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Numerical Analysis of an Industrial Polycrystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Module Based on the Single-Diode Model Using Lambert W Function  [PDF]
Mihai R?zvan Mitroi, Valeric? Ninulescu, Lauren?iu Fara, Dan Cr?ciunescu
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2019.77003
Abstract: It is adopted the single-diode solar cell model and extended for a PV module. The current vs. voltage (I-V) characteristic based on the Lambert W-function was used. The estimation parameters for the simulation approach of the photovoltaic (PV) module make use of Levenberg-Marquardt method. It was considered an industrial polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) module and the simulated results were compared with the experimental ones extracted from a specific datasheet. The I-V characteristic for the analysed PV module and its maximum output power are investigated for different operating conditions of incident solar radiation flux and temperature, as well as parameters related to the solar cells material and technology (series resistance, shunt resistance and gamma factor). The analysis gives indications and limitations for design and optimization of the performance for industrial PV modules. This study can be implemented in any type of PV module.
Effect of Temperature and Humidity on the Degradation Rate of Multicrystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Module  [PDF]
N. C. Park,W. W. Oh,D. H. Kim
International Journal of Photoenergy , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/925280
Abstract: In a PV module, the relative humidity (rh) of a front encapsulant is different from that of a backside encapsulant (rhback). In this study, the effective humidity (rheff) in a PV module was investigated to study the effects of moisture variation on the degradation rate ( ). rheff represents uniform humidity in a PV module when it is exposed to certain damp heat conditions. Five types of accelerated tests were conducted to derive the relation between rheff and rhback. rheff showed a linear relationship with rhback at constant temperature. Two types of models, namely, Eyring and Peck models, were used for predicting the of PV modules, and their results were compared. The of PV modules was thermally activated at 0.49?eV. Furthermore, the temperature and rheff history of PV modules over one year were determined at two locations: Miami (FL, USA) and Phoenix (AZ, USA). The accumulated values based on the temperature and rheff of the modules were calculated by summing the hourly degradation amounts over the time history. 1. Introduction Moisture can diffuse into photovoltaic (PV) modules through their breathable back sheets or their ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) sheets [1]. When in service in hot and humid climates, PV modules experience changes in the moisture content, the overall history of which is correlated with the degradation of the module performance [1]. If moisture begins to penetrate the polymer and reaches the solar cell, it can weaken the interfacial adhesive bonds, resulting in delamination [2] and increased numbers of ingress paths, loss of passivation [3], and corrosion of solder joints [4, 5]. Of these possibilities, the occurrence of corrosion has one of the highest frequencies in outdoor-exposed PV modules [6]. Significant losses in PV module performance are caused by the corrosion of the cell, that is, the SiNx antireflection coating, or the corrosion of metallic materials, that is, solder bonds and Ag fingers [7, 8]. Corrosion is defined as the destructive chemical or electrochemical reaction of a metal with its environment. The moisture from the environment may lead to electrochemical reactions that can result in corrosion. For the electrochemical reaction of metals with their environment, an aqueous, ion-conduction enabling environment is necessary; moreover, at high temperatures, gas-metal reactions are possible [9]. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61215 test defines a damp heat (DH) test in 10.13. The DH test is conducted for determining the effect of long-term penetration of humidity on materials. Therefore, many
Improving the Performance of Photovoltaic Power Plants with Determinative Module for the Cooling System  [PDF]
Vinícius O. da Silva, Miguel E. M. Udaeta, André L. V. Gimenes, Angélica L. Linhares
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2017.95021
Abstract: The objective of this work is to analyze and evaluate the impact of cooling systems on photovoltaic modules (for electricity generation), applied at a pilot Testing Facility. The results obtained during this step are used as input in order to determine the best model to be applied at a real-scale Photovoltaic Power Plant (PVPP). This methodology is based on the monitoring and supervision of the operating temperature of commercial photovoltaic modules (PV), both with and without cooling systems, as well as on the study of the water supply design of the cooling system applied on a micro photovoltaic power plant which is connected to the commercial network. Through the analysis of the data, we observed that photovoltaic modules with cooling systems always operate at lower temperatures than the ones without cooling systems. During the testing period, the operating temperatures of the photovoltaic modules without cooling systems were above 60oC (with a maximum temperature equaling 68.06oC), whereas the maximum temperatures registered on the sensors of the model “A” were 43.55oC and 44.75oC, and the ones registered on the sensors of the model “B” were 46.76 and 48.33oC. Therefore, we conclude that the photovoltaic module with the cooling system model “A” is the most suitable for large-scale application, since it was the only model to present temperatures lower than the nominal operating condition temperature (NOCT) of the cell (47oC ± 2oC).
