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Capital Formation in Selected West African Countries: Theory and Empirical Evidence Capital Formation in Selected West African Countries: Theory and Empirical Evidence
Akpan H. Ekpo
Revista de Análisis Económico (RAE) , 1987,
Abstract: Capital Formation in Selected West African Countries: Theory and Empirical Evidence This paper empirically tests aggregate investment demand functions for ECOWAS countries in order to help in the designing of investment promotion policies in the region.
Modeling HIV/AIDS Epidemics in West Africa: Results for Unaids Modelling Approach from Some Selected Countries
O.M. Akpa,B.A. Ayelola
Research Journal of Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) developed by UNAIDS reference group have been used with some notable success in some countries of the sub-Saharan (East and South) African Countries. In this present studies, we present results for five modeling methods applied to four countries in the West African Sub region. Using five modeling assumption with respect to 2 data situations and paying attention to the parameters determining the dynamics of HIV/AIDS epidemics, we employ Epp to model the prevalence of the epidemic in four West African countries. We used these estimates to further explain the underlying trend in the epidemic in each of the selected countries. For the unedited data, our results shows that in 2005 the default model yielded 17.69% (Urban: 4.72%, Rural: 28.82%) for Nigeria, 5.23% (Urban: 4.48%, Rural: 6.18%) for Ghana, 4.75% (Urban: 5.28%, Rural: 4.33%) for Cote d Ivoire and 0.54% (Urban: 0.49%, Rural: 0.59%) for Senegal. The computed Log-Likelihood (LL) estimates for the default model are (Urban: 187.8809, Rural: 4, 948. 3913), (Urban: 181.5688, Rural: 664.9529), (Urban: 320.0272, Rural: 388.4773) and (Urban: 45.7742, Rural: 78.0798) for Nigerian, Ghana, Cote d Ivoire and Senegal, respectively.
In Search of the Effects of Competition on Unemployment: Evidence from OECD Countries  [PDF]
Bo Zhao
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2011.44051
Abstract: This paper explores the empirical relationship between unemployment rate and product market competition in eighteen OECD countries through three sets of quantitative analyses. We find that the effect of competition on employment depends on the existing competition intensity and the relationship between the unemployment and competition appears to be inverted-N shape—in countries where existing competition intensity is either high or low, an increase in competition tends to reduce unemployment rate significantly; but for countries where existing competition intensity is moderate, intensified competition is more likely to increase unemployment rate significantly.
The Influence of the Tax Wedge on Unemployment in OECD Countries in Comparison with Croatia  [PDF]
Anamarija ?eparovi?
Financial Theory and Practice , 2009,
Abstract: The tax wedge is the difference between the employer’s labour costs and the net takehome pay of the employee. An increase in the tax wedge leads to an increase in the companies’ labour costs and thus indirectly influences the level of unemployment. This article will try to answer these questions: Does the tax wedge affect the unemployment rate, how high is the tax wedge in Croatia in comparison with OECD countries, how does the tax wedge affect the unemployment rate in Croatia and would reducing the tax wedge be a solution to reduce unemployment? This article will show that Croatia is a country with a high tax wedge, which has negative affects on employment, and is partly “responsible” for the high unemployment. Thus, in dealing with unemployment problems, Croatia should work on its reduction.
Tsangyao Chang,Kuei-Chiu Lee
Economics and Finance Review , 2011,
Abstract: In this study, we apply flexible Fourier unit root test proposed by Enders and Lee (2004, 2009) to re-examine the hysteresis hypothesis in unemployment for G-7 countries over the 1980M1 to 2008M6. We find that Fourier stationary unit root test has higher power than linear method if the true data generating process of unemployment is stationary non-liner process of an unknown form with structural change. The hysteresis in unemployment is confirmed for all G-7 countries, with the exception of Japan, when Enders and Lee’s (2004, 2009) Fourier unit root test is conducted.
Okun's law revisited. Is there structural unemployment in developed countries?  [PDF]
Ivan O. Kitov
Quantitative Finance , 2011,
Abstract: Okun's law for the biggest developed countries is re-estimated using the most recent data on real GDP per capita and the rate of unemployment. Our results show that the change in unemployment rate can be predicted with a high accuracy. The link needs the introduction of a structural break which might be caused by the change in monetary policy or/and in measurement units. Statistically, the link between the studied variables is characterized by the coefficient of determination between 0.40 (Australia) and 0.84 (the USA). The residual errors can be associated with measurement errors. The obtained results suggest the absence of structural unemployment in the studied developed countries.
International Trade and Unemployment in Less Developed Countries  [PDF]
Fernando Mesa
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.25101

The main interest focus of this paper is the relation between international trade and the labour market, with an emphasis on the unemployment rate, and the allocation of workers among sectors. A general trade equilibrium model with three sectors is constructed for a less developed country. An informal and un-tradable sector is characterised by flexible wages, while the other two sectors are tradable, export and import sectors. The model imposes a binding minimum wage on unskilled labour and wage distortions on skilled labour. Comparative statics are used to analyse the effects on the labour market of an open economy, a rise in the minimum wage and a positive productivity shock in the export sector.

Inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner and specialist services in 9 European countries
Irina Stirbu, Anton E Kunst, Andreas Mielck, Johan P Mackenbach
BMC Health Services Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-11-288
Abstract: Data on the use of GP and specialist services were derived from national health surveys of Belgium, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, the Netherlands and Norway. For each country and education level we calculated the absolute prevalence and relative inequalities in utilisation of GP and specialist services. In order to account for the need for care, the results were adjusted by the measure of self-assessed health.People with lower education used GP services equally often in most countries (except Belgium and Germany) compared with those with a higher level of education. At the same time people with a higher education used specialist care services significantly more often in all countries, except in the Netherlands. The general pattern of educational inequalities in utilisation of specialist care was similar for both men and women. Inequalities in utilisation of specialist care were equally large in Eastern European and in Western European countries, except for Latvia where the inequalities were somewhat larger. Similarly, large inequalities were found in the utilisation of specialist care among patients with chronic diseases, diabetes, and hypertension.We found large inequalities in the utilisation of specialist care. These inequalities were not compensated by utilisation of GP services. Of particular concern is the presence of inequalities among patients with a high need for specialist care, such as those with chronic diseases.Access to health care for all in need is a basic social right. At first sight, all European countries have universal insurance coverage and, thus, it is often assumed that these countries also enjoy universal and equitable access to health care services. However, a number of studies indicate that that is not the case[1-7]. Although utilisation of general practitioner (GP) services is distributed fairly equally, independent of income, less well-off people appear to be much less likely to see a specialist than their wealthier
Vulnerability Assessment of West African Countries to Climate Change and Variability  [PDF]
Bobadoye Ayodotun, Sylla Bamba, Aderonke Adio
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2019.76002
This study was conducted to assess vulnerability of West African countries to climate change using selected indicators for adaptive capacity, exposure and sensitivity to generate vulnerability index for West African countries. Vulnerability index was calculated as the net effect of adaptive capacity, sensitivity and exposure to climate change. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to assign weights to the vulnerability indicators used in this study. A total of thirteen (13) indicators were used to generate vulnerability index and vulnerability maps were produced using the GIS software package ArcGIS 10.2. The result shows that Niger, Mali and Mauritania have the highest levels of vulnerability to climate change in West Africa. The countries with the least levels of vulnerability to climate change are Ghana, Cape Verde and Gambia. Generally, this study shows that most countries in West Africa are vulnerable to climate change with ten countries (Niger, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina-Faso, Liberia, Senegal, Guinea Bissau, Guinea, Benin and Sierra Leone) having vulnerability levels higher than 50%. We conclude that there is the need for well planned integrated adaptation measures to reduce the impact of climate change in the region.
Evaluation of directly observed treatment for tuberculosis in the Bojanala health district, North West Province of South Africa
John M. Tumbo,Gboyega A. Ogunbanjo
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.4102/phcfm.v3i1.191
Abstract: Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the top public health problems in South Africa. Approximately 150 000 new cases and 10 000 TB-related deaths are reported in South Africa annually. In declaring TB a global emergency in 1993, the World Health Organization developed control strategies that include active case finding, laboratory support, directly observed treatment (DOT), contact tracing, and prevention of multidrug– and extreme drugresistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB and XDR-TB). High DOT rates reported in some countries have been discordant with ‘low cure’ and ‘high MDR’ rates. Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of DOT for TB in the Bojanala health district, North West Province, South Africa, by estimating the proportion of DOT use (1) amongst all TB patients and (2) in the initial TB treatment regimen compared to retreatment regimens. Method: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in 2008. Data regarding implementation of DOT were collected from eight purposefully selected primary health care clinics and one prison clinic in the health district. Upon receiving their informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to patients receiving TB treatment at the selected facilities. Results: A total of 88 (of 90 selected) patients participated in the study, of whom 50(56.8%) were on DOT and had DOT supporters. However, 35 (40%) had never heard of DOT. DOT was used mainly for patients on the retreatment regimen (87.5%), rather than for those on first-line treatment (48.6%). Conclusion: In this South African rural health district, the DOT utilisation rate for TB was 56.8%, mainly for patients on the TB retreatment regimen. Strict implementation of DOT in all patients undergoing TB treatment is a known strategy for improving TB cure rate and preventing recurrence and drug resistance. How to cite this article: Tumbo MI, Ogunbanjo,GA. Evaluation of directly observed treatment for tuberculosis in the Bojanala health district, North West Province of South Africa.Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med. 2011;3(1), Art. #191,4 pages. DOI: 10.4102/phcfm.v3i1.191
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