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Status Disclosure among People Living With HIV/AIDS in Ilorin, Nigeria
AK Salami, A Fadeyi, JA Ogunmodede, OO Desalu
West African Journal of Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Background: HIV/AIDS is a disease that is characterised by discrimination and stigmatisation particularly in Africa. Objective: To determine rate of disclosure of HIV status among People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Ilorin, Nigeria. Methods: A semi-structured, interviewer administered questionnaire containing 40 items was used to collect information from persons living with HIV/AIDS accessing treatment at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria. Information on patients’ socio-demography and lifestyle history, HIV medical history and HIV status disclosure was obtained from the patients. Results: A total of 253 patients participated in the study. Their ages ranged between 26 and 58 years. Majority were females, 58.5% and 41.5% were males. The disclosure rate was 39.5%. As many as 60.5% of the respondents had not disclosed their HIV status to anybody. The disclosure was to the spouses, in 18.6% of the instances and to relatives or friends or co workers in another 20.6% of cases. There was a significant difference. The knowledge of their spouses on HIV/AIDS status correlated with disclosure rate, r=0.237, p=0.02. Female sex, intact family and monogamy correlated well with high disclosure rate. Conclusion: HIV status disclosure rate among PLWHA in Ilorin is low. Female sex and monogamous marital status are positive predictors of disclosure. There is need to ensure effective disclosure counselling for the unmarried; single/separated, patients in polygamous marriages and males member of the society.
CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF BENIN TEACHING HOSPITAL TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH THE EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF THE HEALTH OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS (PLWHAS)  [PDF]
A. E. Nwachukwu
Academic Research International , 2012,
Abstract: High productivity and Economic growth are significantly guaranteed when the health status of workmen is very positive. Debilitating diseases, like HIV/AIDS, on the other hand, precipitate “Sickness-Induced-Absenteeism”, and Low productivity among affected workmen.From medical records, HIV/AIDS is a disease whose total cure has remained an enigma. This study was carried out in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH) Benin-City, Nigeria, to find out the HIV/AIDS management services in that Institution particularly for theeconomically-productive population, living with HIV/AIDS. Interview was the Data-Collection technique employed for the descriptive survey. Research Findings showed that Comprehensive management involves: pre-test counselling for individuals to know their HIVstatus; Testing for HIV, using “HIV-Antibody” or “HIV-Antigen/PCR techniques; Post-TestCounselling; Drug therapy; good nutrition; Integration and Empowerment of people living with HIV/AIDS to help them live normal lives and contribute to economic growth. It was recommended that HIV Mass Awareness Programmes should be intensified and that PLWHAS should not be discriminated against, as they remain an important segment of the nation’s productive workforce.
HIV/AIDS and family support systems: A situation analysis of people living with HIV/AIDS in Lagos State
A E Oluwagbemiga
SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance) , 2007,
Abstract: Current statistics about the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Nigeria do not reveal the broader social and economic impacts of the disease on the family.The study therefore primarily aimed to address the socio-economic effects of HIV infection on individuals and their families.The study was carried out in Lagos State. In-depth interviews were employed to collect information from 188 people living with HIV/AIDS through support groups in the state, while four focus group discussions were conducted to elicit information from people affected by AIDS about the socio-economic impacts of HIV/AIDS on families in Nigeria. From the survey, among people living with HIV/AIDS, 66% of females and males were in the age group 21-40 years, while 10% were older people above 60 years of age. Findings revealed that as HIV/AIDS strikes at parents, grand parents are assuming responsibility for bringing up the children of the infected persons and the orphans of those killed by the virus. It was striking that some of the older caregivers could not meet the requirement of these children.They are often forced to work more than they would have, or borrow in order to cope with the needs of these extra mouths. Some of the infected people have sold their properties to enable them to cope with the economic effects of the virus, while their children have had to drop out of school, since they could not afford the school fees and other related expenses. It was suggested that PLWHA should be economically empowered with adequate medical treatment, in order to reduce the impact of the disease on the family.
