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Animal Traction: an Underused Low External Input Technology among Farming Communities in Kaduna State, Nigeria
Adunni Sanni, S.
Tropicultura , 2008,
Abstract: In spite of the slow rate of adoption of animal traction (AT) technology in West Africa, the potential benefit of the technology, in terms of increase in hectares cultivated and the reduction in drudgery has been a subject of discussion by researchers. This paper uses a linear programming and binary choice probit model to analyze the benefits and constraints to AT technologies taking into consideration socio-economic and institutional factors and perception variables. One hundred and twenty households from Maigana and Yakawada villages in Kaduna State were enumerated by a simple random sampling technique using both structured and unstructured interview procedures. The result revealed considerable under-exploitation of AT technology in the study location. The partial use of AT technology for tillage operation only increased gross margin by 32% and labor bottlenecks experienced in the peak of the season can be reduced by 43%. However, the increase in gross margin is over 78% when the full AT technology package is used. The general trend in the models showed that by adopting the complete package of the technology, the full potential could be exploited. The size of family labor force substantially influenced the adoption behavior of the household while the selected perception variables were quite useful in explaining household's perception of the technology. Conversely, the use of tractors showed a highly significant but negative relationship with the adoption of AT technology. Households' managerial know how, financial constraint and the family labor capacity limits the benefits derived from the technology. These results suggest that farm mechanization using complete AT package is a viable panacea for agricultural intensification and increased productivity among the smallholders in the northern guinea savanna ecology of Nigeria. The paper concludes with pragmatic steps of how the identified constraints can be eliminated to sustain holistic adoption of AT technology and exploit its full potential benefits.
Households Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Variability Induced Water Stress on Downstream Kaduna River Basin  [PDF]
Okafor G. Chinwendu, S. O. E. Sadiku, A. O. Okhimamhe, J. Eichie
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2017.62013
Abstract: Water stress is one of the risks emanating from worsening climatic variations. It poses serious threats on vulnerable continents, people and livelihoods globally. However, little information is available on how the specific climate threat is impacting people’s livelihoods and water resources on different temporal and spatial scales in Nigeria basins. This study aimed at investigating household vulnerability and adaptation to water stress induced by climate variability on a downstream Kaduna River basin with the goal of supporting/facilitating climate change adaptation. The research analyzed hydro-climatic data and employed vulnerability-based framework consistent with stakeholders’ participatory approach, within the context of current climate conditions experienced, and/or water stress conditions already affecting household livelihoods in six communities at three study sites; Shiroro, Gbako and Lavun, and adaptive strategies engaged to deal with water stress. Findings revealed that households have been exposed and experienced changes in water availability through variations in rainfall, temperature and runoff. Consequently, these changes have impacted on food production and livelihoods. Households have individually and collectively employed adaptation techniques which are reactive, short-term indigenous coping strategies usually adopted during periods of stress to minimize water-related vulnerabilities. The study demonstrated how an understanding of the local household vulnerabilities will enable the recognition of early indicators of water stress in addition to the occurrence of extreme events. Overall, households’ vulnerability decreased from one village to another due to differences in sensitivity to stress, access to resources and local institutional capacity. Resilience of households can be increased through early warning system during flood events, providing access to water from rainwater harvesting techniques, and integration of climate change adaptation into policies regarding development initiatives especially in the area of agriculture.
Determinants of Nutritional Status of Preschool Children from Rural Households in Kaduna and Kano States, Nigeria
Ifeanyi A. Ojiako,Victor M. Manyong,Anthony E. Ikpi
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2009,
Abstract: The study evaluated the nutritional status of preschool children; identified the influencing factors and estimated the degree of responsiveness of nutritional status index to changes in causal variables. Conducted in five villages selected from Kaduna and Kano States of northern Nigeria, the study used data from selected rural households and anthropometric measurements of preschool children resident therein. Household data were collected using structured questionnaire administered by trained enumerators. The relevant software was used to calculate nutritional status indexes while a two-limit tobit regression analysis, in which the long-term index of height-for-age entered as a dependent variable, was conducted to assess the influence of the explanatory variables on nutritional status. Tobit decomposition framework was used to estimate the elasticities. Results revealed that the proportions of children with either moderate or severe nutritional problems were 61, 17 and 40% using the height-for-age, weight-for-height and weight-for-age measures respectively. Soybean consumption (p<0.01), mother’s education (p<0.01), mother’s position among housewives (p<0.05) and child’s height (p<0.01) were positively related to the child’s nutritional status. Also, mother’s age (p<0.01), child’s age (p<0.01) and dependency ratio (p<0.05) had negative influence on nutritional status. A 10% increase in dependency ratio and child’s mother’s age would result to a 1.70 and 0.46% increases in total elasticity of children malnutrition. Proportionate percentage increases in mother’s position among wives in the household, mother’s level of education and household’s consumption of soybean-related food would elicit a total of 0.03, 1.15 and 0.26% decreases respectively in elasticity of malnutrition. Decomposition of the elasticity coefficients revealed that marginal changes in all factors would increase or decrease the probability of intensity of children malnutrition more than they would increase or decrease the probability of prevalence. Policy options that would promote formal education for women, home use of soybean and reduction in dependency ratio are recommended to achieve meaningful improvement in nutritional status.
