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Teacher Identity and the Marketizised Society. Discursive Constructions in Teachers’ Discussion Groups
Sara Irisdotter Aldenmyr
Journal of Social Science Education , 2010,
Abstract: In the latest decennium, there have been several and gradual changes in the Swedish and other European school systems. The steering system has become more decentralized and the entire school system is now a part of the freedom of trade. Schools are competing with each other and this has, according to previous research, an effect on how teachers think about, and carry out their everyday activities (Gerwitz et al. 1995; Irisdotter 2006). How teachers think about themselves, their students and the educational task is of great importance for the social climate of the classroom and, in the longer run, society in general. The current study dicusses how teachers‘ identities and self-understandings are influenced by the marketization of society. The material analysed consists of group discussions in three different teacher groups in compulsory school in Sweden. Questions raised are: Can teachers work within the context of marketization and yet relate to it with an attitude of self-awareness and critical reflection? And how can teachers deal with both traditional teacher values and progressive, democratic values that may be in conflict with the conditions of a marketizised school system?
As intera es discursivas no ensino de física: a promo o da discuss o pelo professor e a alfabetiza o científica dos alunos Discursive interactions in science education: teacher's promotion of discussion and student's scientific literacy  [cached]
Vitor Fabrício Machado Souza,Lucia Helena Sasseron
Ciência & Educa??o (Bauru) , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/s1516-73132012000300007
Abstract: Neste trabalho propomos uma análise comparativa entre o discurso do professor e os indicadores de Alfabetiza o Científica apontados no discurso dos alunos, de modo a buscar uma rela o entre a a o do professor e o desenvolvimento de habilidades visadas no ensino de ciências. Investigaremos as intera es discursivas em sala de aula de Física do Ensino Médio utilizando duas metodologias de análise: a primeira visa a identificar as intera es do professor, suas inten es, o conteúdo do discurso, as formas de abordagem, os padr es discursivos e as interven es. A segunda, busca identificar, no discurso dos alunos, parametros de organiza o, seria o ou classifica o de informa es, elabora o e teste de hipóteses, raciocínio lógico, justificativa, previs o e explica o. Verificamos, dentre outras coisas, a rela o direta entre o padr o discursivo do professor e o desenvolvimento de habilidades científicas relevantes a um ensino que vise a Alfabetiza o Científica. In this paper we propose a comparative analysis between the discourse of the teacher and the indicators of Scientific Literacy in order to seek a relationship between the action of the teacher and the development of skills aimed at teaching science. We will analyze the discursive interactions in high school classroom of Physics by using two analysis methods: the first, aims to identify the interactions of the teacher, his intentions, the content of speech, ways to approach the standards for discourse and action. The second, seeks to identify, into student's speech, parameters of organization, ranking or classification of information, developing and testing hypotheses, logical reasoning, explanation, prediction and explanation. We checked out other things to direct relationship between the standard discourse of the teacher and the development of skills relevant to a scientific education that aims to Scientific Literacy.
SOCIOLINGUISTICS, COGNITIVISM, AND DISCURSIVE PSYCHOLOGYL  [cached]
Jonathan Potter,Derek Edwards
International Journal of English Studies (IJES) , 2003, DOI: 10.6018/ijes.3.1.48531
Abstract: This paper addresses the broad question of how work in sociolinguistics should be related to social theory, and in particular the assumptions about cognition that can underpin that relation. A discursive psychological approach to issues of cognition is pressed and illustrated by a reworking of Stubb's review of work on language and cognition. A discursive psychological approach is offered to the topics of racist discourse, courtroom interaction, scientific writing, and sexism. Discursive psychology rejects the approach to 'cognition' as a collection of more or less stable inner entities and processes. Instead the focus is on the way 'mental phenomena' are both constructed and oriented to in people's practices.
Representational Pattern of Discursive Hegemony  [PDF]
Ming Liu
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2013.32018
Abstract: The paper aims to construct a practical representational pattern, which is to uncover the way the discursive hegemony exists in the content of text. The representational pattern will be embarked upon level by level, mainly from the linguistic perspective such as field of discourse, transitivity, and the choice and meaning of words. For the reason of non-discursive elements having determined effects in the formation of discursive hegemony, the paper will also explore hegemony beyond the linguistic perspective by means of the concept \"discourse\" constructed in Fairclough’s Critical Discourse Analysis model. In addition, a particular written text will be chosen to further testify the way of how hegemony is represented in a particular text or discourse.
Circumstantial-Evidence-Based Judgment for Software Effort Estimation  [PDF]
Zheng Li,Liam O'Brien,He Zhang
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Expert judgment for software effort estimation is oriented toward direct evidences that refer to actual effort of similar projects or activities through experts' experiences. However, the availability of direct evidences implies the requirement of suitable experts together with past data. The circumstantial-evidence-based judgment proposed in this paper focuses on the development experiences deposited in human knowledge, and can then be used to qualitatively estimate implementation effort of different proposals of a new project by rational inference. To demonstrate the process of circumstantial-evidence-based judgment, this paper adopts propositional learning theory based diagnostic reasoning to infer and compare different effort estimates when implementing a Web service composition project with some different techniques and contexts. The exemplar shows our proposed work can help determine effort tradeoff before project implementation. Overall, circumstantial-evidence-based judgment is not an alternative but complementary to expert judgment so as to facilitate and improve software effort estimation.
