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A Study on the Biological and Behavioural Parameters of Anisopteromalus calandrae (Hym.: Pteromalidae), a Parasitoid of Callosobruchus maculatus (Col.: Bruchidae) on Chickpea  [cached]
F. Kazemi,A. A. Talebi,Y. Fathipour
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2008,
Abstract: The biological and behavioural parameters of Anisopteromalus calandrae (Hym.: Pteromalidae), a parasitoid of Callosobruchus maculatus (Col.: Bruchidae) on Chickpea were studied in laboratory conditions at temperature of 25±1oC, photoperiod 16:8 (L:D) and 20±5 % RH. The pre-adult period of the wasp was 19.82 ± 0.038 days and pre-ovipositional period in this wasp was so short that female laid eggs immediately after emergence. Reproductive and post reproductive periods were 25.12 ± 1.98 and 1.75 ± 0.28 days, respectively. Adult life span was 26.69 ± 1.98 days. Total number of progeny produced by a female was 240 ± 28.51. The sex ratio (% females) of the resulting adults on hosts was 0.49. The functional response of A. calandrae was type II. The host stage preference by the parasitoid was investigated in two methods, choice and non-choice experiments. In the first condition, the parasitoid preferred the 4th larval instar to others, but in the second, it preferred both 4th larval instar and pupae. Adult longevity for both female and male parasitoids provided with honey solution (% 50), host larvae, host larvae and honey solution (%50), and finally without host larvae and honey solution was 49.00 ± 4.32 , 26.69 ± 1.98, 38.90 ± 3.52 and 5.66 ± 0.37 days for females and 10.64 ± 1.5, 6.85 ± 0.34, 8.41 ± 0.52 and 5.59 ± 0.28 days for males, respectively.
Comparative Effects of Neem or Mineral Oil on Maize Weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. And its Parasitoid, Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard)
Masood Khan Khattak,Alberto B. Broce,Barry Dover
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: Crude neem oil diluted in acetone was tested for its toxic effect on the reproductive ability of the S. zeamais and its parasitoid A. calandrae. Neem oil at 100, 1,000, and 10,000 ppm on corn kernels did not affect the survival of adult weevils. Although, the oviposition rate was greatly reduced with 1,000 and 10,000 ppm neem oil, the eggs hatching and the F1 progeny reproduced normally. Neem oil at all doses (100-10,000 ppm ) did not show any detectable effect on the biology of A. calandrae. However, at 10,000 ppm neem oil showed a significant effect on the reprodutive potential of the parasitoid as measured by adult emergence and normal reproduction by F1 progeny.
Intera??o entre Acarophenax lacunatus (Cross & Krantz) (Prostigmata: Acarophenacidae) e Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) sobre Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)
Gon?alves, José R.;Faroni, Lêda R.D'A.;Guedes, Raul N.C.;Oliveira, Carlos R.F. de;Garcia, Flávia M.;
Neotropical Entomology , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2006000600016
Abstract: the interaction between acarophenax lacunatus (cross & krantz) and anisopteromalus calandrae (howard) may be a promising tool for the integrated pest management of stored grain insect pests. the objective of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of these two natural enemies on rhyzopertha dominica (fabricius). the experimental units were petri dishes (140 x 10 mm) containing 30 g of whole wheat grains (13% water content) infested with 20 adults of r. dominica. the treatments consisted of inoculation of a. lacunatus and a. calandrae, separately and associated, in eight replicates. three inoculations of five adult females of the natural enemies were carried out in each petri dish at five, ten and fifteen days after the infestation of r. dominica. all treatments were stored during 60 days in environmental chamber at 30 ± 1°c, 60 ± 5% relative humidity and 24h scotophase. the smallest numbers of physogastric females of a. lacunatus and of adults of a. calandrae were obtained when the natural enemies were in association. the use of a. calandrae alone demonstrated a low instantaneous rate of increase (ri) of r. dominica and a high protection of the wheat grains. the association of a. calandrae with a. lacunatus led to the lowest number of immatures of r. dominica. these results demonstrate the importance of this interaction as a tool of for the integrated management of r. dominica in stored wheat grains.
