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Will Senior Employees Be Willing to Voluntarily Transfer Their Knowledge to Younger Employees? The Effect of Perceived Age Discrimination and Organizational Identification  [PDF]
Fiona Huang
Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies (JHRSS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jhrss.2019.72015
Abstract: This research focuses on the important issues of age discrimination and intergenerational knowledge transfer. Through online questionnaire method, where 291 effective responses were acquired, this research found that perceived age discrimination by senior employees was negatively related to their intention to transfer their knowledge to younger employees. This negatively effect was fully mediated by organizational identification, where perceived age discrimination was negatively related to organizational identification while organizational identification was positively related to intergenerational knowledge transfer intention. This research made theoretical contribution by linking the two important issues, age discrimination and intergenerational knowledge transfer, as well as by identifying the underlying mechanism for this linkage. The research would hopefully help manager in workplace to encourage senior employees to transfer knowledge to younger employees, by providing a more respectful workplace for senior employees.
Working-memory training in younger and older adults: training gains, transfer, and maintenance  [PDF]
Yvonne Brehmer,Helena Westerberg,Lars B?ckman
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00063
Abstract: Working memory (WM), a key determinant of many higher-order cognitive functions, declines in old age. Current research attempts to develop process-specific WM training procedures, which may lead to general cognitive improvement. Adaptivity of the training as well as the comparison of training gains to performance changes of an active control group are key factors in evaluating the effectiveness of a specific training program. In the present study, 55 younger adults (20–30 years of age) and 45 older adults (60–70 years of age) received 5 weeks of computerized training on various spatial and verbal WM tasks. Half of the sample received adaptive training (i.e., individually adjusted task difficulty), whereas the other half-worked on the same task material but on a low task difficulty level (active controls). Performance was assessed using criterion, near-transfer, and far-transfer tasks before training, after 5 weeks of intervention, as well as after a 3-month follow-up interval. Results indicate that (a) adaptive training generally led to larger training gains than low-level practice, (b) training and transfer gains were somewhat greater for younger than for older adults in some tasks, but comparable across age groups in other tasks, (c) far-transfer was observed to a test on sustained attention and for a self-rating scale on cognitive functioning in daily life for both young and old, and (d) training gains and transfer effects were maintained across the 3-month follow-up interval across age.
Comorbidities and Crash Involvement among Younger and Older Drivers  [PDF]
Michela Papa, Virginia Boccardi, Raffaele Prestano, Edith Angellotti, Manuela Desiderio, Luigi Marano, Maria Rosaria Rizzo, Giuseppe Paolisso
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094564
Abstract: Previous studies identified comorbidities as predictors of older driver performance and driving pattern, while the direct impact of comorbidities on road crash risk in elderly drivers is still unknown. The present study is a cross-sectional aimed at investigating the association between levels of comorbidity and crash involvement in adult and elderly drivers. 327 drivers were stratified according to age range in two groups: elderly drivers (age ≥70 years old, referred as older) and adult drivers (age <70 years old, referred as younger). Driving information was obtained through a driving questionnaire. Distance traveled was categorized into low, medium and high on the basis of kilometers driven in a year. CIRS-illness severity (IS) and CIRS-comorbidity indices (CI) in all populations were calculated. Older drivers had a significantly higher crash involvements rate (p = .045) compared with the younger group based on the number of licensed drivers. Dividing comorbidity indices into tertiles among all licensed subjects, the number of current drivers significantly decreased (p<.0001) with increasing level of comorbidity. The number of current drivers among older subjects significantly decreased with increasing comorbidity level (p = .026) while no difference among younger group was found (p = .462). Among younger drivers with increasing comorbidity level, the number of road accidents significantly increased (p = .048) and the logistic regression analysis showed that comorbidity level significantly associated with crash involvement independent of gender and driving exposure. Older subjects with high level of comorbidity are able to self-regulate driving while comorbidity burden represents a significant risk factor for crash involvements among younger drivers.
Age management in Slovenian enterprises: the viewpoint of older employees
Jana ?nidar?i?
Zbornik Radova Ekonomskog Fakulteta u Rijeci : ?asopis za Ekonomsku Teoriju i Praksu , 2010,
Abstract: The main aim of this research is to highlight age management within Slovenian enterprises from the viewpoint of older employees by finding out what influences older employees to decide “should I stay or should I go”. The empirical research methodology is based on mixed strategy of approaching organizations (employees), which means that the quantitative (factor analysis, cluster analysis, correlation, regression, descriptive statistics and frequency distributions) and qualitative parts (in-depth interviews analysis) of research were conducted simultaneously. The results of the research indicate that there are in fact two groups of older employees, which can be referred to as “susceptible” and “insusceptible” in terms of how the employer can affect their decisions. “The unsusceptible” have already decided to retire as soon as possible and they cannot be influenced by any employer measure. On the other hand, “the susceptible” employees are sensitive to employers’ measures aimed at prolonging their working lives. Besides, a regression analysis confirmed a statistically significant correlation between the inclination towards extending one’s employment period and the susceptibility to the employer measures. It can thus be concluded that, through age management measures, an employer has an impact on an extended employment period of older employees. However, employers should be interested primarily in those employees who are inclined towards extending their working lives.
