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PRODUCTIVE CAPACITY OF NATURAL RANGELAND AND ARTIFICIAL RANGELAND IN CHINA AND ITS DEVELOPMENT
中国天然牧地与人工牧地的生产能力及其开发

DU Zhan-chi,
杜占池

资源科学 , 2002,
Abstract: Although the potential productivity of artificial rangeland is much higher than that of natural rangeland in China, the yield amount of the former is distinctly lower than that of the latter at present. Comparison between different regions indicates that productivity of rangeland in China, of both natural rangeland and artificial rangeland, is the south region, the north region, Qinghai-Tibetan region, decreasing successively. While in terms of yield amount, it is the north region, the south region, degressively. Moreover, the key problems of rangeland development are explored and countermeasures to increase productive capacity are put forward.
Comparison of rangeland vegetation study methods  [cached]
?. ?akal,A. Kara Kara,A. Ko?,A. Ava?
International Journal of Forest, Soil and Erosion , 2012,
Abstract: This study was conducted in the natural rangeland of the Ataturk University, Erzurum, Türkiye. The aim of the study was to determine the differences appearing in the use of different vegetation measurement methods (i.e. loop, transect, wheel point (WP) and modified wheel point (MWP). It was also aimed to determine the optimum number of sample for each method, and to improve the arrangements to compare the data from different methods on the same vegetation. The data were collected from 60 lines. Regression formulas were generated regarding canopy coverage ratios. In all methods, it was observed that grass family made up of an important part of the whole vegetation while the Festuca ovina was dominant specie. Other families and legumes followed in diminishing order. The difference between the methods was found to be statistically significant (p<0,01). In all methods the dominant specie had the contagious distribution. It was found that 55-30, 55-35, 55-25 and 50-45 samples should be collected for loop, transect, WP and MWP methods respectively in order to determine the condition of the dominant specie in the vegetation with the deviation of 5 and 10 per cent. Rangeland quality degree was found to be 3,45; 4,44; 3,49 and 3,08 for loop, transect, WP and MWP methods respectively. Study area was evaluated to be in fair range condition for transect method while it was in poor condition for the rest.
Multifunctional Rangeland in Southern Africa: Managing for Production, Conservation, and Resilience with Fire and Grazing  [PDF]
Devan Allen McGranahan,Kevin P. Kirkman
Land , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/land2020176
Abstract: Residents of Southern Africa depend on rangeland for food, livelihoods, and ecosystem services. Sustainable management of rangeland ecosystems requires attention to interactive effects of fire and grazing in a changing climate. It is essential to compare rangeland responses to fire and grazing across space and through time to understand the effects of rangeland management practices on biodiversity and ecosystem services in an era of global climate change. We propose a paradigm of ecologically-analogous rangeland management within the context of multifunctional landscapes to guide design and application of ecosystem-based rangeland research in Southern Africa. We synthesize range science from the North American Great Plains and Southern African savannas into a proposal for fire and grazing research on rangeland in Southern Africa. We discuss how management for the fire-grazing interaction might advance multiple goals including agricultural productivity, biodiversity conservation, and resilience to increased variability under global change. Finally, we discuss several ecological and social issues important to the effective development of sustainable rangeland practices especially within the context of global climate change. The associated literature review serves as a comprehensive bibliography for sustainable rangeland management and development across the savanna biomes of Southern Africa.
The Prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniases in Patients Referred to Kermanshah  [cached]
Naser Nazari,Reza Faraji,Mehdi Vejdani,Ali Mekaeili
Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Cutaneous leishmaniases is the problem in our country. The aim of this study was determine of cutaneous leishmaniases in Kermanshah. Materials and Methods: This descriptive–analytic study was and the statical society includes individual information with diagnosis during the 2006-2008 in the county health department in combating communicable disease were registered.Results: Most cases were in age group 20-29 year. Most patients had a wound on his body (52.36%) and most of them were on hands (52%).Conclusion: The disease is not endemic in Kermanshah.
Ecological Characteristics of Plants of Harboi Rangeland, Kalat, Pakistan
Mufakhirah Jan DURRANI,Farrukh HUSSAIN,Saeed-ur-Rehman,
Mufakhirah Jan DURRANI
,Farrukh HUSSAIN,Saeed-ur-Rehman