Effect of Host Age and Photoperiod on the Parasitism by Trichogrammatoidea bactrae  [PDF]
Muhammad Faheem Malik
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: The experiment was conducted to determine the effect of host age and photoperiod on the parasitism of Trichogrammatoidea bactrae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Pink Bollworm (PBW, Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) eggs were used as host. The host eggs of different ages (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days old) were exposed to two pairs of the parasitoid (T. bactrae) at two light/dark regimes (complete light & complete darkness) with constant 75% relative humidity and 28 C temperature. It was observed that under the conditions of this test, maximum parasitization, > 90% by T. bactrae, was obtained when 1 or 2 days old host (PBW) eggs were held in complete light
Effect of Host and Parasitoid Density on Parasitism Efficiency of Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii)
Muhammad Siddiq Khan,Abid Farid,Farman Ullah,Hayat Badshah
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: Studies were carried out at Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture in July 2002 to find out the effect of different host and parasitoid density levels on the efficiency of Trichogramma chilonis. Eggs of Sitotroga cerealella were used as a host for Trichogramma chilonis. Four different host densities viz., 5, 10, 20 and 40 eggs were provided to single pair of Trichogramma chilonis. Percent parasitism was highest (48.25%) at 20 eggs/single pair, whereas percent emergence was highest (88.89%) from 5 eggs but all treatments were statistically similar. Female ratio was also highest at 5 eggs/female. The longevity was highest at 20 eggs/pair. So 20 eggs/pair were suggested for rearing at laboratory condition. For parasitoid density, four treatments e.g. 1, 2, 3 and 4 pairs of T. chilonis were compared against 50 eggs of Sitotroga cerealella. Parasitism percentage was highest at 4 pair of Trichogramma, which was 49.6%. Percent emergence and longevity remained similar among all the 4 treatments. Female ratio was highest at 3 pair (49.92%) therefore, 3 pair is suggested for about 50 eggs.
Parasitism and predation of the planthopper Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae) by a dryinid parasitoid in Costa Rica
Mora-Kepfer,Floria; Espinoza,Ana Mercedes;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2009,
Abstract: we analyzed the effect of predation and parasitism by the native dryinid haplogonatopus hernandezae as a natural enemy of the rice pest tagosodes orizicolus under controlled conditions in an insectary in costa rica. we found no change in the proportion of t. orizicolus nymphs that were fed upon, parasitized, and that showed no apparent damage throughout the adult stage in h. hernandezae, which favors a stable control of the pest. the percentage of t. orizicolus nymphs that were parasitized (37 %) and preyed upon (36.5 %) was similar, eliminating 73,5 % of the total nymphs causing damage to the rice plants (n = 1 099). of the total 324 parasitized nymphs, female nymphs were more parasitized than male nymphs (95 % and 5 % respectively) and dryinids developed more successfully in female host nymphs. these tendencies did not change with dryinid age. survival of dryinids was higher in female t. orizicolus, both for larvae that emerged from the host and pupated, and for pupae that moulted to adults. in cages where the nymphs had no contact with dryinids we found a higher amount of males than females (57.44 ± 28.5 vs 45.22 ± 25.85). in contrast, when the nymphs were in contact with dryinids, the sex ratio was two females to one male reaching adulthood since the dryinids fed more on male nymphs (n = 692). our results indicate that female dryinids prefer to oviposit in female t. orizicolus nymphs and prey on males. reproduction by parthenogenesis, acceleration of the development in an insectary with controlled conditions and eficiency of h. hernandezae as a parasitoid and predator indicate that this dryinid is an effective biological control agent of t. orizicolus. rev. biol. trop. 57 (suppl. 1): 203-211. epub 2009 november 30.
