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This, I told myself, was really Africa .Des territoires et des femmes. Récits féminins de voyage en Afrique Australe à la fin du XIXe siècle “This, I told myself, was really Africa”. Of Territories and Women.Women’s Travel Narratives in Late 19th Century Southern Africa  [cached]
Ludmila Ommundsen
Revue LISA / LISA e-journal , 2007, DOI: 10.4000/lisa.648
Abstract: In Victorian Britain, travel writing was informed by an unprecedented colonial expansion — in particular, the “scramble for Africa”— and the rise of the women’s movement in the late 19th century. Fuelled by the notions of motherhood and domesticity that characterized late imperial society, the presence of women in colonies served the purpose of domesticating the South. Yet, as geographical conquest merges with sexual conquest, the narratives of some female travellers in Southern Africa unveil unexpected territories that manifest specific territorialities. Although conjuring up feminist utopias, weren’t these female writers trying to construct a conspicuous literary ghetto?
FROM TRAVELLERS ACCOUNTS TO TRAVEL BOOKS AND GUIDE BOOKS: THE FORMATION OF A GREEK TOURISM MARKET IN THE 19th CENTURY
Margarita Dritsas
Tourismos : an International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism , 2006,
Abstract: The paper traces the emergence of the tourism market by using instead of statistics or quantitative data, which are very rare for the period, alternative sources. It traces the transition from travel writers to travel guide-books by focusing on the rich literature about Greek travel. It points to the process of commodification of poetry and literature of the 1800’s as information sources and tools of creating the tourist ‘gaze’, on the one hand, and to the appearance of the main patterns of the mass tourist market, on the other. By referring to and analysing the most widely used travel books of the period (the John Murray and Baedecker Handbooks for Travel) it contrasts them with earlier forms of travel writing. It points to the process of appropriation of the latter by the new genre; the passage from a more personal, romantic, literary and direct style of individual travellers during the early 19th century to a detached, authoritative and descriptive style at the end of the period. Hypotheses are formulated about how new institutions and businesses contributed to creating and propagating the special tourist gaze about Greece, as well as about the main patterns of mass travel which characterized visits to Greece during the second half of the 19th century and early 20th century. By comparing handbooks the paper also draws hypotheses about the diversification of the market.
On the Borders of the Adventure Novel: Narratives of 18th-Century Travel in Indian Territory  [cached]
Robert SAYRE
E-rea : Revue électronique d’études sur le Monde Anglophone , 2005, DOI: 10.4000/erea.523
Abstract: I will attempt here to discuss and illustrate an instance, in the literature of travel, of the fluid, and overlapping relations that often exist between genres, and more particularly between fictional and non-fictional genres. The particular body of travel literature that I will be dealing with involves accounts of Anglo-American travel in territories still controlled (at least partially) by Indians in the 18th century. I will suggest that some of this material would qualify as a kind of “adv...
Key developments in geometry in the 19th Century  [PDF]
Raymond O. Wells Jr
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: This paper describes several key discoveries in the 19th century that led to the modern theory of manifolds in the twentieth century: intrinsic differential geometry, projective geometry and higher dimensional manifolds and Riemannian geometry.
The Origins of Complex Geometry in the 19th Century  [PDF]
Raymond O. Wells Jr
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: This paper gives an overview of several key innovations in the 19th century which led to complex geometry in the 20th century. This includes the creation of the complex plane, the work of Abel on addition theorems for generalized elliptic integrals, the theory of elliptic functions, holomorphic functions, and the creation of Riemann surfaces by Riemann in the mid 19th century. A number of the original papers which contain these new ideas are looked at in some detail and a detailed set of references is included.
