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A Grave Garden: Aritha van Herk's Calgary
Shelley Boyd
The Brock Review , 2008,
Abstract: In her long poem Calgary, This Growing Graveyard, Aritha van Herk presents the cemetery as a public garden of critical reflection within the rapidly changing urban environment of Calgary, Alberta. Foregrounding the simultaneous processes of growth and decay, van Herk suggests that the cemetery as garden becomes symbolic not only of the city’s successive generations, but also of the ongoing creation, destruction, and recreation of the city’s physical-cultural landscape. First published in 1987, Calgary, This Growing Graveyard captures the “boom and bust” economy of Calgary following the implementation of Canada’s National Energy Program in 1980. Now in 2007, van Herk’s poem turns prophetic as Calgarians experience the growing pains that coincide with a lucrative economy, mass migration, and urban sprawl.
Solar Energy Modelling over a Residential Community in the City of Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Quazi K. Hassan,K. Mahmud Rahman,Anis S. Haque,Ahad Ali
International Journal of Photoenergy , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/216519
Abstract: Solar energy is an abundant source of renewable/sustainable energy, which has an enormous potential in reducing the foot print of the greenhouse gases. In this paper, we presented a modelling framework of estimating solar energy over a portion of a residential community of Sandstone in the northwest of Calgary, Canada. We calculated the actual daily incident solar radiation as a function of latitude, day of year, and possible day light hours; and also employed high-resolution remote sensing images to calculate the effective roof area for installing photovoltaic cells. Strong relationships (2∶0.91-0.98) were observed between the ground-based measurements and the modelled actual incident solar radiation at three test locations in Alberta. Over the portion of Sandstone, ~1706.49 m2 roof surface area was suitable for potential installation of the photovoltaic cells. With 15% efficient photovoltaic cells, our analysis revealed that we might be able to produce significant amount (i.e., in the range of ~67–100%) of electrical energy needs of the residents of Sandstone community during the period between April and September.
Walking to work in Canada: health benefits, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations
Peter Kitchen, Allison Williams, James Chowhan
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-212
Abstract: Data is drawn from two cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey: 2001 and 2005. The study population is divided into three groups: non-walkers, lower-duration walkers and high-duration walkers. Logistic regression modeling tests the association between levels of walking and health related outcomes (diabetes, high blood pressure, stress, BMI, physical activity), socio-economic characteristics (sex, age, income, education) and place of residence (selected Census Metropolitan Areas).In 2005, the presence of diabetes and high blood pressure was not associated with any form of walking. Adults within the normal weight range were more likely to be high-duration walkers. Females and younger people were more likely to be lower-duration walkers but less likely to be high-duration walkers. There was a strong association between SES (particularly relative disadvantage) and walking to work. In both 2001 and 2005, the conditions influencing walking to work were especially prevalent in Canada's largest city, Toronto, as well as in several small to medium sized urban areas including Halifax, Kingston, Hamilton, Regina, Calgary and Victoria.A number of strategies can be followed to increase levels of walking in Canada. It is clear that for many people walking to work is not possible. However, strategies can be developed to encourage adults to incorporate walking into their daily work and commuting routines. These include mass transit walking and workplace walking programs.There is growing concern in Canada over increasing rates of overweight/obesity and declining levels of physical fitness among children and adults [1-4]. The negative health consequences of this situation and its economic burden on the health care system have been documented [5,6]. Federal and provincial governments have embarked on programs and strategies aimed at improving levels of physical fitness [7,8]. There is a clear link between the amount of walking a person does and his or her health [9-11]. Researc
Is there an association between spatial access to parks/green space and childhood overweight/obesity in Calgary, Canada?