Outdoor Performance Characterization of Multi-Crystalline Silicon Solar Module  [PDF]
S. Parthasarathy,P. Neelamegam,P. Thilakan
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The performance parameters of solar modules are characterized under Standard Test Conditions (STC). However, solar modules when deployed outdoor results in the output that differs from its output obtained at STC, due to the influence of various environmental factors, leading to confusion in deciding the appropriate electrical components and loads used for Solar Photovoltaic (SPV) power plant. In view of the above, Outdoor performance characterization of the multi-crystalline silicon solar module was studied. Daily solar illumination data were measured using an optical Pyranometer and analyzed together with the module output power. Blow of air mass was found very active at the site. Stable voltage output and dynamic current outputs were recorded. The average module efficiency of ~10 and 9.5% were obtained for the high and low illumination days, respectively. However, the integrated daily efficiency was found as 9.8% irrespective of the variation in solar illumination. Percentage of variations between the solar illumination and its associated current output under the blow of air mass were not found matching. Higher blow of air mass and its associated reduction in the solar insolation condition found yielding higher current output than the expected.
Investigations on the Outdoor Performance Characteristics of Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cell and Module  [PDF]
Sivakumar Parthasarathy,P. Neelamegam,P. Thilakan,N. Tamilselvan
Conference Papers in Science , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/838536
Abstract: Multicrystalline silicon solar cell and its module with 18 cells connected in series were mounted on an inclined rack tilted 12° South positioned at latitude of 12.0107° and longitude of 79.856°. Corresponding solar irradiance was measured using an optical Pyranometer. Measured irradiance, open circuit voltage ( ), and short circuit current ( ) values were analyzed. values of both the cell and module were found saturated at above the critical value of illuminations which were different from each other. The integrated daily efficiency for the cell and module were ~10.25% and ~9.39%, respectively, that were less than their respective standard test condition’s value. The reasons for this drop in efficiencies were investigated and reported. 1. Introduction Uncertainty in the prediction of the performance of solar photovoltaic power systems (SPVPSs) is a major hindering fact that suppresses its utility. This uncertain output performance of SPVPS is due to the exposure of unpredictable solar irradiances that is found varying with the location [1]. Numerous approaches were made to overcome the hindering fact, but so far, all of them are unsuccessful [1–5]. In general, photovoltaic (PV) modules are rated at indoor standard test conditions (STCs) using the irradiance of 1000?W/m2 and the temperature of 25°C [5]. However, the outdoor conditions do not follow the STC values and are found variable in nature due to the change in the position of sun and environmentally interference factors to the solar radiation such as the geographical location, cloud pattern, and blow of air mass [6]. It is reported that the seasonal variations shifts the spectral profile [7] and emboss variations in the spectrum & light intensity, reflection of unpolarized light, polarization and the temperature [4, 8–10]. Since, the solar illumination serves as the input to the SPVPS operation, any variation in the solar illumination results in a profound output changes. Hence, it is required to use output optimization devices such as DC/DC converter and the maximum power point tracker (MPPT) with due considerations on the characteristics of add on devices such as charge controller, battery, and inverter [11, 12]. It was demonstrated that the sizing of PV inverter is greatly influenced by site-dependent peculiarities like ambient temperature and solar irradiation distribution characteristics [12]. In addition, performance of PV module based on tilt angle and various mounting conditions are analyzed by [13, 14], and it was found that the outdoor weather conditions along with the tilt angle and its
Impact of Climatic Parameters on the Performance of Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Module in Niamey  [PDF]
Abdou Latif Bonkaney, Saidou Madougou, Rabani Adamou
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2017.812025
Abstract: The sensitivity of mono-crystalline solar PV module towards dust accumulation, ambient temperature, relative humidity, and cloud cover is investigated from May to August 2015 for Niamey’s environment. Two solar modules with the same characteristics have been used to carry out the impacts of the dust on the solar PV module. One of the modules is being cleaned every morning and the second one was used for monitoring the effect of dust accumulation onto the surface of the unclean module for May and June. The ambient temperature around the solar PV module was recorded at the same time with the output voltage and the output current to assess the impacts of ambient temperature on the PV conversion efficiency. In addition to these field test measurements, the solar radiation data measured in National Center of Solar Energy (CNES) of Niamey were also used. Also the relative humidity for the study area data obtained NASA power agro-climatology website was used. Results show that the dust accumulation has the greatest impact on the performance of the PV module followed by temperature, relative humidity and cloud cover. Exposing the module in 23 days has reduced the energy output by 15.29%. The power output and the conversion efficiency of the PV module have dropped by 2.6% and 0.49% respectively. The relative humidity also has reduced the energy output by 4.3 Wh/m2/day.
