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A Hybrid Smartphone Indoor Positioning Solution for Mobile LBS  [PDF]
Jingbin Liu,Ruizhi Chen,Ling Pei,Robert Guinness,Heidi Kuusniemi
Sensors , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/s121217208
Abstract: Smartphone positioning is an enabling technology used to create new business in the navigation and mobile location-based services (LBS) industries. This paper presents a smartphone indoor positioning engine named HIPE that can be easily integrated with mobile LBS. HIPE is a hybrid solution that fuses measurements of smartphone sensors with wireless signals. The smartphone sensors are used to measure the user’s motion dynamics information (MDI), which represent the spatial correlation of various locations. Two algorithms based on hidden Markov model (HMM) problems, the grid-based filter and the Viterbi algorithm, are used in this paper as the central processor for data fusion to resolve the position estimates, and these algorithms are applicable for different applications, e.g., real-time navigation and location tracking, respectively. HIPE is more widely applicable for various motion scenarios than solutions proposed in previous studies because it uses no deterministic motion models, which have been commonly used in previous works. The experimental results showed that HIPE can provide adequate positioning accuracy and robustness for different scenarios of MDI combinations. HIPE is a cost-efficient solution, and it can work flexibly with different smartphone platforms, which may have different types of sensors available for the measurement of MDI data. The reliability of the positioning solution was found to increase with increasing precision of the MDI data.
An indoor positioning system for mobile target trackingbased on VLC and IMU fusion  [PDF]
Zou Qian, Xia Weiwei, Zhang Jing, Huang Bonan, Yan Feng, Shen Lianfeng
- , 2018, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1003-7985.2018.04.006
Abstract: An indoor positioning system(IPS)is designed to realize positioning and tracking of mobile targets, by taking advantages of both the visible light communication(VLC)and inertial measurement unit(IMU). The platform of the IPS is designed, which consists of the light-emitting diode(LED)based transmitter, the receiver and the positioning server. To reduce the impact caused by measurement errors, both inertial sensing data and the received signal strength(RSS)from the VLC are calibrated. Then, a practical propagation model is established to obtain the distance between the transmitter and the receiver from the RSS measurements. Furthermore, a hybrid positioning algorithm is proposed by using the adaptive Kalman filter(AKF)and the weighted least squares(WLS)trilateration to estimate the positions of the mobile targets. Experimental results show that the developed IPS using the proposed hybrid positioning algorithm can extend the localization area of VLC, mitigate the IMU drifts and improve the positioning accuracy of mobile targets.
Advanced Integration of WiFi and Inertial Navigation Systems for Indoor Mobile Positioning  [cached]
Evennou Frédéric,Marx Fran?ois
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing , 2006,
Abstract: This paper presents an aided dead-reckoning navigation structure and signal processing algorithms for self localization of an autonomous mobile device by fusing pedestrian dead reckoning and WiFi signal strength measurements. WiFi and inertial navigation systems (INS) are used for positioning and attitude determination in a wide range of applications. Over the last few years, a number of low-cost inertial sensors have become available. Although they exhibit large errors, WiFi measurements can be used to correct the drift weakening the navigation based on this technology. On the other hand, INS sensors can interact with the WiFi positioning system as they provide high-accuracy real-time navigation. A structure based on a Kalman filter and a particle filter is proposed. It fuses the heterogeneous information coming from those two independent technologies. Finally, the benefits of the proposed architecture are evaluated and compared with the pure WiFi and INS positioning systems.
Study on Visual Positioning Based on Homography for Indoor Mobile Robot

XU De,TU Zhi-Guo,TAN Min,

自动化学报 , 2005,
Abstract: Monocular visual positioning for indoor mobile robot is concerned in this paper. A new visual positioning method based on homography matrix in Euclidean space is proposed. It can calculate the position and pose of the mobile robot according to the intrinsic parameters of camera and two position-known points in a plane. It is very simple and low cost in computation. The experimental results show its effectiveness.