热带亚热带植物学报 , 2005,
Abstract: The floristic composition, ecological characteristics and ethnoecology of plants of Harboi rangeland (Kalat,Pakistan) were done during 1997 to 1999. There were 202 species that belonged to 45 plant families Asteraceae, Papilionaceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae and Lamiaceae were the leading families. Juniperus macropoda was the only tree species while A rtemesia maritima, Sophora griffithii, Hertia intermedia, Nepetajuncea, Perovskia abrotanoides, Convolvulus leiocalycinus and A stragalus spp. were the most common shrubs. The dominant life forms were therophyte and hemicryptophyte while nanophylls, microphylls and leptophylls were dominant leaf sizes. The growing season lasts from March to November with two flowering periods. Most, i.e. 83.6% plants flowered during April to June while 63.3% plants bloomed during July to September. Some 145 species had various local uses. They included 129 fodder species, 50 medicinal species, 12 vegetable/fruits species, 7 fuel wood species, 3 species each were used for roof thatching and making herbal tea. Deforestation, over grazing and over collection 0f medicinal and fuel wood species have led to the degradation of this rangeland. There is need to conserve these resources with the participation of local communities.
Land Use Optimization of Watershed for Soil Erosion Minimization Using Linear Programming (a Case Study of Brimvand Watershed, Kermanshah Province)  [cached]
KH. Jalili,S. H. R. Sadeghi,D. Nikkami
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2007,
Abstract: Improper management of watershed land utilization has many ill effects on the available resources. Land use optimization is one of the proper strategies to achieve sustainable development and to reduce resource dissipation. Focusing on Brimvand watershed in Kermanshah province which comprises an area of 9572 ha, the present study was conducted to find out the most suitable land allocation to different land uses viz. garden, irrigated farming, dry farming and rangeland to achieve soil erosion minimization and benefit maximization. The soil erosion, net benefit and standard land capability maps were supposed as the inputs of the objective functions and to defined constraints. The multi-objective linear problem was then solved using simplex method with the help of ADBASE software package and ultimately the optimal solution was gained. Additionally, the results of the study revealed that the amount of soil erosion could reduce by 7.78% whereas the benefit increases at the rate of 118.62%, in case of implementation of optimal solution. The above mentioned optimization led to dry farming decrease and garden increase over that area. The results of sensitivity analysis also showed that objective functions were strongly susceptible to the variation of maximum constraint of irrigated farming and garden areas.
Prevalence of speech disorders among Kermanshah primary schoolchildren  [PDF]
Akram Soleimani,Hiwa Mohammadi,Habibollah Khazaei,Faranak Ertiahi
Behbood , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Speech is the most important aspect of development that related to central nervous system maturation in cognitive sensory motor domain. Disorders of speech may disrupt other aspects of development. The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of speech disorders among primary schoolchildren in Kermanshah during 2008-9. Methods: Six hundred schoolchildren from three educational regions of the city were selected using multi-stage cluster sampling method. In an hour assessment session, an expert Speech-Language pathologist evaluated the spontaneous speech of children by phonetic test and specialist judgment. Results: 39.5% of cases were female and 60.5% male. Mean age of students was 9.12±1.52 years. 67 out of 600 studied schoolchildren (11.2 %) were diagnosed as speech disordered. Prevalence of speech disorders among boys and girls was 11 and 11.3 percent respectively. There was no significant difference in speech disorders prevalence according to age and sex.Conclusion: It’s concluded that prevalence of speech disorders among primary schoolchildren in Kermanshah was lower than similar reports in other studies.
Quality of Life Among Stroke Patients in Kermanshah City
Ayub Fattahi,Akram Azad,Ali Montazeri
Modern Rehabilitation , 2008,
Abstract: Background and aim: Health-related quality of life is an important index of outcome after stroke and may facilitate a broader description of stroke recovery. The objective of this study was to measure health-related quality of life in stroke patients in kermanshah city and determine of impact occupation status, gender and hemiplegics side of the body on the quality of life for stroke patients. Materials and methods: The Method was descriptive-analytic and cross sectional. Fifty one stroke patients referred to comprehensive rehabilitation centers, occupational therapy, physical therapy ,speech therapy clinics and hospital centers of kermanshah city and there was an interview with all patient. Quality of life was evaluated by 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36). Results: In attending to the results of recent study, quality of life affected by stroke in total subscales of the (SF-36) but this increased in Role-Physical. Quality of life in these patients is dependent to the age, level of education and post-stroke duration Conclusion: It seems that quality of life improves in stroke patients by passing the time.
MODIS and Determination the Threshold of Cloud Seeding in Kermanshah
S.Ameneh Sajjadi,S.Saber Sajjadi
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: The present study was carried out within four-years period covering from 2000 to 2003 where the amount of rainfall in Western Iran (Kermanshah) was recorded by precipitation stations. PW was calculated using the data obtained through MODIS satellite. Using the curve and upon choosing the fittest index PW as independent variable and the rainfall average precipitation (P) as dependent variable, from among the PW, the suitable cloud seeding threshold was estimated. The thresholds obtained through MODIS for cloud seeding and PW were compared across 17 cases. This method employed showed high correlation. The thresholds obtained was 12 mm. With this factors (PW and P) we can study on threshold of cloud seeding.
Seroepidemiology of Hepatitis C in Kermanshah (West of Iran, 2006)
Babak Sayad,Fatemeh Shamsedin,Hossein Keyvani,Mansour Rezaii
Hepatitis Monthly , 2008,
Abstract: Background and Aims: Chronic and serious outcomes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection impose a remarkable economic burden to the health system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HCV infection in the general population of Kermanshah in the year 2006.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1721 residents from Kermanshah were chosen by systematic and cluster sampling in the year 2006. After interview, serum samples were taken and evaluated for HCV-Ab using ELISA method (3rd generation). Positive samples were confirmed by Western Blot (WB) and PCR if necessary.Results: The prevalence of HCV was 0.87% (male: 1.4% vs. female: 0.3%). There was 88.2% coordination between ELISA and WB results. Statistical relationship was observed between HCV infection and male sex (P<0.018), history of addiction (P<0.0001), shared needle (P<0.0001), unsafe sexual contact (P<0.008), history of blood and blood products transfusion (P<0.0001), tattooing (P<0.0001), history of incarceration (P<0.0001), and hemophilia (P<0.0001). On the other hand, stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that hemophilia, shared needle, IV addiction, transfusion and addiction were the most important risk factors for HCV infection in a descending order. The rate of HCV infection increased in cases with multiple risk factors.Conclusions: We estimate that among 967196 people, who live in Kermanshah, nearly 8400 individuals may have HCV infection and this will be a major problem in the near future. Addicts especially IV drug users and cases with the history of blood and blood products transfusion are high risk groups who need special attention regarding HCV infection.
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