Subversion Of Grand Narratives In Shashi Tharoor's The Great Indian Novel
Shivkumar Rautrao
Golden Research Thoughts , 2012, DOI: 10.9780/22315063
Abstract: An epic is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation. It is a vibrant genre of literary expression that orders human experience, explores sociocultural values and demands an emotional and ethical response from the reader. The telling of stories is a pervasive aspect of our environment. Vyasa's Mahabharata is one of the major Sanskrit epics of India. Besides its epic narrative of the War of Kurukshetra and the fates of the Kauravas and the Pandavas, the Mahabharata contains much philosophical and devotional material. It is also considered as historical monument. It is written version in classical Sanskrit and widely translated and interpreted into vernacular, national and international languages, transmitted as books, cheap editions, and handwritten copies as well as through oral performance. Shashi Tharoor's The Great Indian Novel traces back to narratives of Mahabharata. It is a strange vision of contemporary India retold in the garb of the ancient tale of story-telling. Tharoor considers the narrative of Mahabharata not only explains socio-cultural relation of their own society, but functions as a legitimating of the existing power relation. To him, Text is not an alien entity; it is set up with whole ideological aspects. He, on the other hand, applies grand narratives of Mahabharata to serious issues of modern political world. The story narrated in the novel is more or less a political commentary on the history of India since the advent of Gandhi. Characters in this political novel bear the names of characters from Mahabharata. Gandhi is Gangaji, Dhristarashtra is Jawaharlal Nehru, and Priya is Indira Priyadarshini. The story begins with Gandhi or Gangaji and moves to the days of Jawaharlal Nehru as the Prime Minister of India, and then to Lal Bahadur Shastri and Indira Gandhi. The novel ends with the days of National Emergency and the emergence of Janata Party, its grand alliance, success in the polls and its defeat later on. Through Vyasa's original Sanskrit Mahabharata, Tharoor subverts the narrative of Mahabharata with no less brilliance and endurance than the original version. He comprehensively gives out voice of protest against the monopoly, orthodoxy, polygamy, political hegemony, gender biases, ideological strategies, false-consciousness and authoritarianism of the established class and caste down the ages. He exposes historical and mythological inaccuracies,
Evolution of Electromagnetics in the 19th Century  [PDF]
I. V. Lindell
Advances in Radio Science : Kleinheubacher Berichte , 2005,
Abstract: Steps leading to the present-day electromagnetic theory made in the 19th Century are briefly reviewed. The progress can be roughly divided in two branches which are called Continental and British Electromagnetics. The former was based on Newton's action-at-a-distance principle and French mathematics while the latter grew from Faraday's contact-action principle, the concept of field lines and physical analogies. Maxwell's field theory and its experimental verification marked the last stage in the process.
Relatos de viaje kawésqar (Kawesqar travel narratives)  [PDF]
José Tonko P.
Onomázein : Revista de Lingüística, Filología y Traducción , 2008,
Abstract: Los relatos de viaje kawésqar recientemente recopilados en trabajos de campo como fuente documental etnográfica permiten adentrarnos en aspectos poco conocidos de esta cultura, al tiempo que amplían y corrigen interpretaciones de la literatura etnográfica existente. En este artículo se examina en general el valor de los relatos de viaje para el investigador y en particular los relatos de viaje kawésqar. (Kawesqar travel narratives which were recently obtained in field work are a unique ethnographic documentary source that allows us to get acquainted with scarcely known aspects of this culture, as well as they increase and correct the interpretations in the existing ethnographic literature (The corpus allows for the expansion and revision of interpretations in the already existing ethnographic literature). This article examines, in general, the value of travel narratives for a researcher, and in particular what they contribute (in particular their contribution) to the study of kawesqar culture.)
Teaching press and Literature in the 19th century  [PDF]
Fermín Ezpeleta Aguilar
Revista Electronica Interuniversitaria de Formación del Profesorado , 2008,
Abstract: The continuous track of the provincial professional press during the last quarter of the 19th century allows us to put together, by means of significant samples of this literary material, the small pieces of history of the school at that period as felt by the main characters, the teachers. The core of the demands, i.e. the delays in payment, brings with it other literary motives, such as the "hunger" and mendicity of mentors; the extortions of mayors and secretaries of city councils; the opening of unjust files and other violations. Also, the poet-teachers refuted in their writings the contrast between the high theoretical desideratum of the teaching mission and the harsh daily reality. The journalists include jeers and jokes about Pedagogic Conferences and "new intuitive" pedagogies.
Infant Mortality in Germany in the 19th Century  [cached]
Dr. Rolf Gehrmann*
Comparative Population Studies , 2011, DOI: 10.4232/10.cpos-2011-22en
Abstract: Developments in infant mortality in Germany have previously only been documented in a fragmentary fashion for the 19th century as a whole, and only on a small scale for the period prior to 1871. For the first time, this paper lays a solid statistical foundation by reprocessing the figures assembled by the German states of that time. The reconstructed national statistical series (from 1826 onwards) reveals a comparatively high infant mortality, with minor deviations until the turn of the 20th century. The impact of urbanisation and industrialisation is not denied, but an evaluation of the different regional patterns and trends leads to a new weighting. The living and working conditions in the countryside were thus highly determining. The relationship between fertility and infant mortality is assessed differently for the era of the sustained reduction in fertility than for the preceding period. All in all, the prevalent customs and attitudes are regarded as being vital to infants’ survival chances. We therefore need to look at attitudes among the educated public and the authorities. Efforts on the part of these groups to bring about change were particularly observed in the South West, where an awareness of the dramatic problem arose comparatively early. Further historic research at the regional level will be needed in order to achieve a final evaluation of these processes.
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