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Genetic relationships among West African okra (Abelmoschus caillei) and Asian genotypes (Abelmoschus esculentus) using RAPD
SE Aladele, OJ Ariyo, R de Lapena
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: Ninety-three accessions of okra which comprises of 50 West African genotypes (Abelmoschus caillei) and 43 Asian genotypes (A. esculentus) were assessed for genetic distinctiveness and relationships using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The molecular analysis showed that all the thirteen primers used revealed clear distinction between the two genotypes. There were more diversity among the Asian genotypes; this might be due to the fact that they were originally collected from six different countries in the region. Six duplicates accessions were discovered while accession TOT7444 distinguished itself from the other two okra species, an indication which suggests that it might belong to a different species.
Ethnobotanical studies of west african okra [Abelmoschus caillei (a. Chev) stevels] from some tribes of south western Nigeria
M.E Osawaru, F.M Dania-Ogbe
Science World Journal , 2010,
Abstract: West African Okra [Abelmoschus caillei (A. Chev) Stevels] is a multipurpose annual, biennal herb sometime perennial woody crop plant common in the humid West African subcontinent. It is produced in traditional agriculture especially when other vegetables are not in season and an important cash crop in the local economy. This study is aimed at generating information and documenting the ethnobotany of A. caillei via the indigenous knowledge among tribes of Delta, Edo and Ondo States of Nigeria). Primary information was collected from randomly selected respondents through survey using structured questionnaires and guided walks within 54 sites. A total of 540 persons were surveyed aged between 18-87 years old. Of this number, 259 (48%) were males and 281 (52%) females. Nine ethnic tribes were recorded in the 3 States. The tribes varied in their socio-cultural and economic characteristics and local knowledge about the crop. One-two local names of the crop was recorded with one related “type”. Traditional uses of the crop include food (100%) and nonfood purposes. The information from non-food uses include medicine (27%), myth/religion (32%), soil fertility indicate (19%), rainy season indicator (8%), dry season/harvest time indicator (100%), fuel (15%) and sponge (11%). These sets of information indicate that the crop plant is of prime importance in the area.
Epidermal morphology of west african okra Abelmoschus caillei (A. Chev.) Stevels from south western Nigeria
ME Osawaru, FM Dania-Ogbe, Ao Chime, MC Ogwu
Science World Journal , 2011,
Abstract: A study of the micro-morphology of 53 accessions of West African Okra was undertaken using light microscopy techniques. Results showed that epidermal cells are polygonal, isodiametric and irregularly shaped with different anticlinal cell wall patterns. Stomata type is 100% paracytic and 100% amphistomatic in distribution among the accessions studied. Stomatal indices ranged from 12.23 to 24.34 with 43.40% accessions ranging between 18.00 to 21.00. Stomatal were more frequently on the abaxial surface. Similarly, stomata on the abaxial surface are relatively larger than those of the adaxial surface and stomatal pore sizes also showed similar trend. Trichomes were widely distributed, eglandular, solitary and unicellular types are recorded. These occur in three forms namely, unicellular filiform, unicellular conical and stellate hairs. Variations observed in the structure and distributions of the trichomes were discussed. These micro-morphological features are regarded diagnostic in this species-caillei rather for circumscription among accessions studied.
Combining Ability and Genetic Components for Length and Width of Pods in West African Okra (Abelmoschus caillei [A. Chev] Stevels)
O.T. Adeniji,O.B. Kehinde
Agricultural Journal , 2013,
Abstract: In the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, okra pods are consumed fresh. The introduction of pure lines and hybrids with improved length and width into the cropping system, necessitate studies on the combining ability and genetic components for the length and width of pods. Seven parents and 21 F1 generations were planted for evaluation in a randomized complete block design with two replications. The results indicated that the means squares due to GCA and SCA for length and width of pods were significant. The estimated variance due to SCA was greater than GCA variance for length and width of pods at edible stage and vice versa for length and width of pod at maturity. The study identified Parents 7, 6, 4 and 5 as best combiners for edible pod length and width, mature pod length and width. Component analysis indicated that the dominant genetic action predominate other genetic effects in the inheritance of length and width of pods. The dominance components (H1 and H2) were found to be greater than the additive gene effects (D). The ratio vH/D revealed overdominance loci for characters evaluated. The estimate F were positive (edible pod length and mature pod length) and negative (edible pod width and mature pod width). The proportion v4(DH1+F)/ v4(DH1-F) was unity. While the ratio 4H2/4H1 = 0.25 for all characters evaluated. The non-additive genetic effects accounted for a low to moderate heritability estimate in narrow sense recorded in the study. Both Oligogenic and polygenic action were found in the study. The study indicated an empirical superiority of the possibilities of evolving pure lines and hybrid okra with improved length and width into the cropping system.