Melissa L Potestio, Alka B Patel, Christopher D Powell, Deborah A McNeil, R Daniel Jacobson, Lindsay McLaren
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-6-77
Abstract: Body Mass Index was calculated from measured height and weight data obtained from 6,772 children (mean age = 4.95 years) attending public health clinics for pre-school vaccinations. Each child's home postal code was geocoded using ESRI ArcGIS 9.2. We examined four measures of spatial access to parks/green space (based on Geographic Information Systems): 1) the number of parks/green spaces per 10,000 residents, 2) the area of parks/green space as a proportion of the total area within a community, 3) average distance to a park/green space, and 4) the proportion of parks/green space service area as a proportion of the total area within a community. Analyses were adjusted for dissemination area median family income (as a proxy for an individual child's family income) community-level education, and community-level proportion of visible minorities.In general, parks/green space at the community level was not associated with overweight/obesity in Calgary, with the exception of a marginally significant effect whereby a moderate number of parks/green spaces per 10,000 residents was associated with lower odds of overweight/obesity. This effect was non-significant in adjusted analyses.Our null findings may reflect the popularity of car travel in Calgary, Canada and suggest that the role built environment characteristics play in explaining health outcomes may differ depending on the type of urban environment being studied.Recently the public health literature has seen an increasing number of studies investigating the relationship between various attributes of place and the health of populations [1-5]. This type of research strives to explain geographic variations in health outcomes as a function of both place and the individual characteristics of people living in that place [6,7]. As one example, there has been growing interest in understanding the role of residential environments in enhancing and constraining physical activity and influencing obesity[8]. This is particularly re
A Mixed Methods Approach to Exploring the Relationship between Norway Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Abundance and Features of the Urban Environment in an Inner-City Neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada  [PDF]
Chelsea G. Himsworth, Kirbee L. Parsons, Alice Y. T. Feng, Thomas Kerr, Claire M. Jardine, David M. Patrick
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097776
Abstract: Urban rats (Rattus spp.) are among the most ubiquitous pest species in the world. Previous research has shown that rat abundance is largely determined by features of the environment; however, the specific urban environmental factors that influence rat population density within cities have yet to be clearly identified. Additionally, there are no well described tools or methodologies for conducting an in-depth evaluation of the relationship between urban rat abundance and the environment. In this study, we developed a systematic environmental observation tool using methods borrowed from the field of systematic social observation. This tool, which employed a combination of quantitative and qualitative methodologies, was then used to identify environmental factors associated with the relative abundance of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) in an inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada. Using a multivariate zero-inflated negative binomial model, we found that a variety of factors, including specific land use, building condition, and amount of refuse, were related to rat presence and abundance. Qualitative data largely supported and further clarified observed statistical relationships, but also identified conflicting and unique situations not easily captured through quantitative methods. Overall, the tool helped us to better understand the relationship between features of the urban environment and relative rat abundance within our study area and may useful for studying environmental determinants of zoonotic disease prevalence/distribution among urban rat populations in the future.
Urban Growth Modeling Using Neural Network Simulation: A Case Study of Dongguan City, China  [PDF]
Xinmin Zhang
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2016.83027
Abstract: Dongguan is an important industrial city, located in the Pearl River Delta, South China. Recently, Dongguan city experienced a rapid urban growth with the locational advantage by transforming from traditional agricultural region to modern manufacturing metropolis. The urban transformation became the usual change in China under the background of urbanization which belongs to one trend of globalization in the 21st century. This paper tries to analyze urban growth simulation based on remotely sensed data of previous years and the related physical and socio-economic factors and predict future urban growth in 2024. The study examined and compared the land use/cover (LUC) changes over time based on produced maps of 2004, 2009, and 2014. The results showed that water and forest area decreased since the past years. In contrast, the urban land increased from 2004 to 2014, and this increasing trend will continue to the future years through the urbanization process. Having understood the spatiotemporal trends of urban growth, the study simulated the urban growth of Dongguan city for 2024 using neural network simulation technique. Further, the figure of merit (FoM) of simulated map of 2014 map was 8.86%, which can be accepted in the simulation and used in the prediction process. Based on the consideration of water body and forest, the newly growth area is located in the west, northeast, and southeast regions of Dongguan city. The finding can help us to understand which areas are going to be considered in the future urban planning and policy by the local government.
CA-Markov Analysis of Constrained Coastal Urban Growth Modeling: Hua Hin Seaside City, Thailand  [PDF]
Kritsana Kityuttachai,Nitin Kumar Tripathi,Taravudh Tipdecho,Rajendra Shrestha
Sustainability , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/su5041480
Abstract: Thailand, a developing country in Southeast Asia, is experiencing rapid development, particularly urban growth as a response to the expansion of the tourism industry. Hua Hin city provides an excellent example of an area where urbanization has flourished due to tourism. This study focuses on how the dynamic urban horizontal expansion of the seaside city of Hua Hin is constrained by the coast, thus making sustainability for this popular tourist destination—managing and planning for its local inhabitants, its visitors, and its sites—an issue. The study examines the association of land use type and land use change by integrating Geo-Information technology, a statistic model, and CA-Markov analysis for sustainable land use planning. The study identifies that the land use types and land use changes from the year 1999 to 2008 have changed as a result of increased mobility; this trend, in turn, has everything to do with urban horizontal expansion. The changing sequences of land use type have developed from forest area to agriculture, from agriculture to grassland, then to bare land and built-up areas. Coastal urban growth has, for a decade, been expanding horizontally from a downtown center along the beach to the western area around the golf course, the southern area along the beach, the southwest grassland area, and then the northern area near the airport.