Parasitism and predation of the planthopper Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae) by a dryinid parasitoid in Costa Rica
Floria Mora-Kepfer,Ana Mercedes Espinoza
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2009,
Abstract: We analyzed the effect of predation and parasitism by the native dryinid Haplogonatopus hernandezae as a natural enemy of the rice pest Tagosodes orizicolus under controlled conditions in an insectary in Costa Rica. We found no change in the proportion of T. orizicolus nymphs that were fed upon, parasitized, and that showed no apparent damage throughout the adult stage in H. hernandezae, which favors a stable control of the pest. The percentage of T. orizicolus nymphs that were parasitized (37 %) and preyed upon (36.5 %) was similar, eliminating 73,5 % of the total nymphs causing damage to the rice plants (N = 1 099). Of the total 324 parasitized nymphs, female nymphs were more parasitized than male nymphs (95 % and 5 % respectively) and dryinids developed more successfully in female host nymphs. These tendencies did not change with dryinid age. Survival of dryinids was higher in female T. orizicolus, both for larvae that emerged from the host and pupated, and for pupae that moulted to adults. In cages where the nymphs had no contact with dryinids we found a higher amount of males than females (57.44 ± 28.5 vs 45.22 ± 25.85). In contrast, when the nymphs were in contact with dryinids, the sex ratio was two females to one male reaching adulthood since the dryinids fed more on male nymphs (N = 692). Our results indicate that female dryinids prefer to oviposit in female T. orizicolus nymphs and prey on males. Reproduction by parthenogenesis, acceleration of the development in an insectary with controlled conditions and eficiency of H. hernandezae as a parasitoid and predator indicate that this dryinid is an effective biological control agent of T. orizicolus. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1): 203-211. Epub 2009 November 30. En un insectario en condiciones controladas analizamos los efectos de depredación y parasitismo del dryinido Haplogonatopus hernandezae, enemigo natural del vector del virus de la hoja blanca Tagosodes orizicolus. Nuestros resultados indican que la proporción de depredación y parasitismo es estable a lo largo de la vida del dryinido lo cual favorece un control continuo eliminando 73% de la plaga (N = 1 099). De un total de 324 ninfas de T. orizicolus parasitadas, las hembras fueron más parasitadas que los machos y las larvas del dryinido se lograron desarrollar exitosamente a partir de ninfas hembra en contraste con las ninfas macho. Encontramos una mayor proporción de machos en comparación con las hembras en las jaulas de T. orizicolus en que las ninfas no tuvieron ningún contacto con hembras del dryinido (57.44 ± 28.5 vs. 45.22 ± 25.85)
Biological control of cultural heritage pest Coleoptera and Lepidoptera with the help of parasitoid Hymenoptera  [cached]
Matthias Sch?ller,Sabine Prozell
Journal of Entomological and Acarological Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/jear.2011.e19
Abstract: Natural enemies are known from many cultural heritage pests, but their potential for biological control has been marginally exploited only. In this publication, examples of practical and commercial application of parasitoids of beetles and moths are compiled as well as laboratory research that contributes to the development of guidelines for parasitoid releases. One the one hand there are parasitoids found to occur simultaneously with the pests in buildings, on the other hand there are parasitoids that were never found to be associated with the respective pests but accept them if brought into the cultural heritage environments. An example for the latter is the egg parasitoid Trichogramma evanescens euproctidis, a parasitoid of moth eggs including those of the cloth moth Tineola bisselliella. In semi-field trials it was shown that inundative releases of the egg parasitoids are necessary and that effectiveness is reduced on thick cloth with long strand. Trichogramma release units have to be placed directly on the cloth to be protected. A naturally occuring parasitoid of Anobiid beetles is the pteromalid larval parasitoid Lariophagus distinguendus. This parasitoid was applied against the drugstore beetle Stegobium paniceum in historic libraries and against spider beetles (Ptininae) in historic buildings. A simulation model for the population-dynamics of L. distinguendus and the golden spider beetle Niptus hololeucus is presented. Finally, monitoring of the Braconid larval parasitoid Spathius exarator used for indirect monitoring of the common furniture beetle Anobium punctatum is described. The future potential of parasitoids to control cultural heritage pests is discussed.