Comparative Analysis of Genotype x Environment Interaction Techniques in West African Okra, (Abelmoschus caillei, A. Chev Stevels)  [cached]
C.O Alake,O.J Ariyo
Journal of Agricultural Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jas.v4n4p135
Abstract: West African okra occurs in wild and unselected variants in Nigeria but farmers desire stable and high-yielding cultivars. Twenty-five West African okra genotypes from diverse geographical backgrounds were evaluated in five different environments for stability of performance. Performance was measured by number of days to 50% flowering, number of pods per plants, number of seeds per pod, plant height at maturity and seed yield per plant. A regression method, Additive main effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) and Genotype main effect and genotype x environment Interaction (GGE) were employed in the evaluation. Joint regression and AMMI analyses showed significant (P< 0.01) G x E interaction with respect to seed yield, and both identified NGAE-96-0060 and NGAE-96-0063 as stable genotypes. The AMMI and GGE biplot analyses are more efficient than the Eberhart and Russell analysis. The GGE biplot explains higher proportions of the sum of squares of the GxE interaction and is more informative with regards to environments and cultivar performance than the AMMI analysis. GGE-biplot models showed that the five environments used for the study belonged to three mega-environments with environment 2 (Upland, 2007) being the most representative and most desirable of all. The GGE results also confirmed NGAE-96-0063 as being stable with NGAE-96-04 as the most stable. NGAE-96-04 was identified as most superior genotype in terms of yield and stability of performance and could be recommended for cultivation.
Combining Ability and Genetic Components for Length and Width of Pods in West African Okra (Abelmoschus caillei (A. Chev) Stevels)  [PDF]
O.T. Adeniji,O.B. Kehinde
Journal of Agronomy , 2007,
Abstract: In the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, okra pods are consumed fresh. The introduction of pure lines and hybrids with improved length and width into the cropping system, necessitate studies on the combining ability and genetic components for the length and width of pods. Seven parents and 21 F1 generations were planted for evaluation in a randomized complete block design with two replications. The results indicated that the means squares due to GCA and SCA for length and width of pods were significant. The estimated variance due to SCA was greater than GCA variance for length and width of pods at edible stage and vice versa for length and width of pod at maturity. The study identified Parents 7, 6, 4 and 5 as best combiners for edible pod length and width, mature pod length and width. Component analysis indicated that the dominant genetic action predominate other genetic effects in the inheritance of length and width of pods. The dominance components (H1 and H2) were found to be greater than the additive gene effects (D). The ratio VH/D revealed overdominance loci for characters evaluated. The estimate F were positive (edible pod length and mature pod length) and negative (edible pod width and mature pod width). The proportion V4(DH1+F)/ V4(DH1-F) was unity. While the ratio 4H2/4H1 = 0.25 for all characters evaluated. The non-additive genetic effects accounted for a low to moderate heritability estimate in narrow sense recorded in the study. Both Oligogenic and polygenic action were found in the study. The study indicated an empirical superiority of the possibilities of evolving pure lines and hybrid okra with improved length and width into the cropping system.
Interrelationships among Characters and Path Analysis for Pod Yield Components in West African Okra (Abelmoschus caillei (A. Chev) Stevels)  [PDF]
O.T. Adeniji,C.O. Aremu
Journal of Agronomy , 2007,
Abstract: Correlation, stepwise multiple regression and path coefficient analysis were used to determine the relationships, direct and indirect effects of agronomic and reproductive characters on pod and seed yield. Eighteen F2 generation obtained from hybridization of West African okra were planted for evaluation in a randomized complete block design with two replications in a single locations. Data were collected on agronomic and reproductive characters. Significant differences were observed among the segregating population for pods/branch, seeds/pod, inter node distance, seeds/ridge branch length, height at flower bud initiation and height at flowering. A positive correlation (p<0.05) was recorded for number of pods/plant and seed weight, height at maturity, ridges/pod and seeds/ridge. The seed weight recorded a positive correlation coefficient with edible pod width, seeds/ridge and pods/plant. The stepwise multiple regression analysis identified two characters (height at maturity and number of pods/plant) to have accounted for 31% of variation observed in seed weight. Mature pod length was responsible for 39% of variability in seed weight. The numbers of ridges per pod and plant height at maturity were responsible for 25% of variation due to regression in pod yield. The path analysis identified plant height at maturity, ridges/pod, pods/plant, mature pod length and seed/ridge as selection indicators for pod and seed yield improvement in West African Okra.
