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Methyl Donor Supplementation Blocks the Adverse Effects of Maternal High Fat Diet on Offspring Physiology  [PDF]
JesseLea Carlin, Robert George, Teresa M. Reyes
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063549
Abstract: Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during pregnancy increases the offspring risk for obesity. Using a mouse model, we have previously shown that maternal consumption of a high fat (60%) diet leads to global and gene specific decreases in DNA methylation in the brain of the offspring. The present experiments were designed to attempt to reverse this DNA hypomethylation through supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors, and to determine whether methyl donor supplementation could block or attenuate phenotypes associated with maternal consumption of a HF diet. Metabolic and behavioral (fat preference) outcomes were assessed in male and female adult offspring. Expression of the mu-opioid receptor and dopamine transporter mRNA, as well as global DNA methylation were measured in the brain. Supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors attenuated the development of some of the adverse effects seen in offspring from dams fed a high fat diet; including weight gain, increased fat preference (males), changes in CNS gene expression and global hypomethylation in the prefrontal cortex. Notable sex differences were observed. These findings identify the importance of balanced methylation status during pregnancy, particularly in the context of a maternal high fat diet, for optimal offspring outcome.
Hepatic Adverse Effects of Fructose Consumption Independent of Overweight/Obesity  [PDF]
Alini Schultz,Debora Neil,Marcia B. Aguila,Carlos A. Mandarim-de-Lacerda
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijms141121873
Abstract: The chronic intake of fructose has been linked to insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which in turn, may progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We aimed to evaluate the magnitude of the effects of the chronic consumption of high-fructose (HFr) and high fat (HF) alone or combined. Four groups of male mice were fed different diets for 16 weeks: standard chow (9% fat: SC), HF diet (42% fat), HFr diet (34% fructose) and HF/HFr diet (42% fat, 34% fructose). The food intake was not different among the groups, and the body mass was not greater in the HFr group than in the SC group. The homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), as well as plasmatic total cholesterol and triglycerides were greater in the groups HF, HFr, and HF/HFr group than in the SC group. We observed in the groups HF, HFr and HF/HFr, compared to the group SC, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with a predominance of lipogenesis mediated by SREBP-1c and PPAR-γ, and a reduction of the oxidation mediated by PPAR-α. We also observed an increase in gluconeogenesis mediated by the GLUT-2 and the PEPCK. Importantly, we identified areas of necroinflammation indicating a transition from NAFLD to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in the HFr and HF/HFr groups. This study is relevant in demonstrating that fructose consumption, even in the absence of obesity, causes serious and deleterious changes in the liver with the presence of the dyslipidemia, insulin resistance (IR), and NAFLD with areas of necroinflammation. These conditions are associated with a poor prognosis.
Garlic and Onion Attenuates Vascular Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Fructose-Fed Rats  [PDF]
Marcela Alejandra Vazquez-Prieto,Cecilia Rodriguez Lanzi,Carina Lembo,Claudio Rómulo Galmarini,Roberto Miguel Miatello
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/475216
Abstract: This study evaluates the antioxidant and the anti-inflammatory properties of garlic (G) and onion (O) in fructose-fed rats (FFR). Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were assigned to control (C), F (10% fructose in drinking water), F
Garlic and Onion Attenuates Vascular Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Fructose-Fed Rats  [PDF]
Marcela Alejandra Vazquez-Prieto,Cecilia Rodriguez Lanzi,Carina Lembo,Claudio Rómulo Galmarini,Roberto Miguel Miatello
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/475216
