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Currently Married Women with an Unmet Need for Contraception in Minia Governorate, Egypt: Profile and Determinants  [PDF]
Ebtesam Esmail Hassan, Eman Ramadan Ghazawy, Naglaa Mohammed Amein
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2017.711018
Abstract:
Background: Understanding the magnitude of unmet contraceptive need and the underlying determinants will help the programs and services to respond effectively. Aim: Identify the prevalence and determinants of unmet contraceptive need among married women in the childbearing period in Minia Governorate. Methods: Community-based cross-sectional study was done among married women of child bearing age (18 - 49 years). Total 534 study participants were selected randomly and interviewed by using pretested structured questionnaire. Results: Overall level of unmet need was 12.7%. Women age > 35 years old were about three times (adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI: 1.13 - 7.35) more likely to have unmet need for family planning compared to younger women. Women who had more children (adjusted OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.04 - 1.67), more female offspring (adjusted OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.09 - 1.65), and women whose partner had non-supportive attitude towards family planning (adjusted OR = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.53 - 5.72) were more likely to have unmet need. Conclusion: The prevalence of unmet need of family planning among women in Minia Governorate remains high. Therefore, family planning programs that cover the older woman’s need for limiting and that focus on couples could be useful in reducing the rate of unmet need.
Prevalence and predisposing factors regarding intestinal parasitic infections among rural primary school pupils at Minia Governorate, Egypt  [cached]
Fatma A.A. Ibrahium
Journal of Public Health in Africa , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/jphia.2011.e29
Abstract: About 400 million school-age children are infected with roundworm, whipworm and hookworm worldwide. This study aims to assess prevalence of parasitic infections among rural primary school pupils at Minia Governorate, Egypt, and to identify relevant predisposing factors of the school and pupils to intestinal parasitic infections. A total of 264 pupils out of 1053, aged 6-12 years, were randomly selected for parasitological investigation and the school was inspected on site for sanitary facilities and conditions of hygiene, as well as the conditions of hygiene of the pupils. The pupils were examined for ova, cysts and/or larvae of intestinal parasites using direct wet mount and formal-ether concentration techniques. Inspection of sanitary facilities and the conditions of hygiene of the school, as well pupil's conditions of hygiene, were carried out through observation checklists. Findings revealed the following intestinal parasites: Entamoeba coli (in 19.3% of pupils), Ascaris lumbricoides (3.8%), Hymenolepiasis nana (12.5%), Enterobious vermicularis (5.7%) and Giardia lamblia (12.5%), with varying percentages between male and female pupils, and a highly statistical association between pupil sex and type of parasites (P<0.001). Unapproved sanitary facilities and conditions of hygiene of the school and pupils were observed. Many intestinal parasitic infections among the primary school pupils were found. Unapproved and low inventory school sanitary facilities were observed, in addition to poor conditions of hygiene of pupils which may play a crucial role in these infections. The school facilities and sanitary conditions, especially the quality of water in the toilets, should be improved. Pupils and school personnel have a real need for health education about modes of transmission and preventive methods of intestinal parasitic infections.
Groundwater Management at West El-Minia Desert Area, Egypt Using Numerical Modeling  [PDF]
Ahmed A. Abdel Moneim, José Paulino Fernández-álvarez, Elsayed M. Abu El Ella, Ahmed M. Masoud
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2016.47008
Abstract: Water shortage is the main problem facing any development in Egypt especially in the desert lands. River Nile is considered the main source of water in Egypt but its water covers only the area of flood plain where its tributaries do not reach to the desert. The desert fringes, west of El-Minia governorate, Egypt, are areas of natural expansion for agricultural, industrial, and civil activities. This implies an increasing demand for groundwater. A numerical groundwater model is one of the main tools used for assessment of the resource potential and prediction of future impact under different circumstances and stresses. In this paper, a transient groundwater flow model in the desert district west of El-Minia, Egypt, was developed. The conceptual model was built by analyzing the hydrogeological data and previous work. Steady state model of year 1990 was used to investigate and calibrate the parameters such as hydraulic conductivities, recharge and conductance of the surface water streams. The storage coefficients are calibrated by the transient model based on the available data observed from 1990 to 2013, which provides insights to understand the behavior of groundwater system in Quaternary Aquifer and to predict spatial-temporal distributions of groundwater levels and groundwater flow in responding to extraction of water. The calibrated transient model will be used to predict the impacts of desert development schemes and water resources management schemes on groundwater in the study area.
Numerical Calculation of Geoelectric Fields That Affect Critical Infrastructure  [PDF]
David H. Boteler, Risto J. Pirjola
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2019.1010053
Abstract: One of the modern applications of geomagnetism is determining the effect of geomagnetic disturbances on critical infrastructure such as power systems and pipelines. Assessing the geomagnetic hazard to such systems requires calculation of the geoelectric fields produced during geomagnetic disturbances. Such geoelectric fields can then be used as input to system models to calculate the impact on the system. This paper describes what is involved in calculating the geoelectric fields produced during real geomagnetic disturbances. The theory of geomagnetic induction is presented and used to derive the Earth transfer function relating the geoelectric and geomagnetic field variations at the Earth’s surface. It is then shown how this can be used to make practical calculations of the geoelectric fields and how the calculation process can be verified by comparison with analytic solutions obtained with synthetic geomagnetic variation data. The accuracy of the calculated geoelectric fields for geomagnetic risk assessments is limited, not by the accuracy of the calculation methods, but by the availability of geomagnetic field measurements and Earth conductivity information over the whole extent of the affected infrastructure.
