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Self-Esteem and Hopelessness, and Resiliency: An Exploratory Study of Adolescents in Turkey  [cached]
Zeynep Karatas,Firdevs Savi Cakar
International Education Studies , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ies.v4n4p84
Abstract: Adolescence is a time of rapid development and change. In this developmental period, adolescents have to struggle with a large number of stress factors. In this process resilience is important to have as an adaptive, stress-resistant personal quality. The recent research considers that numerous factors contribute to resilience in adolescents; the internal characteristics associated with resilience include such as self-esteem, self-efficacy, perseverance, internal locus of control, coping and adaptation skills. The purpose of this study is to explore self-esteem and hopelessness as the predictor of resiliency of adolescents. The participants in this study are 223 high school school students (90 females and 133 males). Main instruments are Beck Hopelessness Scale, California Healthy Kids Survey Resilience-Youth Development Module High School Questionnaire and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Scale. The data has been analyzed by regression analysis. The findings showed that self-esteem and hopelessness is a significant predictor of resilience in adolescents. There was a positive relationship between self-esteem and resilience, but there was a negative relationship between hopelessness and resilience. In accordance with the results obtained from this study, there is a correlation between adolescents’ self-esteem, hopelessness and resilience levels. Finally, findings warrant further investigation of the interaction effects of self esteem and hopelessness on resilience.
Prediction of Resilience of Adolescents Whose Parents Are Divorced  [PDF]
Yunus Altunda?, Sefa Bulut
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.510134

The purpose of this study is to examine the predictive effect of life satisfaction and loneliness level of adolescents with divorced parents on resilience. The study has been carried out on 144 adolescents, 75 of whom are female and 69 are male, and whose parents are officially divorced. The study group consisted of students who are attending different types of high schools in the city of Bolu central districts. Loneliness Scale, Life Satisfaction Scale and Adolescents Resilience Scales were utilized in the data collection process. Pearson Moment Correlation and Multiple Regression analyses were used in data analysis. The results revealed that, while there was a positive relationship between resilience and life satisfaction, a strong negative relationship was found between their resilience and loneliness level of the adolescents whose parents are divorced. Regression analysis revealed that, while loneliness was a significant predictor on resilience, life satisfaction was not a significant predictor of resilience. The findings of this research were discussed within the scope of the related literature.

