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Developing a Deeper Understanding of Learning Processing During Unguided Complex Learning Tasks: Implications for Language Advising
Luke Carson
Studies in Self-Access Learning Journal , 2012,
Abstract: This paper outlines a research project that is mapping cognitive, metacognitive and other processing types and their interactions in complex learning situations, specifically in learning situations without teacher guidance. It presents some examples from the findings of this project and the implications for learning advisors working with adult (tertiary level) advisees who are engaged, to a large degree, with independent forms of learning. When we look at learning occurring without instruction, we see very dynamic thinking processes that involve continuous movement between the upper and lower levels of cognitive processing. The manner of this processing differs from learning processing during classroom learning, which is highly structured and directed. As the main difference between independent learning and classroom learning is the absence of a teacher, this paper focuses on the type of processing that takes on the cognitive functions created by this absence – metacognitive processing. The data shows that, for the population in this study, all learners involved in independent learning necessarily engaged in frequent metacognitive processes, though with greater and lesser levels of success or effectiveness. This research indicates that it is not possible to complete any form of complex independent learning task without engaging in frequent upper level processing. The paper then discusses what this means for learning advisors, and how we discuss learning concepts and learning control with advisees, through ideas such as using existing knowledge, and the planning, monitoring and control of learning.
About the effects of combining Latent Semantic Analysis with natural language processing techniques for free-text assessment
Pérez,Diana; Alfonseca,Enrique; Rodríguez,Pilar; Gliozzo,Alfio; Strapparava,Carlo; Magnini,Bernardo;
Revista signos , 2005, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-09342005000300004
Abstract: this article presents the combination of latent semantic analysis (lsa) with other natural language processing techniques (stemming, removal of closed-class words and word sense disambiguation) to improve the automatic assessment of students' free-text answers. the combinational schema has been tested in the experimental framework provided by the free-text computer assisted assessment (caa) system called atenea (alfonseca & pérez, 2004). this system is able to ask randomly or according to the students' profile an open-ended question to the student and then, assign a score to it. the results prove that for all datasets, when the nlp techniques are combined with lsa, the pearson correlation between the scores given by atenea and the scores given by the teachers for the same dataset of questions improves. we believe that this is due to the complementarity between lsa, which works more at a shallow semantic level, and the rest of the nlp techniques used in atenea, which are more focused on the lexical and syntactical levels.
Natural Language Understanding with Distributed Representation  [PDF]
Kyunghyun Cho
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: This is a lecture note for the course DS-GA 3001 at the Center for Data Science , New York University in Fall, 2015. As the name of the course suggests, this lecture note introduces readers to a neural network based approach to natural language understanding/processing. In order to make it as self-contained as possible, I spend much time on describing basics of machine learning and neural networks, only after which how they are used for natural languages is introduced. On the language front, I almost solely focus on language modelling and machine translation, two of which I personally find most fascinating and most fundamental to natural language understanding.
Discontiguous States of America: The Paradox of Unincorporation in Craig Santos Perez’s Poetics of Chamorro Guam  [cached]
Paul Lai
Journal of Transnational American Studies , 2011,
Abstract: Eclipsed by other islands incorporated into the United States after the Spanish-American War of 1898, Guam has nevertheless played a crucial role in the development of the American Pacific as a strategic military site. Like other territories of the United States, Guam’s ambiguous legal status and the presence of native peoples, cultures, and histories signal the paradox of unincorporated territories that troubles the issues of belonging and identification as “American.” This essay takes up poet-scholar Craig Santos Perez’s work to assert the primacy of Indigenous Chamorro histories, languages, and cultures in understanding the island’s place in and out of the American Empire. Perez’s experimental, decolonial poetics fracture narratives of America as a benevolent force in the Pacific; of English as the only relevant language of the Mariana Islands and America; of Spanish and Catholic domination as a relic of the past; of environmental transformations wrought by the intimacies of empire; and of simplistic accounts of assimilation or resistance to militarization and colonialism. Furthermore, by foregrounding “Discontiguous States of America” as an organizing trope for comparative understanding of unincorporated territories in the Caribbean and Pacific, American Indian reservation spaces on the continent, and the outlying states of Alaska and Hawai‘i, this essay argues that transnational American Studies must look within its territorial possessions to Indigenous sovereignty claims as well as outside to global flows in order to offer a truly critical, transnational American Studies.
