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Suspected Malaria Outbreak Investigations in Baure LGA, Katsina State, Nigeria
Jalal-Eddeen Abubakar Saleh, Abdullahi Saddiq, Haruna Ismaila Adamu, Rex Mpazanje, Bala Mohammed Audu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105512
Abstract:
Background: Malaria, a disease that is endemic in Nigeria and contributing up to 25 per cent of infant mortality and 30 per cent of under-five mortality, is among the 17 per cent of the global burden of infectious diseases. Nigeria, which has 27 per cent malaria prevalence, is among the top eleven high-burden countries globally. In September 2018, a team headed by the World Health Or-ganisation in Nigeria investigated a suspected malaria outbreak in Baure local government area of Katsina state northwestern Nigeria. Methods: We reviewed clinical records of 30 patients who were presented to the health facility with febrile illness, investigated and treated from 10th-24th September 2018. The data used during the study included age, sex, residential address, signs and symptoms. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Epicentre of the suspected outbreak to assess the knowledge of the caregivers on malaria control measures and look at the coverage of the seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) running in the area for the third year. The data were analysed using Excel. Results: Out of the 30 reported cases, 27 (90%) were tested positive for RDT and 3 (10%) were tested negative. The age range of the cases was from three months to 70 years (median: 14 years), sex distribution F 16 (59%) and M 11 (41%) and CFR 3.7% (1/27). An SMC coverage survey shows that out of 86 HHs, 79 (91.86%) had SMC cards for the last two cycles of 2018. On the knowledge of caregivers on malaria preventive measures, 80% (8/10) were aware that mosquitoes transmit malaria, and 100% (10/10) had knowledge on at least one preventive measure against the disease. Conclusion: Although government commitment to malaria control is commendable, there is the need for state malaria control programme to intensify health education programmes on environmental hygiene, to strengthen awareness campaigns on the available malaria interventions and to improve access to the interventions especially for the more vulnerable members of the community.
Malaria in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria
K Abdullahi, U Abubakar, T Adamu, AI Daneji, RU Aliyu, N Jiya, MTO Ibraheem, SU Nata’ala
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: Malaria remains a major cause of mortality among children under the age of five years; it is endemic throughout Nigeria with seasonal variation in different geographic zones of the country. Malaria prevalence studies had been undertaken in many parts of Nigeria but there is probably no data available from the far North Western region. This research study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, monthly distribution of malaria in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria in order to generate baseline information. A total of 1,297 blood samples were collected by simple random sampling, from patients attending the two health centres over the twelve calendar months. Thick and thin blood films were Giemsa stained and observed for the presence of malaria parasites. A total of 354 (27.29%) were positive for malaria parasites with the highest prevalence rate being recorded in the month of August with 72 (59.5%) positive cases and the month of March having the least infection rate of 9 (9.18%). The infection rate according to gender showed that males had the higher infection rate of 192 (n = 635) or 30.24% than the females who had a total 162 infection (n = 662) or 24.47%. The age group 0 - 5 years had the highest infection rate of 123 (43.77%) while the age group 36 - 40 years had the least infection rate of 10 (9.8%). The study has revealed the presence of malaria transmission throughout the year in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria and the infection rate can be considered as moderately high.
Congenital Malaria Among Newborns Admitted for Suspected Neonatal Sepsis In Abuja.