The appraisal and enhancement of resilience modalities in middle adolescents within the school context  [cached]
Lenette Kruger,Heila Prinsloo
South African Journal of Education , 2008,
Abstract: Middle adolescents are exposed to environments riddled with potential adversities which pervade their lives, adding to the challenges inherent in their developmental stage. They spend a significant time in school and therefore it is an appropriate context to foster, enhance, and develop emotional, social, and cognitive resilience competencies. There are limited psychological assessment instruments for the South African population that can be used to appraise the level of resilience modalities in middle adolescents. Our aim was to describe and explore the process of appraising, developing, and enhancing the modalities of resilience through the newly developed Resilience Enhancement Kit and the Resiliency Scale. The research was conducted from a combined qualitative and quantitative approach. The results indicated that there was an increase in the level of resilient functioning after administration of the Resilience Enhancement Kit and it therefore appeared to be successful in enhancing resilience modalities. The Resilience Enhancement Kit and Resiliency Scale could be administered by educational psychologists and teachers to assess and enhance resilience modalities and could be incorporated into the school curriculum.
Critique of an intervention programme to promote resilience among learners with specific learning difficulties
Linda Theron
South African Journal of Education , 2006,
Abstract: A quasi-experimental study, which focused on inculcating resilience skills in adolescents with specific learning difficulties by means of a group intervention programme, is reported on. The results of the study suggested that adolescents with specific learning difficulties can acquire resilience skills despite obstacle-ridden circumstances, but that the programme requires continued research to be optimally effective. South African Journal of Education Vol. 26(2) 2006: 199–214
Research into the Empathic Skills and the Anxiety Level of Adolescents
A. K. Akyol
Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: In this research, it was aimed to determine the empathic skills and the anxiety levels of adolescents and to find out whether gender caused differences in empathic skills and anxiety levels. A total of 388 adolescents attending second-year at high schools participated in the study. A "General Information Form" was used to obtain some information about the adolescents, the Empathetic Skills Scale-Form B was used to determine their empathic skills and the "State and Trait Anxiety Inventory" was used to assess their anxiety level. The data were tested analyzed by means of SPSS. The findings were tested by a t-test for independent samples and Pearson Correlation Coefficients. Statistical differences were set at p< 0.05. The results revealed that there is a significant differences in the trait anxiety levels of adolescents by gender (p< 0.05), however; there is no significant differences among gender and empathic skills and the state anxiety levels of adolescents (p>0.05). Additionally, the research was, also, cited that there is no meaningful correlation among the empathic skills and the state and trait anxiety levels of adolescents.
The Relationship between Personality Traits and Psychological Resilience among the Caribbean Adolescents  [cached]
Grace Adebisi Fayombo
International Journal of Psychological Studies , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ijps.v2n2p105
Abstract: This cross-sectional study investigated the relationships between the big five personality traits: (conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness to experience, extraversion) and psychological resilience among 397 Caribbean secondary school adolescents. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Stepwise Multiple Regressions were conducted to analyse the data. Results revealed statistically significant positive relationships between the personality traits (conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness to experience, extraversion) and psychological resilience, while neuroticism was negatively correlated with psychological resilience. The personality traits also jointly contributed 32% (R square = 0.324) of the variance being accounted for in psychological resilience and this was found to be statistically significant with conscientiousness being the best predictor while agreeableness, neuroticism and openness to experience were other significant predictors, however, extraversion did not contribute significantly. These results are discussed in the light of healthy personality beefing up and promoting adolescents’ psychological resilience.
Psychological Well-Being and Self-Efficacy in Life Skills among Italian Preadolescents with Positive Body Esteem: Preliminary Results of an Intervention Project  [PDF]
Elisabetta Sagone, Maria Elvira De Caroli, Maria Luisa Indiana, Salvatore Luciano Orazio Fichera
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2018.96084
Abstract: The main purpose of this project will be to increase the psychological well-being, self-efficacy in life skills, and body esteem in a group of Italian preadolescents who will participate in the life skills training. This project will be divided into three phases consisting of a verification of the changes that will take place following the realization of laboratory activities useful to enhance the psychological well-being of students in the scholastic context. For the first phase, an exploratory analysis of the main life skills, psychological well-being and body esteem levels was carried out with 49 participants aged 12 to 14 years recruited from three classes of a Public Junior School in Catania (Sicily, Italy). We used the Comprehensive Inventory of Thriving-CIT (Andolfi et al., 2017), the Perceived Self-efficacy Scales in Life Skills (Sagone & Indiana, 2017), and the Body Esteem Scale (Confalonieri et al., 2008). Results showed positive correlations between perceived self-efficacy in life skills and almost all factors of psychological well-being, as well as positive correlations between perceived self-efficacy in life skills and body esteem; in detail, the weight satisfaction was mainly related with self-efficacy in managing of negative emotions and poorly with self-efficacy in interpersonal communication; in addition, the external evaluation from the others regarding own body image was positively correlated with self-efficacy in managing of positive emotions. In the intermediate phase, these preadolescents will attend the specific training about the life skills during the school time in order to increase these abilities and enhance well-being at school. At the third phase, we will compare the final results with the initial ones to verify the efficacy of the abovementioned training. This project will be useful to deep the role of life skills as mediators between psychological well-being and self-esteem.
An exploratory study on the utilisation of resilience by middle adolescents in reconstituted families following divorce
Suzette Ebersohn,Cecilia Bouwer
South African Journal of Education , 2013,
Abstract: Every year thousands of core families disintegrate through divorce, and in the ensuing restructuring of the family system the child has to cope with various development challenges, such as divided membership of two micro family systems and complexities that result at the mesosystemic level. Achieving positive development outcomes in the presence of challenging living circumstances entails complex interactive processes. The aim of the study was to understand the concomitant, reciprocal and/or responsive dynamics of middle adolescents' use of their inherent resilience potential in their movement back and forth between their two reconstituted family systems after the parents' divorce. The study was grounded in the qualitative interpretivist paradigm, and used a multiple case study as research design and a narrative format for description. A purposive sample of four white Afrikaans-speaking middle adolescents participated in the research. Findings revealed that middle adolescents of divorced parents utilise their resilience potential in a systemic manner, which requires a solid base provided by the meso system. Hence the utilisation of resilience relies at the very minimum on a functional relationship of cooperation between the biological parents.
Development of a multi-dimensional measure of resilience in adolescents: the Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire
Deirdre Gartland, Lyndal Bond, Craig A Olsson, Simone Buzwell, Susan M Sawyer
BMC Medical Research Methodology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-11-134
Abstract: Extensive literature review and focus groups with young people living with chronic illness informed the conceptual development of scales and items. Two sequential rounds of factor and scale analyses were undertaken to revise the conceptually developed scales using data collected from young people living with a chronic illness and a general population sample.The revised Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire comprises 93 items and 12 scales measuring resilience factors in the domains of self, family, peer, school and community. All scales have acceptable alpha coefficients. Revised scales closely reflect conceptually developed scales.It is proposed that, with further psychometric testing, this new measure of resilience will provide researchers and clinicians with a comprehensive and developmentally appropriate instrument to measure a young person's capacity to achieve positive outcomes despite life stressors.Resilience has been variously defined as positive developmental outcomes in the face of adversity or stress [1,2]; being relatively resistant to psychosocial risk experiences [3], successful adaptation or the development of competence despite high-risk status or chronic stress [4] and the capacity of dynamic systems to withstand or recover from significant disturbances [5]. While differing in terminology, such definitions describe the two common factors necessary for defining resilience; firstly the experience of adversity or stress, and secondly, the achievement of positive outcomes. While resilience research continues to grow, there have been few attempts to integrate current knowledge into measurement tools. In this paper, the development and pilot testing of a comprehensive and theoretically based measure of resilience for adolescents is detailed.Early research identified resilience as a characteristic of the individual [6], and considered resilient children to be exceptional individuals, unique in their ability to prevail against the odds. Current research now
The Dialogue and the Relationship with Parents and Friends: A Research on Italian Adolescents’ Representations  [PDF]
Giulia Savarese
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.74066

The goal was to understand what representations Italian adolescents have about the dialogue and the relationship with their parents and with the peer group, as well as to evaluate any differences. We interviewed 400 Italian adolescents, 200 males and 200 females, aged between 14 and 19 years. The instruments used were an ad hoc questionnaire and a free story. The results show significant differences in the communicative/relational support by parents and by the peer group, especially in relation to the confidences of their personal problems, the choice autonomy and the behaviors that encourage independence.

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