An Innovative Gateway for Indoor Positioning  [cached]
Marias Giannis F,Papazafeiropoulos Giorgos,Priggouris Nikos,Hadjiefthymiades Stathes
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing , 2006,
Abstract: Enabling the pervasive paradigm requires the incorporation of location information. Retrieving location data has been a field of ongoing research for both the outdoor and indoor wireless systems. The results in the cellular scenario are already mature and location architectures have been standardized. Recent research is ongoing for indoor-positioning mechanisms, resulting in implementations that vary. A platform that enables the deployment of location-based services in heterogeneous indoor and WLAN-based communication systems will address difficulties in cooperating with different positioning systems. For that purpose, we have designed a novel entity, called Gateway WLAN Location Center (GWLC), which hides the heterogeneous functions of the indoor positioning architectures, incorporating a unified framework for retrieving location data of users and objects. The GWLC platform has been designed to meet objectives such as modularity, scalability, as well as portability, and to facilitate open interfaces. In this contribution, we elaborate on the design principles and the functionality of GWLC. We also provide performance results, obtained through real experiments.
Indoor Positioning for Smartphones Using Asynchronous Ultrasound Trilateration  [PDF]
Viacheslav Filonenko,Charlie Cullen,James D. Carswell
ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijgi2030598
Abstract: Modern smartphones are a great platform for Location Based Services (LBS). While outdoor LBS for smartphones has proven to be very successful, indoor LBS for smartphones has not yet fully developed due to the lack of an accurate positioning technology. In this paper we present an accurate indoor positioning approach for commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) smartphones that uses the innate ability of mobile phones to produce ultrasound, combined with Time-Difference-of-Arrival (TDOA) asynchronous trilateration. We evaluate our indoor positioning approach by describing its strengths and weaknesses, and determine its absolute accuracy. This is accomplished through a range of experiments that involve variables such as position of control point microphones, position of phone within the room, direction speaker is facing and presence of user in the signal path. Test results show that our Lok8 (locate) mobile positioning system can achieve accuracies better than 10 cm in a real-world environment.
A Review of Antennas for Indoor Positioning Systems  [PDF]
Luis Brás,Nuno Borges Carvalho,Pedro Pinho,Lukasz Kulas,Krzysztof Nyka
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/953269
Abstract: This paper provides a review of antennas applied for indoor positioning or localization systems. The desired requirements of those antennas when integrated in anchor nodes (reference nodes) are discussed, according to different localization techniques and their performance. The described antennas will be subdivided into the following sections according to the nature of measurements: received signal strength (RSS), time of flight (ToF), and direction of arrival (DoA). This paper intends to provide a useful guide for antenna designers who are interested in developing suitable antennas for indoor localization systems. 1. Introduction Indoor positioning systems have attracted research interest over the last decade. These systems can provide navigation, tracking, or monitoring services where Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs), such as Global Positioning System (GPS) [1], Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) [2], and Galileo [3] are infeasible solutions. Indoor localization systems can be categorized as token or token-less according to whether or not the mobile unit carries or not any device used for the localization process [4]. Some examples of token-less systems are the Smart Floor [5], based on physical contact, more specifically stride characteristics recognition and the Easy Living [6] based on vision localization techniques. Token localization presents a wider variety of technologies and systems that have been developed by different companies, research centers, and universities. These systems have been implemented based on several technologies: infrared (IR) [7, 8], Bluetooth [9–11], radio-frequency identification (RFID) [12, 13], wireless local area networks (WLAN) [14–20], Ultra-wideband (UWB) [21–26], ultra-sound [27–30], magnetic positioning [31], and audible sounds [32, 33]. Token indoor localization can be performed by three main techniques: triangulation (lateration and angulation), received signal strength (RSS) scene analysis (fingerprinting) and proximity based [34]. In indoor localization systems, devices have been categorized by its role in the system, although, according to different technologies, applications, or authors, several nomenclatures have been presented in the literature. For a coherent reading of this paper, localization system devices are categorized into two groups: reference and mobile units. Reference units refer to the devices in known positions to the system, behaving as a reference and localization support for tracked units. Mobile units refer to the devices in unknown positions and desired to
On Potentials and Limitations of a Hybrid WLAN-RFID Indoor Positioning Technique  [PDF]
Silverio C. Spinella,Antonio Iera,Antonella Molinaro
International Journal of Navigation and Observation , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/397467