Heritability and Number of Genes Governing Pod Yield in West African Okra (Abelmoschus caillei (A.chev) Stevels
Adeniji,Olawale Taiwo
Agricultural Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Heritability, genetic action and number of genes moderating the inheritance of pod yield was investigated in 5 crosses of West African okra accessions. Parents with variation for pod yield were used in hybridization process. Generations developed (parents, F1, F2 and BC1 BC2) were planted for evaluation in a randomized complete block design with 2 replications. The results showed that the additive-dominance model was adequate in explaining the inheritance of pod yield. This was ascribed to a non significant estimate of A, B and C scaling tests. The results of the generation mean analysis indicated that the additive genetic effects (d) significantly accounted for a large proportion of variability observed for pod yield in the crosses evaluated. A partial dominance loci (H/D< 0.75) and over dominance loci (H/D>1.00) revealed an intermediate performance and the possibility of developing hybrids for pod yield. Narrow sense heritability estimates (sensus stricto) were low to moderate. An additive genetic effect suggests that selection among segregating population could provide an average improvement in the performance of pod yield in subsequent generations. The study indicated that the inheritance of pod yield was polygenic, thus safeguarding against genetic loss of pod yield in selection process.
Biochemical and Mineral Responses of Okra Seeds (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Variety Marsaouia) to Salt and Thermal Stresses  [PDF]
B.D. Besma,D. Mounir
Journal of Agronomy , 2010,
Abstract: The present research has studied the effects of NaCl and temperature on germination and emergence of okra. Studies were carried out with seeds of a local okra variety (Marsaouia) subjected to 0 and 100 mM NaCl, performed in the dark at 10, 15, 25, 35 and 40°C at germination stage and by 12 h light at emergence stage. The cumulative germination percentage, the cumulative emergence percentage, starch content, the reducing sugars levels, total amylase activity, sodium and potassium accumulation were quantified in germinated seeds at 15°C, 25 and 35°C. Temperature presented a significant effect on salt sensitivity of this species at germination and emergence stages. Germination of okra seeds was completely inhibited at 10 and 40°C. The best germination and emergence temperature was recorded at 25°C. The adverse effect of salt was more pronounced at low and high temperature. During the salt stress treatment, the level of starch reserves was higher at 25°C and lower at 15 and 35°C, an increase in reducing sugars content in cotyledons was observed. The activity of total amylase was most intensive at lower temperature in control seeds and at higher temperature in salt treated seeds. The sodium concentration on germinated seeds increased significantly at 15 and 35°C, but potassium amount did not change regularly within thermal and salt stress interaction.
Genotypic performance, character correlations and path analysis of pod yield in Abelmoschus caillei (A. Chev.) Stevels
Christopher O. Alake,Omolayo J. Ariyo,Moninuola A. Ayo-Vaughan
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2012.e44
Abstract: Direct selection based on pod yield is often a problem in West African okra (Abelmoschus caillei (A. Chev.) Stevels) breeding programs. Information on inter-relationships among traits to implement indirect selection for pod yield is needed. Objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of West African okra varieties in two cropping seasons prevailing in Nigeria, and to determine the associations among main agronomic characters and their influence on pod yield. Twenty-five genotypes were grown in two planting seasons at the Research Farm of the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta in 2008-2009 using a randomized complete-block design with three replications. Sixteen plant characters were measured. The data were subjected to variance, correlation and path analyses. Four genotypes, viz., CEN 010, CEN 012, NGAE-96-04 and AGA 97/066-5780 demonstrated potential for high pod yield. CEN 012 and AGA 97/066-5780 in addition, demonstrated early flowering higher number of pods. Character associations varied between planting seasons. The dependence of pod yield on final plant height, number of branches per plant, number of pods per branch, number of pods per plant, number of ridges per pod, weight of 250 seeds, pod length and seed weight per plant was noted in both planting seasons. In both seasons, number of pods per plant exhibited a high positive direct effect on pod yield. In conclusion, the trait of most interest for improving pod yield under early and late-season conditions was number of pods per plant.
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