik Lee
Energies , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/en4112049
Abstract: The aim of this study was to confirm the effects of two-stage combustion on the combustion and NO x reduction characteristics of a four cylinder direct injection diesel engine. In order to analyze the combustion and emission characteristics, various injection parameters, such as injection quantity, injection timing and injection pressure were used under constant engine speed and engine load. In addition, the experimental results of two-stage combustion are compared to the single injection when injection timing is 5° BTDC. The experimental results showed that NO x emissions were significantly reduced when applying two-stage combustion. In particular, an injection strategy when the first and second injections have a same quantity, the results showed the maximum reduction of NO x emissions in this experiment. The NO x emissions were also reduced when the timing of the first injection was advanced. However, NO x emissions indicated almost similar concentration regardless of first injection timings when the first injection timing was earlier than 50° BTDC. In the case of soot emissions were slightly increased compare to the single injection cases at tested conditions.
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