Medication Experiences of Hispanic People Living with HIV/AIDS  [PDF]
Luz Dalia Sánchez MD, MHA, MCP, Ph.D
INNOVATIONS in Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the medication experiences of Hispanic people living with HIV/AIDS. Specific aims were to describe their current medication experiences and to describe how they viewed their medication history in order to determine essential themes for improving culturally-appropriate medication therapy management services.Methods: A qualitative, phenomenological research methodology was employed. Ten adults living with HIV/AIDS were audiotaped during semi-structured, in-depth interviews conducted in Spanish. In addition to audiotaping, field notes were taken. Thematic analysis of text was done to obtain themes consistent with the research objectives. Analysis was accomplished in two phases. The first phase applied Van Manen’s lifeworld existentials of lived body, lived time, lived relation and lived space as the organizing framework for identifying themes. The second phase identified “essential themes” using holistic, selective, and detailed approaches that were applied to the themes identified in the first phase.Results: The results showed that lifeworld existentials were relevant medication experiences for Hispanic patients living with HIV/AIDS and their medication-taking behavior during their lives. Ten themes were identified. From these, we identified an overall “essential theme” comprised of: (1) Duality of Living with HIV/AIDS and (2) Primacy of Medications for Hispanic HIV/AIDS patients. Conclusions: The findings revealed that the medication taking experiences for Hispanic people living with HIV/AIDS can be described in terms of the duality of living with HIV/AIDS as “living dead” patients and in terms of the centrality that medications take in their lives, even to the point of a spiritual level.
Quality Of Life Of People Living With Hiv/Aids In Kogi State, Nigeria
AA Fatiregun, KC Mofolorunsho, KG Osagbemi
Benin Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 2009,
Abstract: Introduction: With the appreciable rise in longevity of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), the need for supporting their quality of life (QoL) has become increasingly important. However, limited studies have been conducted using the World Health Organization quality of life HIV (WHOQOL-HIV) bref in our environment. Objective: This study assessed the QoL of PLWHA attending antiretroviral (ARV) clinics in Kogi State in north central Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive crosssectional study design was used. Two hundred fifty-two PLWHA from five health care centres located across the three zones of Kogi State in Nigeria were consecutively selected. A questionnaire, administered at interview and containing data on sociodemographic, medical, and the WHOQOL-HIV bref was used to assess each study participant. Results: The overall QoL mean scores in the three domains were similar: psychological health, 15.0±2.8; physical health, 15.2±2.5; and spirituality/religion/personal beliefs, 15.7± 3.4. Lower QoL mean scores were observed in social relationships (13.2±2.5) and environment (13.1±1.9) domains. A significant difference in mean QoL scores in the level of independence domain was observed among women (14.4±1.9) compared to men (13.9±1.7; p=0.028). Conclusions: Lower QoL in the environment and social relationships domains may be suggestive of stigma and discrimination, as well as poor living conditions, in the PLWHA physical environment.
Assessment and treatment of psychosis in people living with HIV/AIDS
G Jonsson, J Joska
Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine , 2009,
Abstract: The pathophysiology of psychosis and other forms of severe mental illness in HIV infection is complex, and multifactorial causation is likely in most instances. Severe mental illness has been identified as a risk factor for the acquisition of HIV infection and occurs as both a manifestation of opportunistic infections and a result of the neurotropic effects of the virus.1 A full psychiatric assessment in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) presenting with psychosis is important but may prove difficult in many parts of South Africa. This paper presents a variety of algorithms to simplify the assessment and management of an HIV-infected patient with psychosis
Provider training and experience for people living with HIV/AIDS
Rackal, Julia M.;Tynan, Anne-Marie;Handford, Curtis D.;Rzeznikiewz, Damian;Agha, Ayda;Glazier, Richard;
Sao Paulo Medical Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-31802012000100014
Abstract: background: the complexity of hiv/aids raises challenges for the effective delivery of care. it is important to ensure that the expertise and experience of care providers is of high quality. training and experience of hiv/aids providers may impact not only individual patient outcomes but increasingly on health care costs as well. objective: the objective of this review is to assess the effects of provider training and experience on people living with hiv/aids on the following outcomes: immunological (ie. viral load, cd4 count), medical (ie. mortality, proportion on antiretrovirals), psychosocial (ie. quality of life measures) and economic outcomes (ie health care costs). criteria for considering studies for this review: we searched medline, embase, dissertation abstracts international (dai), cinahl, healthstar, psycinfo, psyclit, social sciences abstracts, and sociological abstracts from january 1, 1980 through may 29, 2009. electronic searches were performed for abstracts from major international aids conferences. reference lists from pertinent articles, books and review articles were retrieved and reviewed. selection criteria: randomized controlled trials (rcts), controlled clinical trials, cohort, case control, cross-sectional studies and controlled before and after designs that examined the qualifications/training and patient volume of hiv/aids care of providers caring for persons known to be infected with hiv/aids were included. data collection and analysis: at least two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. study authors were contacted for further information as required. assessment of confounding factors was undertaken independently by two reviewers. main results: a total of four studies (one randomized controlled trial, three non- randomized studies) involving 8488 people living with hiv/aids were included. the main findings of this review demonstrated a trend to improved outcomes when treated by a provider with more training/exper