Abstract: This study evaluates the antioxidant and the anti-inflammatory properties of garlic (G) and onion (O) in fructose-fed rats (FFR). Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were assigned to control (C), F (10% fructose in drinking water), F+T (tempol 1?mM as control antioxidant), F+G, and F+O. Aqueous G and O extracts were administered orally in doses of 150 and 400?mg/kg/d respectively, and along with tempol, were given during the last 8 weeks of a 14-week period. At the end of the study, FFR had developed insulin resistance, aortic NADPH oxidase activity, increased SBP, plasma TBARS and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in mesenteric arteries, and a decrease in heart endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Garlic and onion administration to F rats reduced oxidative stress, increased eNOS activity, and also attenuated VCAM-1 expression. These results provide new evidence showing the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect of these vegetables. 1. Introduction Metabolic syndrome (METS), characterized by hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and obesity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease [1]. One of the most important causes that contribute to the growing worldwide prevalence of METS, obesity, and type 2 diabetes is the change of dietary habits principally due to the increased intake of simple sugars, mainly fructose, commonly used in the food industry and sugar-sweetened drinks [2]. Feeding carbohydrate-enriched diets to normal rats has been shown to induce insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia associated with an elevation of systolic blood pressure (SBP) [3]. Fructose-fed rats (FFRs) provide a model of dietary-induced insulin resistance, which has been used to assess the pathophysiological mechanisms of the metabolic and cardiovascular changes associated with METS [4, 5]. Endothelial dysfunction is also associated with this experimental model [6]. Our group previously reported a decrease of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity (eNOS) at cardiovascular level, and an increase in oxidative stress and vascular alterations [5, 7]. The major sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vascular tissue are membrane-associated NAD(P)H oxidases [8]. An increase in ROS has been implicated as an important mechanism contributing to endothelial dysfunction and to the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors like METS [9]. ROS induce the expression of different molecules in the endothelial cell surface such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), which stimulates monocyte binding
Effects of Taurine Supplementation on Hepatic Markers of Inflammation and Lipid Metabolism in Mothers and Offspring in the Setting of Maternal Obesity  [PDF]
Minglan Li, Clare M. Reynolds, Deborah M. Sloboda, Clint Gray, Mark H. Vickers
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076961
Abstract: Maternal obesity is associated with obesity and metabolic disorders in offspring. However, intervention strategies to reverse or ameliorate the effects of maternal obesity on offspring health are limited. Following maternal undernutrition, taurine supplementation can improve outcomes in offspring, possibly via effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion. The effects of taurine in mediating inflammatory processes as a protective mechanism has not been investigated. Further, the efficacy of taurine supplementation in the setting of maternal obesity is not known. Using a model of maternal obesity, we examined the effects of maternal taurine supplementation on outcomes related to inflammation and lipid metabolism in mothers and neonates. Time-mated Wistar rats were randomised to either: 1) control : control diet during pregnancy and lactation (CON); 2) CON supplemented with 1.5% taurine in drinking water (CT); 3) maternal obesogenic diet (high fat, high fructose) during pregnancy and lactation (MO); or 4) MO supplemented with taurine (MOT). Maternal and neonatal weights, plasma cytokines and hepatic gene expression were analysed. A MO diet resulted in maternal hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia and increased plasma glucose, glutamate and TNF-α concentrations. Taurine normalised maternal plasma TNF-α and glutamate concentrations in MOT animals. Both MO and MOT mothers displayed evidence of fatty liver accompanied by alterations in key markers of hepatic lipid metabolism. MO neonates displayed a pro-inflammatory hepatic profile which was partially rescued in MOT offspring. Conversely, a pro-inflammatory phenotype was observed in MOT mothers suggesting a possible maternal trade-off to protect the neonate. Despite protective effects of taurine in MOT offspring, neonatal mortality was increased in CT neonates, indicating possible adverse effects of taurine in the setting of normal pregnancy. These data suggest that maternal taurine supplementation may ameliorate the adverse effects observed in offspring following a maternal obesogenic diet but these effects are dependent upon prior maternal nutritional background.