Population-Based Laboratory Surveillance of Imported Malaria in Metropolitan Calgary, 2000–2011  [PDF]
Clara S. Lee, Daniel B. Gregson, Deirdre Church, Kevin B. Laupland, Rose Eckhardt, Terry Ross, Wilson Chan, Dylan R. Pillai
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060751
Abstract: Increased travel leads to a heightened risk of imported infectious diseases. Patterns of immigration to countries like Canada have changed such that countries of malaria endemicity are frequented in larger numbers. In keeping with the changes in travel patterns and immigration, the major metropolitan city of Calgary has seen a dramatic rise in malaria incidence over the last decade. Fuelling this rise in Calgary has been the apparent complacence with prophylaxis in individuals visiting friends and relatives and potentially inadequate public health intervention in areas of the city with increased immigration and lower socioeconomic status.
Geospatial Technologies to Improve Urban Energy Efficiency  [PDF]
Geoffrey J. Hay,Christopher Kyle,Bharanidharan Hemachandran,Gang Chen,Mir Mustafizur Rahman,Tak S. Fung,Joseph L. Arvai
Remote Sensing , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/rs3071380
Abstract: The HEAT (Home Energy Assessment Technologies) pilot project is a FREE Geoweb mapping service, designed to empower the urban energy efficiency movement by allowing residents to visualize the amount and location of waste heat leaving their homes and communities as easily as clicking on their house in Google Maps. HEAT incorporates Geospatial solutions for residential waste heat monitoring using Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) and Canadian built Thermal Airborne Broadband Imager technology (TABI-320) to provide users with timely, in-depth, easy to use, location-specific waste-heat information; as well as opportunities to save their money and reduce their green-house-gas emissions. We first report on the HEAT Phase I pilot project which evaluates 368 residences in the Brentwood community of Calgary, Alberta, Canada, and describe the development and implementation of interactive waste heat maps, energy use models, a Hot Spot tool able to view the 6+ hottest locations on each home and a new HEAT Score for inter-city waste heat comparisons. We then describe current challenges, lessons learned and new solutions as we begin Phase II and scale from 368 to 300,000+ homes with the newly developed TABI-1800. Specifically, we introduce a new object-based mosaicing strategy, an adaptation of Emissivity Modulation to correct for emissivity differences, a new Thermal Urban Road Normalization (TURN) technique to correct for scene-wide microclimatic variation. We also describe a new Carbon Score and opportunities to update city cadastral errors with automatically defined thermal house?objects.
Community-Based Outbreaks in Vulnerable Populations of Invasive Infections Caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotypes 5 and 8 in Calgary, Canada  [PDF]
Otto G. Vanderkooi, Deirdre L. Church, Judy MacDonald, Franziska Zucol, James D. Kellner
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028547
Abstract: Background Outbreaks of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) typically occur within institutions. Beginning in 2005, we detected an increase in serotype (ST) 5 and ST8 IPD cases, predominantly in homeless persons living in an open community. Methodology/Principal Findings CASPER (Calgary Area S. pneumoniae Epidemiology Research) surveillance study of all IPD (sterile site isolates) in our region (pop ~1,100,000). Interviews and chart reviews of all cases and all isolates phenotypically analyzed and selected isolated tested by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Conclusions/Significance During 2005–2007, 162 cases of ST5 IPD and 45 cases of ST8 IPD were identified. The isolates demonstrated phenotypic and genotypic clonality. The ST5 isolates were sequence type (ST) 289 and demonstrated intermediate susceptibility to TMP-SMX. The ST8 isolates were predominantly ST1268, with a susceptible antimicrobial susceptibility profile. Individuals with ST5 IPD were more likely to be middle aged (OR 2.6), homeless (OR 4.4), using illicit drugs(OR 4.8), and asthmatic(OR 2.6). Those with ST8 were more likely to be male (OR 4.4), homeless (OR 2.6), aboriginal (OR7.3), and a current smoker (OR 2.5). Overlapping outbreaks of ST5 and ST8 IPD occurred in an open community in Calgary, Canada and homelessness was a predominant risk factor. Homelessness represents a unique community in which pneumococcal outbreaks can occur.
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