HERACLITUS’ DISCURSIVE AUTHORITY  [cached]
L. Jordaan
Akroterion , 2012, DOI: 10.7445/49-0-87
Abstract: His enigmatic thought has led to many interpretations, which in turn have led to their own important developments in Western philosophy.1 On the other hand, his often radical statements have with equal frequency led to his simple dismissal as an eccentric. That dismissal is frequently involved in questions of philosophy’s discursive features, a question that is controversial even to frame.2 Hence much could be gained from an examination of the discursive features of Heraclitus, and in particular one deceptively simple question: why did his contemporaries take him seriously? To answer this, we must first examine what else they took seriously.
Discursive interactions and the use of analogies in physics teaching  [PDF]
Fernanda Cátia Bozelli,Roberto Nardi
Investiga??es em Ensino de Ciências , 2012,
Abstract: In the last few years, Science Education researchers have shown new ways do conceive the processes of teaching and learning, demanding the displacement from the individual understanding of specific phenomena to a new context, which means, to a bias of meanings construction in a social context. However, still there are few researches concerned with how teachers give support to the process throughout the students build meanings in science classrooms, about how these interactions are produced, developed and, in what level they indeed interfere in students’ learning. This research tries to move forward in this line of research, investigating the interactive discursive processes related to the figures of speech (in this case, analogies), particularly about the context of its creation, working out and exploration in physics classrooms. One of the questions which allowed that reflection was that to explain scientific concepts in classroom involves, even to understand contents, as to be able to communicate this content in a more effective way. Does the posture assumed by teachers in the conversational aspect, during the discursive interaction, has contributed or influenced the rise and exploration of analogies in classrooms? To answer these questions we adopted a qualitative and interpretative approach, trough which we analyzed a sample of 23 futures high school physics teachers, during a semester, when the development of supervised practicum activities, carried out in the two last semesters of their undergraduate program, done in a public state university in S o Paulo, Brazil. Data collected show that it is necessary more discussion about the use of analogies in teachers initial training programs; taking account its function, benefit or disadvantage, how to explore analogies in a more effective way. Besides that, how the discursive interactive context among teacher and students can interfere in the teaching and learning processes in classroom. We notice also, through the different kind of interaction, the discourse importance to the meanings shared construction among future teachers and students.
Promoting awareness of conflicts: analysis of discursive activity in science classroom  [PDF]
Orlando G. Aguiar Jr.,Eduardo F. Mortimer
Investiga??es em Ensino de Ciências , 2005,
Abstract: This paper will examine how the conflict between the scientific point of view and the students’ everyday point of view can be perceived and overcome by the students with the mediation of a teacher. For this purpose we analyze a science class episode, which was recorded when a teaching sequence on heat and temperature was carried out with students aged 14-15 in a Brazilian secondary school. We used the framework proposed by Mortimer and Scott (2002, 2003) to make visible discursive moves that allows the students to become aware of the conflict between two models they use, in different circumstances, to interpret thermal phenomena: the kinetic particle model and a model of heat and cold exchange. Our analysis demonstrates how the teacher’s interventions guided the students to examine their own ideas through a slow and laborious meaning making process. We were able to identify changes in the teacher’s purposes and type of interventions as the students further developed their ideas. These changes are associated to alternations in the communicative approaches, first dialogic and then mainly authoritative. As in Mortimer and Machado (2000), our data indicate that the process of becoming aware of and overcoming conflicts, in the classroom, depends not only on the choice of suitable teaching strategies, but above all, on the discourse teacher and students build around the experiment.
Is there emitted radiation in Unruh effect?  [PDF]
B. L. Hu,Alpan Raval
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: The thermal radiance felt by a uniformly accelerated detector/oscillator/atom--the Unruh effect-- is often mistaken to be some emitted radiation detectable by an observer/probe/sensor. Here we show by an explicit calculation of the energy momentum tensor of a quantum scalar field that, at least in 1+1 dimension, while a polarization cloud is found to exist around the particle trajectory, there is no emitted radiation from a uniformly accelerated oscillator in equilibrium conditions. Under nonequilibrium conditions which can prevail for non-uniformly accelerated trajectories or before the atom or oscillator reaches equilibrium, there is conceivably radiation emitted, but that is not what Unruh effect entails.
DISCURSIVE EXPERIMENTS AT THE UNIVERSITY: KNOWLEDGE AND SPEECHES  [PDF]
Vitor Ferrari
Psicanálise e Barroco em Revista , 2009,
Abstract: We will go with this work d' to approach the various methods to operate with the knowledge with l' university by focusing our analysis in the context of l' university education. For that we carryout a small historical talk of the forms to treat the knowledge in this medieval and modern institution. We elect like instrument for this company the psychoanalysis, due to its vision proportioned concerning the manner of operating with the knowledge. We specifically choose the theory of the four speeches (main, university, hysterical, analyst) of Lacan like instrument ofreading with regard to the manner of operating the knowledge in l' modern university. In this way we will analyze his production and his transmission in the context of the discursive experiments.This analysis was carried out starting from the four positions proportioned by the four speeches which, in their turn, establish distinct relationships to the knowledge and the truth. We will allotspecial attention to the relationships to the knowledge established with l' university through the speech of l' analyst and of the university speech. We will underline the obstacles in l' evolution ofthe knowledge from the point of view of the production and the transmission of the knowledge with l' university in certain discursive structures present in the university context. Later on wewill clarify l' importance of the circularity of the discursive structures in the manners of operating with the knowledge with l' university, by having like objective its evolution compared to theproduction and transmission.
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