The Role of Affect in Attentional Functioning for Younger and Older Adults  [PDF]
Soo Rim Noh,Mary Jo Larcom,Xiaodong Liu,Derek M. Isaacowitz
Frontiers in Psychology , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00311
Abstract: Although previous research has shown that positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) modulate attentional functioning in distinct ways, few studies have considered whether the links between affect and attentional functioning may vary as a function of age. Using the Attention Network Test (Fan et al., 2002), we tested whether participants’ current state of PA and NA influenced distinct attentional functions (i.e., alerting, orienting, and executive attention) and how the relationships between affective states and attentional functioning differ in younger (18–25 years) and older (60–85 years) age groups. While there were age differences in alerting efficiency, these age differences were mediated by PA, indicating that the higher state PA found in older adults may contribute to age differences in alerting. Furthermore, age group moderated the relationship between PA and orienting as well as NA and orienting. That is, higher levels of PA and lower levels of NA were associated with enhanced orienting efficiency in older adults. Neither PA nor NA had any influence on executive attention. The current results suggest that PA and NA may influence attentional functioning in distinct ways, but that these patterns may depend on age groups.
The Effects of Prior Exposure on Face Processing in Younger and Older Adults  [PDF]
Jennifer J. Heisz,Jennifer D. Ryan
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2011.00015
Abstract: Older adults differ from their younger counterparts in the way they view faces. We assessed whether older adults can use past experience to mitigate these typical face-processing differences; that is, we examined whether there are age-related differences in the use of memory to support current processing. Eye movements of older and younger adults were monitored as they viewed faces that varied in the type/amount of prior exposure. Prior exposure was manipulated by including famous and novel faces, and by presenting faces up to five times. We expected that older adults may have difficulty quickly establishing new representations to aid in the processing of recently presented faces, but would be able to invoke face representations that have been stored in memory long ago to aid in the processing of famous faces. Indeed, younger adults displayed effects of recent exposure with a decrease in the total fixations to the faces and a gradual increase in the proportion of fixations to the eyes. These effects of recent exposure were largely absent in older adults. In contrast, the effect of fame, revealed by a subtle increase in fixations to the inner features of famous compared to non-famous faces, was similar for younger and older adults. Our results suggest that older adults’ current processing can benefit from lifetime experience, however the full benefit of recent experience on face processing is not realized in older adults.
Research on the Effect of Positive Emotion Intervention on Employees’ Psychological Capital  [PDF]
Zhun Gong
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2018.89038
Abstract: This study tries to study employees’ positive emotional state intervention, which induces positive emotional state of employees, especially considering the positive emotional states promoting effect on employees’ mental health. In this study, 50 employees of a medical institution were selected from the randomized experimental group and the control group. The results show that, using the method of positive emotion diary can significantly enhance the level of employees’ positive emotions and can effectively reduce the level of negative emotion, effectively reduce the level of employees’ emotional exhaustion. There is a significant positive correlation between the change of employees’ positive emotions and the change of employees’ psychological capital.
Positive Outcomes Enhance Incidental Learning for Both Younger and Older Adults  [PDF]
Mara Mather,Andrej Schoeke
Frontiers in Neuroscience , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2011.00129
Abstract: Previous studies suggest that memory encoding is enhanced when people are anticipating a potential reward, consistent with the idea that dopaminergic systems that respond to motivationally relevant information also enhance memory for that information. In the current study, we examined how anticipating and receiving rewards versus losses affect incidental learning of information. In addition, we compared the modulatory effects of reward anticipation and outcome on memory for younger and older adults. Forty-two younger (aged 18–33 years) and 44 older (aged 66–92 years) adults played a game involving pressing a button as soon as they saw a target. Gain trials began with a cue that they would win $0.25 if they pressed the button fast enough, loss trials began with a cue that they would avoid losing $0.25 if they pressed the button fast enough, and no-outcome trials began with a cue indicating no monetary outcome. The target was a different photo-object on each trial (e.g., balloon, dolphin) and performance outcomes were displayed after the photo disappeared. Both younger and older adults recalled and recognized pictures from trials with positive outcomes (either rewarding or loss avoiding) better than from trials with negative outcomes. Positive outcomes were associated with not only enhanced memory for the picture just seen in that trial, but also with enhanced memory for the pictures shown in the next two trials. Although anticipating a reward also enhanced incidental memory, this effect was seen only in recognition memory of positive pictures and was a smaller effect than the outcome effect. The fact that older adults showed similar incidental memory effects of reward anticipation and outcome as younger adults suggests that reward–memory system interactions remain intact in older age.