Maps of geoelectric sections of Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Korea, and Japan
Y. B. Bashkuev, V. R. Advokatov, L. K. Angarkhaeva, V. S. Dorzhiev,M. Hayakawa
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2008,
Abstract: Results of geoelectric mapping of some Asian countries with high seismic activity are presented. The methodology of the geoelectric mapping is considered, and the corresponding maps of geoelectric sections of Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Korea, and Japan are constructed on a scale of 1:5 000 000.
Effect of Soil Texture on Remediation of Hydrocarbons-Contaminated Soil at El-Minia District, Upper Egypt  [PDF]
Th. Abdel-Moghny,Ramadan S. A. Mohamed,E. El-Sayed,Shoukry Mohammed Aly,Moustafa Gamal Snousy
ISRN Chemical Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/406598
Abstract: Soils polluted by waste lubricant oils may affect the hydrosphere compromising the quality of drinking water resources and threatening the aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study focused to remove waste-lubricant oils from different polluted sites in El-Minia governorate. In this respect some samples were collected from four different industrial sites and identified as sand, loamy sand, clay loam and loam. Then the field conditions were simulates using two experimental models packed with contaminated soil. The remediation processes carried out in both models using surfactant enhanced by air injection then by water washing. The parameters such as soil type, soil heterogeneity, time and washing process was investigated. The results indicated that the high efficiency of oil removal is obtained from sand where the clay loam gives the worst results. The results also reveal that, the high flushing and washing duration time can be attributed to the high percentage of mud in some sites over other sites. This means that the performance of surfactant flushing/water washing can be adversely affected by geologic heterogeneity. Finally, it’s suitable to use pressurized liquid technologies in heterogeneous media, but cleanup times will be longer and more difficult than for the other similar homogeneous media. 1. Introduction Throughout the world, subsurface contamination has become a widespread and pervasive problem. A major problem in the soil or groundwater remediation is the removal of hydrophobic organic compounds. Nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) usually enter the unsaturated zone as discrete liquid phases, which move due to gravitational and capillary forces [1]. They frequently enter groundwater systems after they have been spilled on the surface and pass through the unsaturated zone (Figure 1). The major organic chemical waste categories include organic aqueous waste (e.g., pesticides), organic liquids (e.g., chlorinated solvents), oils (e.g., different fuels and fuel additives), and sludges or solids containing organic compounds. The most common local source of soil and water contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons are industrial plants, land disposal sites of danger residues, petrol stations, car service stations, and vehicle accidents. The total petroleum hydrocarbons include saturated alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, fuel oxygenated additives (e.g., methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE), ethanol, butanol), and other compounds containing sulfur or nitrogen. These compounds are harmful or even toxic to the growth and development of plants and animals, being a
Application of temperature correction in systems of geoelectric control of geodynamic objects  [PDF]
A.V. Tsaplev
Algoritmy, Metody i Sistemy Obrabotki Dannyh , 2012,
Abstract: The algorithm geoelectric sounding data processing, allowing to reduce influence of temperature hindrances on results of measurement.
Coccidiosis in domesticated ducks in Ninevah governorate  [PDF]
D. A. Abdulla
Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: This study was conducted to detect the intestinal coccidial types in 80 fecal samples of domesticated ducks in differentparts of Ninevah governorate. During the period from October 2007 to June 2008. Flotation method was employed fordetection. The results revealed that the total incidence of the genus Eimeria and genus Tyzzeria was 63.75%. Two species ofthe genus Eimeria and Tyzzeria were detected, namely E.anatis and E.butlakhi with a percentage of 17.5 % and 10 %respectively, while T.anseris and T.perniciosa were found in 25 % and 11.25% respectively. This study is regarded the firststudy in detection of these species in duck in Ninevah governorate.
Men’s Perception of Domestic Violence, Rural Minia, Egypt  [PDF]
Ebtesam Esmail Hassan, Amany Edward Seedhom, Eman Mohamed Mahfouz
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2016.62009
Abstract: Background: Domestic violence is an important prevalent, yet hidden and ignored health concern with significant impact on women’s health and wellbeing. This research was guided by the belief that men could play a role in preventing domestic violence as the majority of domestic violence is perpetrated by men. Aim: To assess attitudes of men towards domestic violence and factors affecting violence supportive attitude. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study conducted in a rural area, Minia District, 2015. A systematic random sample was used. An interview-administered questionnaire was used including questions related to violence supportive environments, and opinion of men of causes and existence of domestic violence within families. Gender equity score (GES) was applied. Results: A total of 440 males participated. 57.3% of the participants reported that domestic violence was sometimes justified and needed in certain cases, and nearly two third (69%) of them practiced violence against their wives mostly in the form of physical one (64%). Small proportion of males reported high support for gender equity (7%). The study identified reasons for domestic violence, as perceived by men: The commonest was marital disputes (48.9%), followed by financial problems (36.4%) and social and economic disparity between the spouses (12.7%). Regarding the effect of violence on families, 30.9% of males reported that it led to lack of proper education. Conclusion and Recommendations: There is a tendency to describe this community as abusive. There is a need for development of relevant and culturally sensitive domestic violence education/prevention program in rural Egypt.
Water loss in Mafraq Governorate, Jordan  [PDF]
Nadhir Al-Ansari, Salem Al-Oun, Wafa Hadad, Sven Knutsson
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.53046
Abstract:

Jordan is located in theMiddle Eastand covers an area of89,342 km2. The total population ofJordanis 6,508,271.Jordanis rapidly facing a severe water supply crisis due to greater demands on a finite quantity of available water. If current trends continue, it has been estimated that the country will experience a chronic water shortage by 2020. Despite these shortages, water loss in the distribution network is relatively high where it reaches 46%. Mafraq Governorate has the maximum water loss. Continuous records and data for the period 1999-2004 for Mafraq water authority were investigated for the water supply and lose. Water losses were evaluated, and suggestions were given to minimize the loss.

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