Knowledge, attitudes and practices of AIDS associated malignancies among people living with HIV in Nigeria  [cached]
Jedy-Agba Elima,Adebamowo Clement
Infectious Agents and Cancer , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1750-9378-7-28
Abstract: Introduction The epidemic of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa varies significantly across countries in the region with high prevalence in Southern Africa and Nigeria. Cancer is increasingly identified as a complication of HIV infection with higher incidence and mortality in this group than in the general population. Without cancer prevention strategies, improved cancer treatment alone would be an insufficient response to this increasing burden among people living with HIV (PLHIV). Although previous studies have noted low levels of awareness of cancers in sub-Saharan Africa none has examined the knowledge and perceptions of cancer among people living with HIV/AIDS. Methods Focus group discussions (FGD) and Key Informant Interviews (KII) were carried out in 4 high volume tertiary care institutions that offer HIV care and treatment in Nigeria. FGD and KII assessed participants’ knowledge of cancer, attitudes towards cancer risk and cancer screening practices. Results The mean age (SD) of the FGD participants was 38 (2.8) years. Most participants had heard about cancer and considered it a fatal disease but displayed poor knowledge of the causes of cancer in general and of AIDs associated cancers in particular. PLHIV in Nigeria expressed fear, denial and disbelief about their perceived cancer risk. Some of the participants had heard about cancer screening but very few participants had ever been screened. Conclusion Our findings of poor knowledge of cancer among PLHIV in Nigeria indicate the need for health care providers and the government to intervene by developing primary cancer prevention strategies for this population.
Sexual and family planning practices and needs of people living with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria: A rapid ethnographic assessment  [cached]
Garko S
Annals of African Medicine , 2007,
Abstract: Background : This study was conducted among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) and it tries to understand their sexual and reproductive lives, with the aim of understanding what they know about reproductive health, social challenges of life they face daily and what are their needs. Method : The study was conducted in the Northern state of Kaduna, Nigeria; a qualitative approach was employed using group interviews, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Individual PLWHAs, their associations and officials of the associations were interviewed. Results : People living with HIV/AIDS ( PLWHAs) are a group of people whose life has not been studied very well, they have a lot of pressing social issues such as their circumstances of diagnosis, bad experiences following the diagnosis, and lack of adequate provisions for their healthcare. They wish to see their welfare addressed with provision of drugs and social support. Conclusion : PLWHAs and their associations expressed concerns about how they are treated by both medical workers and the society. There is need to address these issues in the way of research aimed at changing the views of policy makers favourably.
Predictors of disclosure of sero-status to sexual partners among people living with HIV/AIDS in Ogun State, Nigeria
OE Amoran
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction: Disclosure may reduce the transmission of HIV by raising awareness and decreasing risky behavior, thus status disclosure is an issue to be addressed for HIV prevention and treatment. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and determinants of HIV status disclosure to sexual partners among People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWAs) in Ogun state, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This study is an analytical cross-sectional study. A sample of people living with HIV/AIDS attending secondary health facilities in Ogun State were recruited into the study. Results: Of the total 637 interviewed, 324 (50.9%) indicated that they have disclosed to their main sexual partner. About 44.6% of the respondents reported that they do not know their partner’s HIV status, while 30.3% had a negative partner and 25.1% with HIV-positive partners. Among the participants who disclosed their HIV status, 17.3% disclosed on the day of receiving test result, 15.5% within two weeks, 9.7% in 2 to 4 weeks, 8.3% in 1 or more months. Predictors of disclosure were individuals who were married [OR = 4.52, CI = 2.06–9.92] living within monogamous family [OR = 1.67, CI = 1.10–2.53], had anticipation of partner’s support before disclosure [OR = 3.68, CI = 2.36–5.76] with knowledge of partner’s sero-status either positive [OR = 4.08, CI = 2.62–6.35] or negative [OR = 2.49, C.I = 1.59–3.90] and had a low self-esteem [OR = 0.61, CI = 0.42–0.89]. Conclusion: Disclosure rate was low in this African population. The study implies that PLWAs especially those having a difficult family life should be supported to make effective decisions to disclose their status. HIV sero-status should be addressed in behavioral interventions like counseling on positive living and a multidisciplinary approach to develop positive self-esteem through follow-up counseling.
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