Maternal Methyl Donors Supplementation during Lactation Prevents the Hyperhomocysteinemia Induced by a High-Fat-Sucrose Intake by Dams  [PDF]
Paul Cordero,Fermin I. Milagro,Javier Campion,J. Alfredo Martinez
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijms141224422
Abstract: Maternal perinatal nutrition may program offspring metabolic features. Epigenetic regulation is one of the candidate mechanisms that may be affected by maternal dietary methyl donors intake as potential controllers of plasma homocysteine levels. Thirty-two Wistar pregnant rats were randomly assigned into four dietary groups during lactation: control, control supplemented with methyl donors, high-fat-sucrose and high-fat-sucrose supplemented with methyl donors. Physiological outcomes in the offspring were measured, including hepatic mRNA expression and global DNA methylation after weaning. The newborns whose mothers were fed the obesogenic diet were heavier longer and with a higher adiposity and intrahepatic fat content. Interestingly, increased levels of plasma homocysteine induced by the maternal high-fat-sucrose dietary intake were prevented in both sexes by maternal methyl donors supplementation. Total hepatic DNA methylation decreased in females due to maternal methyl donors administration, while Dnmt3a hepatic mRNA levels decreased accompanying the high-fat-sucrose consumption. Furthermore, a negative association between Dnmt3a liver mRNA levels and plasma homocysteine concentrations was found. Maternal high-fat-sucrose diet during lactation could program offspring obesity features, while methyl donors supplementation prevented the onset of high hyperhomocysteinemia. Maternal dietary intake also affected hepatic DNA methylation metabolism, which could be linked with the regulation of the methionine-homocysteine cycle.
Niaspan Attenuates the Adverse Effects of Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Treatment of Stroke in Type One Diabetic Rats  [PDF]
Tao Yan, Xinchun Ye, Michael Chopp, Alex Zacharek, Ruizhuo Ning, Poornima Venkat, Cynthia Roberts, Mei Lu, Jieli Chen
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081199
Abstract: Aims Our previous studies have found that bone-marrow-stromal cells (BMSC) therapy improves functional recovery after stroke in non-diabetic rats while increases brain hemorrhage and induces arteriosclerosis-like changes in type-one-diabetic (T1DM) rats. Niaspan treatment of stroke increases vascular stabilization, decreases brain hemorrhage and blood-brain-barrier (BBB) leakage in T1DM rats. We therefore tested the hypothesis that combination therapy of BMSC with Niaspan attenuates the side effects of BMSC monotherapy in T1DM rats. Methods T1DM-rats induced by streptozotocin were subjected to 2 hours of middle-cerebral-artery occlusion (MCAo) and treated with: 1) PBS; 2) BMSC (5×106); 3) Niaspan (40 mg/kg) daily for 14 days; 4) BMSC (5×106) +Niaspan (40 mg/kg, daily for 14 days) combination starting at 24 hours after MCAo. All rats were monitored for 14 days. Results Combination BMSC+Niaspan treatment of T1DM-MCAo rats did not increase brain hemorrhage, and significantly decreased BBB leakage and vascular arteriosclerosis-like changes as well as decreased Angiogenin, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and ED1 expression in ischemic brain and internal-carotid-artery compared to non-treatment control and BMSC monotherapy animals. Conclusions Combination therapy using BMSC with Niaspan decreases BBB leakage and cerebral arteriosclerosis-like changes. These beneficial effects may be attributed to the decreased expression of Angiogenin, MMP9 and ED1.