Chaos and Natural Language Processing
Marius Crisan
Acta Polytechnica Hungarica , 2007,
Abstract: The article explores the possibility to construct a unified word feature out of thecomponent features of letters. Each letter is modeled by a different attractor and finallyembedded in a quadratic iterated map. The result is the word feature that can account forthe meaning extraction process of language understanding. This is a new approach innatural language processing based on the deterministic chaotic behavior of dynamicalsystems.
Language Understanding and Knowledge of Meaning  [cached]
Mitchell Green
The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication , 2010, DOI: 10.4148/biyclc.v5i0.281
Abstract: In recent years the view that understanding a language requires knowing what its words and expressions mean has come under attack. One line of attack attempts to show that while knowledge can be undermined by Gettier-style counterexamples, language understanding cannot be. I consider this line of attack, particularly in the work of Pettit (2002) and Longworth (2008), and show it to be unpersuasive. I stress, however, that maintaining a link between language understanding and knowledge does not itself vindicate a cognitivist view of the former.
Nature Language Processing and Information Retrieval Based on the Content Understanding

WU Chen,ZHANG Quan,MIAO Jian-ming,WEI Xiang-feng,

计算机科学 , 2008,
Abstract: Aiming to construct an ideal information retrieval(IR)model based on semantic methods,this paper reports on a development and implementation schema.This scheme is based on a nature language understanding theory(Hier- archical Network Concept theory,HNC in short),and also points out the main procedures in constructing such an ideal IR model stage by stage.On the one hand,this paper introduces the related HNC theory to illuminate the schema.On the other hand,it provides some research results to demonstrate th...
The effect of teaching in native and foreign language on students' conceptual understanding in science courses
Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching , 2005,
Abstract: The effectiveness of teaching academic courses such as mathematics and science in a foreign language has been investigated by several international studies in the literature. Even though the studies conducted have brought up contradictory results, most of them reveal that learning academic courses through a foreign language medium may pose conceptual, linguistic and psychological problems. Until now no research investigating the effect of foreign language on conceptual understanding has been conducted in Turkey. In this study, the effect of teaching in a foreign language on students' understanding the concept of Energy in a science course was investigated. Causal-comparative research design was used to determine the differences between students who took the science course in native and foreign language and the effect of language on conceptual understanding. The results indicated that students who were taught "Energy" in a foreign language, English, had more misconceptions than the students who were taught in their native language, Turkish.
Language Without Words: A Pointillist Model for Natural Language Processing  [PDF]
Peiyou Song,Anhei Shu,David Phipps,Dan Wallach,Mohit Tiwari,Jedidiah Crandall,George Luger
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: This paper explores two separate questions: Can we perform natural language processing tasks without a lexicon?; and, Should we? Existing natural language processing techniques are either based on words as units or use units such as grams only for basic classification tasks. How close can a machine come to reasoning about the meanings of words and phrases in a corpus without using any lexicon, based only on grams? Our own motivation for posing this question is based on our efforts to find popular trends in words and phrases from online Chinese social media. This form of written Chinese uses so many neologisms, creative character placements, and combinations of writing systems that it has been dubbed the "Martian Language." Readers must often use visual queues, audible queues from reading out loud, and their knowledge and understanding of current events to understand a post. For analysis of popular trends, the specific problem is that it is difficult to build a lexicon when the invention of new ways to refer to a word or concept is easy and common. For natural language processing in general, we argue in this paper that new uses of language in social media will challenge machines' abilities to operate with words as the basic unit of understanding, not only in Chinese but potentially in other languages.
GEMINI: A Natural Language System for Spoken-Language Understanding  [PDF]
John Dowding,Jean Mark Gawron,Doug Appelt,John Bear,Lynn Cherny,Robert Moore,Douglas Moran
Computer Science , 1994,
Abstract: Gemini is a natural language understanding system developed for spoken language applications. The paper describes the architecture of Gemini, paying particular attention to resolving the tension between robustness and overgeneration. Gemini features a broad-coverage unification-based grammar of English, fully interleaved syntactic and semantic processing in an all-paths, bottom-up parser, and an utterance-level parser to find interpretations of sentences that might not be analyzable as complete sentences. Gemini also includes novel components for recognizing and correcting grammatical disfluencies, and for doing parse preferences. This paper presents a component-by-component view of Gemini, providing detailed relevant measurements of size, efficiency, and performance.
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