Health Care Seeking Behaviour and Predictors of Combined Orthodox and Traditional Health Care Utilization among Households in Communities in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Chukwuma B. Duru, Anthony C. Iwu, Kenechi A. Uwakwe, Kevin C. Diwe, Irene A. Merenu, Chukwuma U. Okafor, Chukwuyem Abejegah, Ugochukwu C. Madubueze, Emmanuel U. Ndukwu, Ikechi Ohale
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2017.77010
Abstract: Background: Health care seeking behaviour is a complex, dynamic and multidimensional process that involves a sequence of remedial actions that are influenced by the interaction between the individual, household and community with the intention of addressing perceived ill health. Objective: To determine health care seeking attitude and behaviour and the predictors of combined orthodox and traditional health care use among households in communities in Owerri, Imo State. Nigeria. Methods: A cross sectional design that used a multistage random sampling technique to select 500 participants from households in two communities in Owerri, Imo State. Data was collected using a pretested, semi structured questionnaire. Descriptive analyses were done with frequencies and summary statistics. Chi square statistics were computed to determine significant relationships and binary logistic regression was used to determine predictors of combined use. P was set at 0.05 significance level. Results: The results revealed that, while just more than half of the respondents (56.4%) had a moderate to good level of overall knowledge of health care, almost all of the respondents (96.2%) also had a moderate to good level of overall positive attitude towards seeking health care; with less than one third (29.4%) using combined orthodox and traditional health care treatments. It further revealed that, respondents who were female, traders and from households of polygamous families were significantly more likely to use combined orthodox and traditional health care treatments (p < 0.05) while those with a tertiary level of education, from households with a professional as head, having private water closet toilets and earning a monthly income of more than 50,000 Naira ($140) were significantly less likely to use combined orthodox and traditional health care treatments (p < 0.05). Conclusion: There is a need to be more sensitive to the realities of the combined use of orthodox and traditional treatments, as its use will be difficult to prevent because this behaviour is rooted in the traditional and cultural belief system of our societies.
Field trial of Malaysian thermostable Newcastle disease vaccine in village chickens in Kaduna State, Nigeria
JA Nwanta, JU Umoh, PA Abdu, I Ajogi, SC Egege, AA Adeiza
Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: Village chickens in Kaduna State, Nigeria were vaccinated once with a Malaysian heat-resistant Newcastle disease vaccine (NDV4HR) given in feed. In all, 1605 chickens in 223 households covering 33 villages and 13 Local Government Areas were tagged and bled before vaccination and two weeks after vaccination. Antibodies to Newcastle disease virus were titrated by haemagglutination inhibition test and titres . 3(log2) were assumed to be protective. Presumed protective titres were recorded in 143 (8.9%) of chickens before vaccination and in 957 (65.5%) after vaccination. Recommendation is made for the widespread adoption of this technology.
Health-seeking behavior for malaria among child and adult headed households in Rakai district, Uganda
Beatrice Amuge, Fred Wabwire-Mangen, Chilunga Puta, GW Pariyo, Nathan Bakyaita, Sarah Staedke, Moses Kamya, M Olico-Okui
African Health Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: Background The number of orphans in Rakai district, Uganda is estimated to be 34,902 (OCBO, 2000) which translates into 28% of children under the age of 18 years. Young people who have been orphaned and as a result became heads of households must look after themselves and their siblings. These children are likely to be faced with several health problems and have to take crucial life decisions without parental/adult guidance. Objectives This study was conducted in order to understand how child-headed households, Rakai district in Uganda recognize malaria, their health-seeking behavior when malaria is suspected and reasons for the type of behavior compared to the adult-headed households. Methods A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in 300 households in Rakai district, Uganda, in which 8/23 (35%) of sub-counties and 150 child-headed households were included. The closest neighborhood adult-headed household to each child-headed household was selected for comparison. Individual interview was carried out with the respondents using semi-structure questionnaire. Key informant interview and focus group discussions were also conducted. Results The main findings were that the respondents in child-headed households had less knowledge on signs and symptoms of simple and severe malaria compared to adult heads of households. Respondents in child-headed households were less likely to seek health care from health facilities (OR=0.59, CI=0.36-0.97, p-value=0.028). There was no significant difference in the time lag before taking first action in the two types of households (OR=0.72, CI=0.42-1.22, p-value=0.194). The respondents in child-headed households were six times (OR=5.70,CI=2.75-11.91, p-value<0.001) more likely to use local herb for treatment of malaria than the adult heads households. Major reasons stated by the respondents for choosing where health care is sought included distance to source of health care, cheap or free treatment, availability of drugs, and quick services to patients. Conclusion The respondents in child-headed households had less knowledge on signs and symptoms of simple and severe malaria and receive too little or late health care from health professionals compared to the adult heads of households probably due to lack of knowledge and money. Information Communication and Education programs should be designed and target the child-headed households and supply home packs. Key Words: health seeking behavior, child-headed households, adult-headed households, AIDS, orphans, Rakai, Uganda African Health Sciences Vol.4(2) 2004: 119-124
Oyakhilomen Oyinbo,Mamman Kwagman Saleh,Grace Zibah Rekwot
Russian Journal of Agricultural and Socio-Economic Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: The study was carried out to determine the socioeconomic and institutional factors that influence the utilization of herbicide for the control of Striga in maize production. Structured questionnaire with the aid of personal interview was used to collect data from a sample size of eighty respondents selected purposively from Shika, Giwa, Yakawada and Galadimawa villages of the study area. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and OLS regression analysis. The result of the analysis showed that household size (P<0.1), household income (P<0.05) and educational level (P<0.01) are the socioeconomic variables significant in influencing herbicide utilization by maize farming households while membership of association (P<0.01) and extension contact (P<0.01) are the institutional variables significant in influencing herbicide utilization by maize farming households in the study area. The high significance of membership of association and extension contact implies that farmers associations and extension agents are very relevant in influencing farmers decision on weed control techniques through information dissemination about the techniques of weed control. It is therefore recommended that farmers associations and extension agents should be fully involved in disseminating improved techniques of weed control as they have been found to be very relevant in farmers utilization of herbicide as a technique of striga control.