Effects on Amorphous Silicon Photovoltaic Performance from High-temperature Annealing Pulses in Photovoltaic Thermal Hybrid Devices  [PDF]
M. J. M. Pathak,J. M. Pearce,S. J. Harrison
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2012.01.015
Abstract: There is a renewed interest in photovoltaic solar thermal (PVT) hybrid systems, which harvest solar energy for heat and electricity. Typically, a main focus of a PVT system is to cool the photovoltaic (PV) cells to improve the electrical performance, however, this causes the thermal component to under-perform compared to a solar thermal collector. The low temperature coefficients of amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) allow for the PV cells to be operated at higher temperatures and are a potential candidate for a more symbiotic PVT system. The fundamental challenge of a-Si:H PV is light-induced degradation known as the Staebler-Wronski effect (SWE). Fortunately, SWE is reversible and the a-Si:H PV efficiency can be returned to its initial state if the cell is annealed. Thus an opportunity exists to deposit a-Si:H directly on the solar thermal absorber plate where the cells could reach the high temperatures required for annealing. In this study, this opportunity is explored experimentally. First a-Si:H PV cells were annealed for 1 hour at 100\degreeC on a 12 hour cycle and for the remaining time the cells were degraded at 50\degreeC in order to simulate stagnation of a PVT system for 1 hour once a day. It was found that, when comparing the cells after stabilization at normal 50\degreeC degradation, this annealing sequence resulted in a 10.6% energy gain when compared to a cell that was only degraded at 50\degreeC.
Performance of Silicon immersed gratings: Measurement, analysis and modelling  [PDF]
Michiel Rodenhuis,Paul J. J. Tol,Tonny H. M. Coppens,Phillip P. Laubert,Aaldert H. van Amerongen
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1117/12.2191266
Abstract: The use of Immersed Gratings offers advantages for both space- and ground-based spectrographs. As diffraction takes place inside the high-index medium, the optical path difference and angular dispersion are boosted proportionally, thereby allowing a smaller grating area and a smaller spectrometer size. Short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy is used in space-based monitoring of greenhouse and pollution gases in the Earth atmosphere. On the extremely large telescopes currently under development, mid-infrared high-resolution spectrographs will, among other things, be used to characterize exo-planet atmospheres. At infrared wavelengths, Silicon is transparent. This means that production methods used in the semiconductor industry can be applied to the fabrication of immersed gratings. Using such methods, we have designed and built immersed gratings for both space- and ground-based instruments, examples being the TROPOMI instrument for the European Space Agency Sentinel-5 precursor mission, Sentinel-5 (ESA) and the METIS (Mid-infrared E-ELT Imager and Spectrograph) instrument for the European Extremely Large Telescope. Three key parameters govern the performance of such gratings: The efficiency, the level of scattered light and the wavefront error induced. In this paper we describe how we can optimize these parameters during the design and manufacturing phase. We focus on the tools and methods used to measure the actual performance realized and present the results. In this paper, the bread-board model (BBM) immersed grating developed for the SWIR-1 channel of Sentinel-5 is used to illustrate this process. Stringent requirements were specified for this grating for the three performance criteria. We will show that -with some margin- the performance requirements have all been met.
Modelling on c-Si/a-Si:H wire solar cells: some key parameters to optimize the photovoltaic performance  [cached]
Ngo I.,Gueunier-Farret M.E.,Alvarez J.,Kleider J.P.
EPJ Photovoltaics , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/epjpv/2012007
Abstract: Solar cells based on silicon nano- or micro-wires have attracted much attention as a promising path for low cost photovoltaic technology. The key point of this structure is the decoupling of the light absorption from the carriers collection. In order to predict and optimize the performance potential of p- (or n-) doped c-Si/ n-(or p-) doped a-Si:H nanowire-based solar cells, we have used the Silvaco-Atlas software to model a single-wire device. In particular, we have noticed a drastic decrease of the open-circuit voltage (Voc) when increasing the doping density of the silicon core beyond an optimum value. We present here a detailed study of the parameters that can alter the Voc of c-Si(p)/a-Si:H (n) wires according to the doping density in c-Si. A comparison with simulation results obtained on planar c-Si/a-Si:H heterojunctions shows that the drop in Voc, linked to an increase of the dark current in both structures, is more pronounced for radial junctions due to geometric criteria. These numerical modelling results have lead to a better understanding of transport phenomena within the wire.
Comparison of Predictive Models for Photovoltaic Module Performance under Sudanese-Sahelian Climate  [cached]
Koumi Ngoh Simon,Njomo Donatien,Mougnutou Nfetoum I
TELKOMNIKA : Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.11591/telkomnika.v10i2.677
Abstract: This paper investigates various approaches to the modeling of photovoltaic systems and tests their accuracy under tropical climate. Particularly the single diode model is used to estimate the electrical behavior of the cell with respect changes on environmental parameter of temperature and irradiance. A particular typical MXS60 solar panel is used for models evaluation and results are comparing with points taken directly from the experience made on the same panel in tropical climate of the Sudan type . The accuracy of models was computed and the better model was determined for local conditions. The analysis of the curves shows that the single diode model has the better accuracy whereas the Photovoltaic geographical information system (PVGIS) approach seems to be not appropriate for the region.
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