Abstract: This paper addresses the important issue of position estimation in indoor environments. Starting point of the research is positioning techniques that exploit the knowledge of power levels of RF signals from multiple 802.11 WLAN APs (Access Points). In particular, the key idea in this paper is to enhance the performance of a WLAN fingerprinting approach by coupling it to a RFID-based procedure. WLAN and RFID technologies are synergistically used to provide a platform for a more performing positioning process, in which the very strong identification capabilities of the RFID technology allow to increase the accuracy of positioning systems via WLAN fingerprinting. The algorithm performance is assessed through general and repeatable experimental campaigns, during which the main algorithm parameters are dimensioned. The results testify both to the feasibility of the solution and to its higher accuracy (attainable at very reduced costs) compared to traditional positioning techniques. 1. Introduction Recently, the wireless telecommunications market has increased its interest towards so-called “location-based” applications, which are proposed to the end-user attention as the most promising response to their need of personalized communications in fields such as Infomobility, mobile entertainment and gaming, Intelligent Transportation Systems, assisted driving, and so forth. This phenomenon has been fostered both by the availability of mobile terminals equipped with multiple radio network interfaces, and by extensive research efforts undertaken by Industries and Research Institutions to develop platforms for efficient indoor and outdoor positioning solutions. While the availability of low-cost GPS (Global Positioning System) [1] receivers, built in the mobile terminals, promoted the development of location-based applications in outdoor scenarios, still barriers to the spread of location-based services are present in indoor scenarios. Therein, in fact, the GPS technology (which relies on satellite signals) cannot be exploited, and no other technology has shown to be ready to play a leadership role. In order to achieve accurate position estimation inside the buildings, several solutions have been proposed, which differ from each other in the used technology, positioning accuracy, offered coverage, frequency of updates, and costs of installation and maintenance. As it will be shown in the following, several comparative studies on competing positioning systems are available from the literature; most of them are based on Radio Frequency (RF) technologies (e.g., Wi-Fi,
Ubiquitous Positioning: A Taxonomy for Location Determination on Mobile Navigation System  [PDF]
Wan Mohd. Yaakob Wan Bejuri,Mohd. Murtadha Mohamad,Maimunah Sapri
Computer Science , 2011, DOI: 10.5121/sipij.2011.2103
Abstract: The location determination in obstructed area can be very challenging especially if Global Positioning System are blocked. Users will find it difficult to navigate directly on-site in such condition, especially indoor car park lot or obstructed environment. Sometimes, it needs to combine with other sensors and positioning methods in order to determine the location with more intelligent, reliable and ubiquity. By using ubiquitous positioning in mobile navigation system, it is a promising ubiquitous location technique in a mobile phone since as it is a familiar personal electronic device for many people. However, as research on ubiquitous positioning systems goes beyond basic methods there is an increasing need for better comparison of proposed ubiquitous positioning systems. System developers are also lacking of good frameworks for understanding different options during building ubiquitous positioning systems. This paper proposes taxonomy to address both of these problems. The proposed taxonomy has been constructed from a literature study of papers and articles on positioning estimation that can be used to determine location everywhere on mobile navigation system. For researchers the taxonomy can also be used as an aid for scoping out future research in the area of ubiquitous positioning.
Indoor Positioning with Radio Location Fingerprinting  [PDF]
Mikkel Baun Kj?rgaard
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: An increasingly important requirement for many novel applications is sensing the positions of people, equipment, etc. GPS technology has proven itself as a successfull technology for positioning in outdoor environments but indoor no technology has yet gained a similar wide-scale adoption. A promising indoor positioning technique is radio-based location fingerprinting, having the major advantage of exploiting already existing radio infrastructures, like IEEE 802.11, which avoids extra deployment costs and effort. The research goal of this thesis is to address the limitations of current indoor location fingerprinting systems. In particular the aim is to advance location fingerprinting techniques for the challenges of handling heterogeneous clients, scalability to many clients, and interference between communication and positioning. The wireless clients used for location fingerprinting are heterogeneous even when only considering clients for the same technology. Heterogeneity is a challenge for location fingerprinting because it severely decreases the precision of location fingerprinting. To support many clients location fingerprinting has to address how to scale estimate calculation, measurement distribution, and distribution of position estimates. This is a challenge because of the number of calculations involved and the frequency of measurements and position updates. Positioning using location fingerprinting requires the measurement of, for instance, signal strength for nearby base stations. However, many wireless communication technologies block communication while collecting such measurements. This interference is a challenge because it is not desirable that positioning disables communication. An additional goal is to improve the conceptual foundation of location fingerprinting. A better foundation will aid researchers to better survey and design location fingerprinting systems.
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