Characteristics of Obstetric Fistula in Kaduna Metropolis  [PDF]
Sunday Jenner Lengmang, Hannah Degge
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2017.77074
Abstract: Introduction: Obstetric fistula is prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. In Nigeria, it is more prevalent in the North compared to the South; and mainly rural. Urbanization has had significant impact on global health. Rapid urbanization is predicted to intensify in developing countries where fistula is endemic, but the pattern of presentation of obstetric fistula in urban areas is yet to be described. Objective: The objective of the study was to find out if obstetric fistula exists in Kaduna metropolis, and if it does, to explore the pattern of presentation. Methodology: Women living with obstetric fistula were mobilized from Kaduna metropolis for free screening and repair. They were screened using direct dye and three swab tests. Consenting patients with confirmed obstetric fistula were included in the study. Their socio-demographic and clinical data were captured using Microsoft Access and analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17. Results: All twenty three consenting women confirmed to have obstetric fistula lived within Kaduna city and had phone contacts. A depreciating proportion of primiparous women presented with obstetric fistula in Kaduna metropolis as multiparous women were in majority. The women also appeared to have higher height and weight measures and majority of them had access to fistula repair. They married early and were mostly uneducated and illiterate. Conclusion: Obstetric fistula afflicts women living in Kaduna metropolis. Women living with fistula in Kaduna metropolis appear to present different socio-demographic features, suggesting an emerging trend related to urbanization.
Nutritional Lifestyle of Rural and Urban People of Kaduna State, Nigeria: Mitigation via Educational Intervention  [PDF]
R.A. Shehu,S.A. Onasanya,N. Ursula,M. Kinta
Asian Journal of Scientific Research , 2010,
Abstract: The study examined the relationship between the nutritional lifestyle of rural and urban people of Kaduna state, Nigeria. The nutritional lifestyle examined include the difference in proteins, calories, vitamins and minerals consumption by the rural and urban people of Kaduna state, Nigeria. It also examined their attitude towards the consumption of natural and refined food products. Descriptive research design was adopted for the study. The population consisted of all individual age 16 years and above living in both rural and urban areas of Kaduna state, Nigeria as at the time of the study. Stratified and cluster random sampling techniques were used to select samples for the study. A total of 1350 randomly selected samples were used for the study. A structured questionnaire, developed and pilot tested with a reliability analysis scale of 0.92r was used for the study. The data collected were statistically analyzed using t-test. All the hypothesis generated were subjected to statistical analysis. The result showed that significant difference exists in the calories, natural and refined food products consumed by rural and urban people of Kaduna state, Nigeria. It also reveals that rural and urban people of Kaduna state, Nigeria are not significantly different in their nutritional lifestyle. The researchers recommends, among others that appropriate health education interventions be put in place in other to promote active living among the people of Kaduna state, Nigeria.
First Incidence of Caprine Besnoitiosisin Kaduna State of Nigeria
S.J. Sambo,N.D.G. Ibrahim,K.A.N. Esievo,J.O. Hambolu,M.S. Makoshi,L.B. Tekdek
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: A total of 226 goats were carefully examined during a survey to determine the prevalence of besnoitiosis in Kaduna State, Nigeria. At ante mortem examination no signs of besnoitiosis were observed in any of the goats and no gross lesions of the disease occurred on their skins examined, after slaughter, at Anchau, Giwa and Soba slaughter slabs. Skin specimens were obtained from the neck area after the postmortem inspection and preserved in 10% buffered neutral formalin. Microscopic examination of Haematoxylin and Eosin stained sections, of 145 of the skin specimens which were processed, revealed an intradermal aggregation of Besnoitia cysts in a Kano-brown doe. The intact cysts stimulated no inflammatory reactions but those with degenerated cyst-walls initiated infiltration of mononuclear cells to the site. All sections from the remaining 144 specimens were negative of the disease. An incidence of 0.7% was recorded for caprine besnoitiosis in Kaduna State, Northern Nigeria.
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