AA Okechukwu, EK Olateju, EO Olutunde
Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Signs and symptoms of congenital malaria do not differ much from those of neonatal sepsis: both can co-exist, and most times very difficult to differentiate clinically. Objective: To document the prevalence, risk factors for congeni tal malar ia among neonates admitted for suspected neonatal sepsis, and determine sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of some common signs and symptoms. Method: Blood for culture, thin and thick blood film for malaria parasite were taken for all cases of suspected neonatal sepsis at the special care baby unit of the hospital, from August 2007 to December 2009 Results: A total of 266 newborns (150 males and 116 females) with suspected neonatal sepsis were recruited. Their mean admission we ight wa s 2.5±0.87 kg, gestational age was 36.1±3.5 weeks, and age of 5.1±2.3 days. While 76 (28.6%) had malaria parasites in their blood film, 97 (36.5%) were blood culture positive, and 12 (4.5%) had both positive blood culture and malaria parasite. Among the recruited babies, 82.4% were noticed to have low parasite density, 13.2% had moderate density, while 2.6% had high density. Peripartum pyrexia, prematurity and intrauterine HIV exposure, were found to have signi f icant association with congenital malaria, (OR = 7.9, 7.2, 4.4) for peripatum pyrexia, prematurity and HIV exposure, p values <0.05. None of the clinical feature had good sensitivity, specificity or predictive value for congenital malaria, and only 1.6% death was recorded in a baby with high parasite density. Conclusion: Congenital malaria is common in newborns with suspected neonatal sepsis. History of peripartum pyrexia, prematurity and intrauterine HIV exposure was associated with increased risk of the disease.
Comparative Study of the in vivo Response of Malaria Parasites to Chloroquine among the Urban and Rural Dwellers in Sokoto State, Nigeria  [PDF]
E.U. Etuk
Journal of Medical Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: The in vivo response of malaria parasites to chloroquine among the urban and rural dwellers in Sokoto state, Nigeria has been studied. A total of seventy-eight patients with acute uncomplicated malaria were selected for the study from two distinct centres representing the urban and rural dwellers of the state. All the treated cases from the rural centre (Umaruma) responded well; both the clinical features of the disease and the parasites in the blood cleared within three days of initiating treatment and there was no relapse after twenty-one days follow up. But 19.8% (5) of the patients from the urban centre showed resistance at R1 level to chloroquine. This study therefore concluded that, chloroquine is more effective for the treatment of malaria in the rural than the urban dwellers possibly because of the rampant abuse of the drug by the later group.
Health seeking behavior by families of children suspected to have malaria in Kabale, Uganda
Sam Tumwesigire, Sharon Watson
African Health Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: Background: Malaria is common among communities of Kabale district, and many young children die of the illness. Despite a good distribution of health facilities, able to handle malaria patients, families and individuals tend to depend on self-treatment, or private clinics where drugs used may be of doubtful quality. Objective: To establish the health seeking behaviour by families with children suspected to have malaria. Methodology: A community-based, cross-sectional survey among 209 rural peasant families living in 12 villages, chosen from the 5 most malaria-affected sub-counties was done. Using a questionnaire, respondents' reactions to the disease and what decisions they took were recorded. Reasons for choices such as drugs used, location of treatment and malaria control methods were recorded. Results: Ninety seven percent lived within easy reach of a public health facility. Over 2/3 knew how malaria was transmitted and how it presented. They believed it was best treated at public heath facilities using western type of medicine. Fifty percent of the children, who attended public health units, were treated within 24 of illness. Thirty eight percent of the caretakers knew how to correctly use chloroquine. The caretakers relied on fever, vomiting and refusal to feed as the main symptoms for their diagnosis of malaria. Only 31% of the families sought treatment from government health facilities. Fifty three percent of the families sought treatment from drug shops/vendors. Unfortunately only 38% of the families knew the correct regimen of chloroquine, 4.3% for sulpha-doxine pyrimethamine and 0.5% for quinine. One quarter could afford malaria treatment, and one out of five missed treatment because of poverty. Concerning prevention, 90% stated at least one method but only 21.2% used them. Conclusions: Despite reasonable knowledge for diagnosis of malaria, awareness of correct treatment is limited. Paradoxically government health units appear to play a minor role in the treatment of malaria.