Appendicitis in Children: Evaluation of the Pediatric Appendicitis Score in Younger and Older Children  [PDF]
Martin Sal?,Gustav Friman,Pernilla Stenstr?m,Bodil Ohlsson,Einar Arnbj?rnsson
Surgery Research and Practice , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/438076
Abstract: Background. This study aimed to evaluate Pediatric Appendicitis Score (PAS), diagnostic delay, and factors responsible for possible late diagnosis in children <4 years compared with older children who were operated on for suspected appendicitis. Method. 122 children, between 1 and 14 years, operated on with appendectomy for suspected appendicitis, were retrospectively analyzed. The cohort was divided into two age groups: ≥4 years () and <4 years (). Results. The mean PAS was lower among the younger compared with the older patients (5.3 and 6.6, resp.; ), despite the fact that younger children had more severe appendicitis (75.0% and 33.3%, resp.; ). PAS had low sensitivity in both groups, with a significantly lower sensitivity among the younger patients. Parent and doctor delay were confirmed in children <4 years of age with appendicitis. PAS did not aid in patients with doctor delay. Parameters in patient history, symptoms, and abdominal examination were more diffuse in younger children. Conclusion. PAS should be used with caution when examining children younger than 4 years of age. Diffuse symptoms in younger children with acute appendicitis lead to delay and to later diagnosis and more complicated appendicitis. 1. Introduction Appendicitis is the most common abdominal disease requiring surgery in children [1]. The risk of developing appendicitis during a lifetime is reported to be 8.7% for boys and 6.7% for girls [2]. Despite its high incidence, there are still diagnostic difficulties. The overall negative appendectomy rate among all children is suggested to be 8.4%, but in children under 6 years of age, the rate has been reported to be as high as 56.7% [3]. The diagnosis of acute appendicitis is considered to be especially challenging in children due to difficulties in communication and examination [4]. There are several studies reporting difficulties in diagnosing appendicitis in younger children [3, 5–9]. The diagnostic difficulties result in increased risks of both negative appendectomies and a delayed diagnosis, both leading to increased morbidity, more complications, longer hospital stay, and higher costs [3, 5–9]. These risks are further increased in the younger children [3, 8, 9]. The doctor delay is a known cause contributing to late diagnosis in young children [5, 6]. Other studies, with patients under 3 years and 4 years of age, have found parent delay to contribute as well to the late diagnosis [7, 10]. Our clinical experience, confirmed by the literature, shows that the younger children with acute appendicitis deviate from the typical
Predictors of adherence to a multifaceted podiatry intervention for the prevention of falls in older people
Martin J Spink, Mohammad R Fotoohabadi, Elin Wee, Karl B Landorf, Keith D Hill, Stephen R Lord, Hylton B Menz
BMC Geriatrics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2318-11-51
Abstract: The intervention group (n = 153, mean age 74.2 years) of a randomised trial that investigated the effectiveness of a multifaceted podiatry intervention to prevent falls was assessed for adherence to the three components of the intervention: (i) foot orthoses, (ii) footwear advice and footwear cost subsidy, and (iii) a home-based foot and ankle exercise program. Adherence to each component and the barriers to adherence were documented, and separate discriminant function analyses were undertaken to identify factors that were significantly and independently associated with adherence to the three intervention components.Adherence to the three components of the intervention was as follows: foot orthoses (69%), footwear (54%) and home-based exercise (72%). Discriminant function analyses identified that being younger was the best predictor of orthoses use, higher physical health status and lower fear of falling were independent predictors of footwear adherence, and higher physical health status was the best predictor of exercise adherence. The predictive accuracy of these models was only modest, with 62 to 71% of participants correctly classified.Adherence to a multifaceted podiatry intervention in this trial ranged from 54 to 72%. People with better physical health, less fear of falling and a younger age exhibited greater adherence, suggesting that strategies need to be developed to enhance adherence in frailer older people who are most at risk of falling.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000065392.Falls in older people are a major public health problem, with one in three people aged over 65 years falling each year [1,2]. Fortunately, several interventions have been developed that have successfully reduced the rate of falls in this group, including exercise, home modifications in those with visual impairment, cataract surgery, and withdrawal of psychotropic medications [3-6]. However, for falls prevention programs to be effective, sufficient adhere
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