Garlic Attenuates Cardiac Oxidative Stress via Activation of PI3K/AKT/Nrf2-Keap1 Pathway in Fructose-Fed Diabetic Rat  [PDF]
Raju Padiya, Debabrata Chowdhury, Roshan Borkar, R. Srinivas, Manika Pal Bhadra, Sanjay K. Banerjee
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094228
Abstract: Background Cardiovascular complication due to diabetes has remained a major cause of death. There is an urgent need to intervene the cardiac complications in diabetes by nutritional or pharmacological agents. Thus the present study was designed to find out the effectiveness of garlic on cardiac complications in insulin-resistant diabetic rats. Methods and Results SD rats were fed high fructose (65%) diet alone or along with raw garlic homogenate (250 mg/kg/day) or nutrient-matched (65% corn starch) control diet for 8 weeks. Fructose-fed diabetic rats showed cardiac hypertrophy, increased NFkB activity and increased oxidative stress. Administration of garlic significantly decreased (p<0.05) cardiac hypertrophy, NFkB activity and oxidative stress. Although we did not observe any changes in myocardial catalase, GSH and GPx in diabetic heart, garlic administration showed significant (p<0.05) increase in all three antioxidant/enzymes levels. Increased endogenous antioxidant enzymes and gene expression in garlic treated diabetic heart are associated with higher protein expression of Nrf2. Increased myocardial H2S levels, activation of PI3K/Akt pathway and decreased Keap levels in fructose-fed heart after garlic administration might be responsible for higher Nrf2 levels. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that raw garlic homogenate is effective in reducing cardiac hypertrophy and fructose-induced myocardial oxidative stress through PI3K/AKT/Nrf2-Keap1 dependent pathway.
High fructose intake fails to induce symptomatic adaptation but may induce intestinal carriers  [cached]
Debra Heilpern,Rateb Nabil Abbas,Stephanie Gladman,Maryse Menard
Gastroenterology Insights , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/gi.2010.e3
Abstract: Fructose has several interactions in man, including intolerance and promotion of some diseases. However, fructose in fruits and in prebiotics may be associated with benefits. Adaptation to regular fructose ingestion as defined for lactose could support a beneficial rather than a deleterious effect. This study was undertaken to evaluate symptomatic response and potential underlying mechanisms of fecal bacterial change and breath hydrogen response to short term regular fructose supplementation. Forty-five participants were recruited for a 3 day recall diet questionnaire and a 50 g fructose challenge. Breath hydrogen was measured for 4.5 hrs and symptoms were recorded. Thirty-eight subjects provided stool samples for analysis by selective culture of 4 groups of bacteria, including bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Intolerant subjects returned a second time 15 days later. Ten of these served as controls and 16 received 30 g fructose twice a day. Ten of the latter returned 27 days later, after stopping fructose for a third challenge test. Student’s paired, unpaired t-tests and Pearson correlations were used. Significance was accepted at P<0.05. After fructose rechallenge there were no significant reductions in symptoms scores in volunteers in either the fructose supplemented or non supplemented groups. However, total breath hydrogen was reduced between test 1 and test 2 (P=0.03) or test 3 (P=0.04) in the group given fructose then discontinued, compared with controls. There were no statistically significant changes in bacterial numbers between test 2 and 1. This study shows that regular consumption of high dose fructose does not follow the lactose model of adaptation. Observed changes in hydrogen breath tests raise the possibility that intestinal carriers of fructose may be induced potentially aggravating medical problems attributed to fructose.
Adult hereditary fructose intolerance  [cached]
Mohamed Ismail Yasawy, Ulrich Richard Folsch, Wolfgang Eckhard Schmidt, Michael Schwend
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2009,
Abstract: Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is an under-recognized, preventable life-threatening condition. It is an autosomal recessive disorder with subnormal activity of aldolase B in the liver, kidney and small bowel. Symptoms are present only after the ingestion of fructose, which leads to brisk hypoglycemia, and an individual with continued ingestion will exhibit vomiting, abdominal pain, failure to thrive, and renal and liver failure. A diagnosis of HFI was made in a 50-year-old woman on the basis of medical history, response to IV fructose intolerance test, demonstration of aldolase B activity reduction in duodenal biopsy, and molecular analysis of leukocyte DNA by PCR showed homozygosity for two doses of mutant gene. HFI may remain undiagnosed until adult life and may lead to disastrous complications following inadvertent fructose or sorbitol infusion. Several lethal episodes of HFI following sorbitol and fructose infusion have been reported. The diagnosis can only be suspected by taking a careful dietary history, and this can present serious complications.
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