适度饥饿浅黄恩蚜小蜂对烟粉虱和温室白粉虱的寄生和取食选择
Effects of moderate food deprivation on parasitism and host feeding of parasitoid Encarsia sophia on whiteflies Bemisia tabaci Q and Trialeurodes vaporariorum
 [PDF]

王卓,刘林州,臧连生,戴鹏,刘显娇,阮长春,Wang Zhuo,Liu Linzhou,Zang Liansheng,Dai Peng,Liu Xianjiao,Ruan Changchun
- , 2018, DOI: 10.13802/j.cnki.zwbhxb.2018.2017020
Abstract: 为评价释放前经历饥饿对浅黄恩蚜小蜂Encarsia sophia(Girault&Dodd)寄生取食粉虱能力的影响,以3龄Q隐种烟粉虱Bemisia tabaci Q和温室白粉虱Trialeurodes vaporariorum若虫为寄主,在2种粉虱单独或同时存在的情况下,比较释放前经适度饥饿、初羽化未饥饿和初羽化喂饲蜂蜜水3种处理的浅黄恩蚜小蜂对2种粉虱寄主的寄生和取食选择情况。结果表明,在2种粉虱单独存在时,经适度饥饿6 h的浅黄恩蚜小蜂寄生的烟粉虱和温室白粉虱显著多于其它处理,而且能取食更多的温室白粉虱,经适度饥饿的寄生蜂在24 h内通过寄生和取食杀死烟粉虱和温室白粉虱的总量分别为12.5头和12.9头。在2种粉虱同时存在时,适度饥饿寄生蜂取食2种粉虱的总量明显高于其它处理,但不同处理间显著差异,适度饥饿寄生蜂通过寄生和取食杀死2种粉虱的数量最多为11.5头,显著高于未饥饿处理的6.5头。表明释放前经历适度饥饿可以明显提高浅黄恩蚜小蜂寄生和取食粉虱若虫的能力。
To evaluate the effects of moderate food deprivation on parasitism and host feeding of parasitoid Encarsia sophia (Girault & Dodd) on whitefly, the parasitism and host feeding capacities of E. sophia on third-instar nymphs of Bemisia tabaci Q and Trialeurodes vaporariorum were compared among the parasitoids that were starved, unstarved (newly-emerged) and fed with honey in a no-choice and a paired choice experiments. Under no-choice condition, E. sophia starved for 6 h significantly parasitized more nymphs of B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum than those of the other treatments. The starved females fed on more T. vaporariorum nymphs than those of the other treatments. The starved females killed total 12.5 nymphs of B. tabaci and 12.9 nymphs of T. vaporariorum through parasitism and host feeding in 24 h. Under the paired-choice condition, the starved females of E. sophia fed on more nymphs of B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum than those of the other treatments, but there were no differences in total mortality of two whitefly species caused by parasitism among three treatments. Generally, the starved females killed more hosts (11.5 nymphs) of B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum through parasitism and also feed on more host in 24 h than those which were unstarved (6.5 nymphs). The results indicated that by keeping E. sophia females starved for a certain period of time before release may kill more whitefly nymphs through parasitism and feeding.
A New Laboratory Host Record, Ephestia cautella Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) for an Egg-larval Parasitoid, Chelonus oculator Panzer (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and a Possible Rearing Method of the Parasitoid on the New Host  [PDF]
Cem Ozkan,Hilal Tunca
International Journal of Zoological Research , 2005,
Abstract: Host suitability of Ephestia cautella Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was tested for an egg-larval parasitoid, Chelonus oculator Panzer (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) at the laboratory conditions. Eggs of E. cautella were successfully parasitized by C. oculator and fertile offsprings were produced. Chelonus, in the experiment, eclosed from 80% of parasitized hosts. No significant difference was found between development times of male and female parasitoids. Average development of the parasitoid was completed in 43.91 and 44.31 days in males and females. These results showed that E. cautella was a new laboratory host for C. oculator. In addition, some biological characteristics and a possible rearing method of the parasitoid on the laboratory host were studied. All experiments were conducted at 25?1?C, 60-70% relative humidity, with a photoperiod of 16:8 h (L: D). C. oculator was able to parasitize young (0-24 h) and older stage (48-72 h) of E. cautella eggs and completed its development successfully. The reproduction of the parasitoid is arrhenotoky, in which male progeny develop parthenogenetically from unfertilized eggs and female progeny develop from fertilized eggs. The first possible rearing method of C. oculator on the new factitious host, E. cautella showed that the parasitoid was successfully reared in thirty generations. There has still been lack of important knowledge about biology of C. oculator. However, the parasitoid can be a candidate for future research as a biological control agent against some important lepidopteran pests and E. cautella may be a suitable laboratory host for mass rearing of C. oculator, a critical step in any field release program.
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