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Representations in problem solving in science: Directions for practice  [cached]
Joan Josep SOLAZ-PORTOLéS,Vicent Sanjosé LOPEZ
Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching , 2007,
Abstract: In this paper we focus on some of the findings of the science education research community in the area of representations and problem solving. Problem solving depends on the construction and manipulation of mental models (internal representations) in the mind. A large knowledge base (declarative, procedural, strategic, situational, and schematic knowledge), working memory capacity, and metacognitive skills play an important role in the construction and manipulation of mental models, and therefore in problem solving. In this point, applications of research for classroom practice is considered. Finally, external representations are discussed. Using multiple representations when solving problems is beneficial for students, representational formats of problems affect student performance, and the utilization of representational learning strategies can lead to substantial improvements in problem solving.
Review on the Research for Addition and Subtraction Word Problem Solving
加减文字题解决研究概述

Zhou Xinlin,Zhang Meiling,
周新林
,张梅玲

心理科学进展 , 2003,
Abstract: Addition and subtraction word problems refer to a type of mathematical word problems that can be solved by applying addition and subtraction. They can be mainly classified into three categories: combine, change and compare. There are four types of methods to investigate the mental processes: solving problem, recalling and constructing problems, building simulation model of computer, and recording eye-movement. Previous research found that the mental processes could be significantly affected by these factors: semantic type, age, phrase and sentence, narrating format, context personalization, the structure of problem text, number size, the type of unknown set and strategies to solve problems. Researchers mainly proposed two theoretical explanations for the mental processes: mathematical knowledge applying model and language comprehension model .
The feasibility of using conversational agent technology to improve problem-solving and coping skills of young adults with cancer  [cached]
von Friederichs-Fitzwater M,Meyers FJ
Clinical Oncology in Adolescents and Young Adults , 2011,
Abstract: Marlene M von Friederichs-Fitzwater1, Frederick J Meyers21Division of Hematology/Oncology, Internal Medicine, 2School of Medicine, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA, USAObjective: Young adults with cancer have unique psychosocial needs and often lack the problem-solving and coping skills for effective resolution. We conducted a study to clarify these needs and then developed and tested an educational intervention to coach young adults with cancer in problem-solving and coping skills using a new conversational agent technology that uses a multi-media format to simulate face-to-face encounters.Methods: We qualitatively assessed online focus groups and chat rooms with 45 young adults with cancer and used the results to develop and test an online 15-minute educational prototype using a new conversational agent technology with 49 young adults (18–35 years of age) with cancer.Results: Young adults with cancer are most concerned about reproductive issues, emotional issues, communicating with healthcare providers, and the risks and benefits of treatments. The study participants found the I-COPE prototype to be useful, easy to use, and worth recommending to others. They wanted to have more video segments about the experiences of other young adults with cancer; more video segments of actual procedures and treatments; more Internet links to information and resources; and more opportunities to interact with the conversational agent.Conclusion: New conversational agent technology is useful in coaching problem-solving and coping skills to empower young adults with cancer.Practice implications: New conversational agent technology is a useful tool in patient education and skill development, particularly among young adults.Keywords: young adult cancer patients, conversational agent technology, problem-solving, coping, self-efficacy, survivorship
The feasibility of using conversational agent technology to improve problem-solving and coping skills of young adults with cancer
von Friederichs-Fitzwater M, Meyers FJ
Clinical Oncology in Adolescents and Young Adults , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COAYA.S15940
Abstract: sibility of using conversational agent technology to improve problem-solving and coping skills of young adults with cancer Original Research (1386) Total Article Views Authors: von Friederichs-Fitzwater M, Meyers FJ Published Date April 2011 Volume 2011:1 Pages 1 - 8 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COAYA.S15940 Marlene M von Friederichs-Fitzwater1, Frederick J Meyers2 1Division of Hematology/Oncology, Internal Medicine, 2School of Medicine, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA, USA Objective: Young adults with cancer have unique psychosocial needs and often lack the problem-solving and coping skills for effective resolution. We conducted a study to clarify these needs and then developed and tested an educational intervention to coach young adults with cancer in problem-solving and coping skills using a new conversational agent technology that uses a multi-media format to simulate face-to-face encounters. Methods: We qualitatively assessed online focus groups and chat rooms with 45 young adults with cancer and used the results to develop and test an online 15-minute educational prototype using a new conversational agent technology with 49 young adults (18–35 years of age) with cancer. Results: Young adults with cancer are most concerned about reproductive issues, emotional issues, communicating with healthcare providers, and the risks and benefits of treatments. The study participants found the I-COPE prototype to be useful, easy to use, and worth recommending to others. They wanted to have more video segments about the experiences of other young adults with cancer; more video segments of actual procedures and treatments; more Internet links to information and resources; and more opportunities to interact with the conversational agent. Conclusion: New conversational agent technology is useful in coaching problem-solving and coping skills to empower young adults with cancer. Practice implications: New conversational agent technology is a useful tool in patient education and skill development, particularly among young adults.
Patterns of multiple representation use by experts and novices during physics problem solving
Patrick B. Kohl,Noah D. Finkelstein
Physical Review Special Topics. Physics Education Research , 2008,
Abstract: It is generally believed that students should use multiple representations in solving certain physics problems, and earlier work in PER has begun to outline how experts and novices differ in their use of multiple representations. In this study, we build on this foundation by interviewing expert and novice physicists as they solve two types of multiple representation problems: those in which multiple representations are provided for them and those in which the students must construct their own representations. We analyze in detail the types of representations subjects use and the order and manner in which they are used. Expert and novice representation use is surprisingly similar in some ways, especially in that both experts and novices make significant use of multiple representations. Some significant differences also emerge. Experts are more flexible in terms of starting point and move between the available representations more quickly, and novices tend to move between more representations in total. In addition, we find that an examination of how often and when multiple representations are used is inadequate to fully characterize a problem-solving episode; one must also consider the purpose behind the use of the available representations. This analysis of how experts and novices use representations sharpens the differences between the two groups, demonstrates analysis techniques that may be useful in future work, and suggests possible paths for instruction.
VISUAL-SPATIAL REPRESENTATIONS AND MATHEMATICAL PROBLEM SOLVING AMONG MATHEMATICAL LEARNING DISABILITIES
数学学习不良儿童视觉-空间表征与数学问题解决