Patterns of Pediatric Malaria Incidence and Outcomes in Kasungu, Malawi in 2016  [PDF]
Byungchan Kim, Sohyun Chang, Min Jae Shin, Prescott Hong, George Lee, Min Jung Koh, Immanuel H. Anaborne, Donghoon Lee, Paul S. Chung, George Talama, Thomas Nyirenda
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2019.94021
Abstract: Malawi is resource poor country in Africa with one of the highest infant and child mortality rates in the world. Malaria is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among children in Malawi. Studies have shown barriers to care of sick children and the formal health sector has shown sub-optimal patient assessments and overreliance on antibiotic treatment of a child with fever. In 2017, a team of students from Korea and USA audited clinic registers of six health centres under the hospital’s administration of Kasungu District in Malawi for the year of 2016. The clinics were included in the study were those that contributed to the largest number of patients in the district annually. The aim of the audit was to examine treatment outcomes of all children presenting with fever and on whom a definitive diagnosis or presumptive diagnosis of malaria was made at the 6 chosen clinics in Kasungu for improvement of health information system for the district health office. The number of children with malaria ranged between 80 and 440 per month, with the peak occurring between the rainy months of February to May. Peak mortality rate occurred in September and November at 21%. Patients presented with multiple symptoms of fever, convulsion, pallor, vomiting, cough, diarrhea, abdominal pain and headache. Average mortality rate differed between traditional authorities, ranging from 4% to 15%. Off-season high mortality finding promotes more studies looking into socioeconomic and hospital support. Multiple symptoms among patients treated for malaria is a common finding emphasizing the need to integrate household practices for malaria prevention, good malaria case management and linkage with community care of childhood illness (CCM) programs at the clinics in the district.
SEROEPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF P. VIVAX MALARIA WITH SUSPECTED LONG INCUBATION IN IRAN
Gh. H. Edrissian,F. Naimi,A. Afshar
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 1976,
Abstract: P. vivax malaria with suspected long incubation have been frequently observed mostly in the northwest part of Iran in the course of Malaria Control and Malaria Eradication Operations. A sero-epidemiological study of such cases which present the first symptom in early spring, before anopheles activities season, was carried out in 92 selected villages with a population of 38,726 in two near areas in Ramadan and Bijar, in the west part pf Iran. . The total number of 3553 blood samples for microscopical and indirect fluorescent antibody serological technique were collected in 12 weekly total surveillance in the- early months of the year 1973 and 1974. Altogether seven cases parasitologically (P. vivax) and 98 cases serologically (titers 1/20 to 1/640) positive were observed. . From seven parasitological positive cases three were serologically negative. These three cases as they occurred at the beginning of appearance of anopheles.
An outbreak of suspected cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ghana: lessons learnt and preparation for future outbreaks  [cached]
Margaret A. Kweku,Shirley Odoom,Naiki Puplampu,Kwame Desewu
Global Health Action , 2011, DOI: 10.3402/gha.v4i0.5527
Abstract: Human cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) has previously been reported in West Africa, but more recently, sporadic reports of CL have increased. Leishmania major has been identified from Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, and Burkina Faso. Three zymodemes (MON-26, MON-117, and MON-74, the most frequent) have been found. The geographic range of leishmaniasis is limited by the sand fly vector, its feeding preferences, and its capacity to support internal development of specific species of Leishmania. The risk of acquiring CL has been reported to increase considerably with human activity and epidemics of CL have been associated with deforestation, road construction, wars, or other activities where humans intrude the habitat of the vector. In the Ho Municipality in the Volta Region of Ghana, a localised outbreak of skin ulcers, possibly CL, was noted in 2003 without any such documented activity. This outbreak was consistent with CL as evidenced using various methods including parasite identification, albeit, in a small number of patients with ulcers.This paper reports the outbreak in Ghana. The report does not address a single planned study but rather a compilation of data from a number of ad-hoc investigations in response to the outbreak plus observations and findings made by the authors. It acknowledges that a number of the observations need to be further clarified. What is the detailed epidemiology of the disease? What sparked the epidemic? Can it happen again? What was the causative agent of the disease, L. major or some other Leishmania spp.? What were the main vectors and animal reservoirs? What are the consequences for surveillance of the disease and the prevention of its reoccurrence when the communities see a self-healing disease and may not think it is important?