Yu Guoliang,
俞国良
,曾盼盼

心理学报 , 2003,
Abstract: By using clinical interview, this study investigated mathematical problem solvin g,visual-spatial representations, and spatial visualization ability among 30 children with learning disabilities(MD) and 31 children without MD. The results showed that: Schematic representations promote mathematical problem solving succ ess, but pictorial representations may present an obstacle to mathematical probl em solving. The correlations of spatial visualization ability with mathematical problem solving and with use of schematic representations were positive and sign ificant. The correlations between spatial visualization ability and use of picto rial imagery were negative and significant. Children with MD performed poorer th an those without MD on mathematical problem solving and use of schematic represe ntations. The extent of use of pictorial representations by children with MD was significantly higher than that of those without mathematical learning disab ilities. Both children with MD and without MD performed better and better on mat hematical problem solving and use of schematic representations with the progress of the grade. However, use of pictorial representations declined with the progr ess of the grade among children without MD, but children with MD didn't show the same trend. Spatial visualization ability of both children with MD and without MD improved with the progress of the grade.
The art and science of problem solving
Vidal,René Victor Valqui;
Investiga??o Operacional , 2005,
Abstract: in this paper we will document that real-life problem solving in complex situations demands both rational (scientific) and intuitive (artistic) thinking. first, the concepts of art and science will be discussed; differences and similarities will be enhanced. thereafter the concept of group problem solving facilitation both as science and art will be presented. a case study related to examination?s planning will be discussed to illustrate the main concepts in practice. in addition, other cases studies will also be shortly presented.
Research on problem solving in science  [PDF]
Zulma Gangoso
Investiga??es em Ensino de Ciências , 1999,
Abstract: Based an in depth bibliographical study, problem solving in science is focused from the point of view of the underlying psychological theories and of explaining factors – such as the nature of the task, the problem solver, and the context – aiming at supporting additional research on this field. A brief presentation of Gowin’s Vee is included as a heuristic tool to critically analyse research studies.
Effect of Family Problem-Solving on Marital Satisfaction  [PDF]
Khodabakhsh Ahmadi,S. Mahdi Nabipoor Ashrafi,S. Ali Kimiaee,Mohammad Hassan Afzali
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: This research aimed to study the effects of family problem-solving on decreasing the couple's dissatisfaction. Four hundred and fifty couples were randomly selected from residents of Tehran. First, all subjects completed the ENRICH and the problem-solving questionnaire. Then, 80 couples of the most maladjusted ones, were selected and randomly divided into the experimental and control groups. The Family problem-solving method was performed for the experimental group for 15 h (II sessions). Finally, the marital satisfaction of both groups was measured again. Data was analyzed by t-test for independent groups. Results showed that the intervention (family problem-solving) decreases marital dissatisfaction in terms of following dimensions: marital communication, conflict resolution, sexual relationship, personality issues and communications with family and friends. Based on these results, FPS can be introduced as an effective method in reducing marital dissatisfaction. Furthermore, as the couple’s communication forms during engagement and the first years of marriage, an attempt to improve communication in this period seems necessary. Also, as FPS is the most appropriate method for improving communication; it should be taught to young couples to help them reduce their problems and to produce appropriate communication.
Mental representations and problem solving: an exploratory study  [PDF]
Maria Rita Otero,C. Papini,I. Elichiribehety
Investiga??es em Ensino de Ciências , 1998,
Abstract: Based on frameworks that propose the contextualization of science education centered in the science/technology/ society relationships, and on the belief that the teacher has a fundamental role on the curriculum innovation processes, this paper describes and analyses different elements of the pedagogical practice of teachers of the city of Campinas/SP, in the perspective of outlining an overview regarding the already existing biology and technology relationship. It focuses in a detailed way the conceptions of the relationships between biology and technology present in the instructional materials used or produced by teachers, describing and discussing the wide range spectrum of identified possibilities. It also emphasizes the approaches to biology and technology relationships identified by interviewing the teachers, being them similar or not to those found in the instructional materials. Indicators of the existence of a problematic theory and practice association, in which the theoretical elements (science) are hierarchically superior to the practical elements (technology), were detected. This kind of association should constitute a focus of attention in the construction of innovative proposals for the biology curriculum, since science classroom discussions regarding technology – in their ethical, aesthetical, epistemological, and marketing aspects – represent an important path to dimension the biological knowledge in the capitalist contemporary society.
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