Assessing the role of contact tracing in a suspected H7N2 influenza A outbreak in humans in Wales
Ken TD Eames, Cerian Webb, Kathrin Thomas, Josie Smith, Roland Salmon, J Mark F Temple
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-10-141
Abstract: We analyse the database of cases and their contacts identified for the purposes of contact tracing in relation to both the contact tracing burden and effectiveness. We investigate the distribution of numbers of contacts identified, and use network structure to explore the speed with which treatment/prophylaxis was made available and to estimate the risk of transmission in different settings.Fourteen cases of suspected H7N2 influenza A in humans were associated with a confirmed outbreak among poultry in May-June 2007. The contact tracing dataset consisted of 254 individuals (cases and contacts, of both poultry and humans) who were linked through a network of social contacts. Of these, 102 individuals were given treatment or prophylaxis. Considerable differences between individuals' contact patterns were observed. Home and workplace encounters were more likely to result in transmission than encounters in other settings. After an initial delay, while the outbreak proceeded undetected, contact tracing rapidly caught up with the cases and was effective in reducing the time between onset of symptoms and treatment/prophylaxis.Contact tracing was used to link together the individuals involved in this outbreak in a social network, allowing the identification of the most likely paths of transmission and the risks of different types of interactions to be assessed. The outbreak highlights the substantial time and cost involved in contact tracing, even for an outbreak affecting few individuals. However, when sufficient resources are available, contact tracing enables cases to be identified before they result in further transmission and thus possibly assists in preventing an outbreak of a novel virus.On May 23rd, 2007, an outbreak of H7N2 influenza in a poultry flock was reported in North Wales, UK. The outbreak was subsequently found to have affected birds at three premises linked to a market held two weeks earlier in North West England. Several human contacts of infected birds
Vector capacity of Anopheles sinensis in malaria outbreak areas of central China
Jia-Yun Pan, Shui-Sen Zhou, Xiang Zheng, Fang Huang, Duo-Quan Wang, Yu-Zu Shen, Yun-Pu Su, Guang-Chao Zhou, Feng Liu, Jing-Jing Jiang
Parasites & Vectors , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-5-136
Abstract: The study was undertaken in two sites, namely Huaiyuan county of Anhui province and Yongcheng county of Henan province. In each county, malaria cases were recorded for recent years, and transmission risk factors for each study village including anti-mosquito facilities and total number of livestock were recorded by visiting each household in the study sites. The specimens of mosquitoes were collected in two villages, and population density and species in each study site were recorded after the identification of different species, and the blood-fed mosquitoes were tested by ring precipitation test. Finally, various indicators were calculated to estimate vector capacity or dynamics, including mosquito biting rate (MBR), human blood index (HBI), and the parous rates (M). Finally, the vector capacity, as an important indicator of malaria transmission to predict the potential recurrence of malaria, was estimated and compared in each study site.About 93.0% of 80 households in Huaiyuan and 89.3% of 192 households in Yongcheng had anti-mosquito facilities. No cattle or pigs were found, only less than 10 sheep were found in each study village. A total of 94 and 107 Anopheles spp. mosquitos were captured in two study sites, respectively, and all of An. sinensis were morphologically identified. It was found that mosquito blood-feeding peak was between 9:00?pm and 12:00?pm. Man biting rate of An. sinensis was 6.0957 and 5.8621 (mosquitoes/people/night) estimated by using half-night human bait trap method and full-capture method, respectively. Human blood indexes (HBI) were 0.6667 (6/9) and 0.6429 (18/28), and man-biting habits were 0.2667 and 0.2572 in two sites, respectively. Therefore, the expectation of infective life and vector capacity of An. sinensis was 0.3649-0.4761 and 0.5502-0.7740, respectively, in Huanhuai valley of central China where the outbreak occurred, which is much higher than that in the previous years without malaria outbreak.This study suggests that vivax
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