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Effect of Foliar Applied Urea on Growth and Yield of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)
Rajesh Kumar Oad, Muhammad Ali Ansari, Jagdesh Kumar, Dilpat Rai Menghwar
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104668
A field study was carried out during 2012-13 at Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan, geographically latitude 25°N and longitude 68°E, to assess the effect of foliar applied urea on the growth and yield of sunflower. The experiment was laid out in a three-replicated Randomized Complete Block Design. Five treatments were tested against sunflower variety Hysun-33 which included: T1 = Control (no urea), T2 = Recommended urea soil applied (130 kg·ha﹣1) at sowing stage, T3 = 1% urea at 35 days after sowing, T4 = 1% urea at 60 days after sowing and T5 = 1% urea at 85 days after sowing. The results revealed that growth and yield characters as well as oil yield of sunflower were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by foliar application of urea. The most effective treatment comprised of foliar application of urea (1%) after 35 days of sowing in addition to recommended soil applied urea (130 kg·ha1) showed optimistic results with 89.61% seed germination, 179.65 cm plant height, 5.39 cm stem girth, 22.43 cm head diameter, 2063.25 grains head1, 68.51 g seed index/1000 seed weight, 2211.90 kg seed yield ha1 and 1046.75 kg oil yield ha1. The sunflower crop receiving foliar application of urea after 60 days or 85 days of sowing in addition to recommended soil applied urea ranked 2nd and 3rd; and sunflower plantation given no foliar urea and grown only on recommended soil applied urea (130 kg·ha1) ranked 4th with 1907.96 kg·ha1 seed yield and 841.91 kg·ha1 oil yield. However, sunflower plantation neither given foliar application of urea nor supplied with soil applied urea (control) ranked least for all the growth and yield parameters and oil yield. Hence, it is suggested for the farmers that in addition to 130 kg·ha1 soil applied urea, foliar application of urea (1%) after 35 days of sowing may be ensured for maximization of seed and oil yields in sunflower. The results further showed that in most cases, the crop receiving foliar application of urea after 60 and 85 days of sowing showed similarity (P > 0.05); but differences were significant (P < 0.05) when compared with foliar application after 35 days of sowing and rest of the treatments.
Effect of Coconut Oil and Sunflower Oil Ratio on Ruminal Fermentation, Rumen Microorganisms, N-balance and Digestibility in Cattle
Ruangyote Pilajun,Metha Wanapat,Chalong Wachirapakorn,Chainarong Navanukroaw
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2010.1868.1874
Abstract: Four, rumen-fistulated Holstein-Friesian steers were randomly assigned to four treatments according to a 4x4 Latin square design to study effects of coconut oil and sunflower oil ratio on rumen fermentation, rumen microorganisms and methane concentration in the rumen. The dietary treatments were ratios of coconut oil and sunflower oil at 100:0, 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75 for treatment 1-4, respectively. Steers were fed concentrate at 0.5% of BW (DM) and urea-treated rice straw was given ad libitum. The results were found that coconut oil and sunflower oil ratio did not affect feed intake and rumen microbial population except for total viable bacteria in which 75:25 ratio was the highest. Dietary treatments had affected nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation especially 50:50 ratio. Methane concentration was linearly decreased when sunflower oil proportion increased. Nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis were similar among treatments, although microbial nitrogen supply tended to have a quadratic response to oil ratios. It is concluded that combined supplementation of coconut oil and sunflower oil could be beneficial to improve the rumen ecosystem and potential productivity in ruminants.
Effect of Urea, Molasses and a Bacterial Inoculants on Chemical Composition and Dry Matter Degradability of Sunflower Silage  [cached]
M. Alikhani,A. A. Alamooti,Gh. R. Ghorbani,N. Sadeghi
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2005,
Abstract: Whole plant sunflower and sunflower without head were ensiled in plastic containers using additives in a 2×2×2×2 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design with three replicates. Additives were molasses, urea (at 4 and 0.5 percent wet basis respectively), and a bacterial inoculant (Agros 6gr/ton of forage as manufacture’s instruction). Compared with silages without head, ensiling sunflower as whole plant resulted in lower pH, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ash versus higher concentrations of crude protein and ether extract (EE). No significant effect of seed was observed on lactic acid concentration and dry matter degradability (P
Stabilizing effect of epoxidized sunflower oil as a secondary stabilizer for Ca/Hg stabilized PVC
eXPRESS Polymer Letters , 2008, DOI: 10.3144/expresspolymlett.2008.9
Abstract: Unsaturated triglyceride oil sunflower was epoxidized and characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Epoxidized sunflower oil (ESO) was used as an organic thermal co-stabilizer for rigid poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) in the presence of tricalcium dicitrate (Ca3(C6H5O7)2) and mercury (II) acetate (Hg(CH3COO)2). The thermo-oxidative degradation of PVC was studied in the presence of these ternary stabilizer systems at 170, 180, 190 and 200°C in N2 atmosphere. The effects of metal carboxylate combination Ca/Hg in the absence and in the presence of epoxidized sunflower oil on static heat treatment of PVC have been studied. The formation of polyene sequences was investigated by UV-visible and FT-IR spectroscopy and by comparing viscosity data obtained in the presence and in the absence of the additives. It was found that the additives retard the rate of degradation and reduce the extent of polymer chain scission associated with the thermal degradation of poly(vinyl chloride). Synergistic effects were found when stabilizer was blended in 50:50 weight ratios with either. It was found that ESO exerted a stabilizing effect on the degradation of PVC. The activation energy for degraded PVC in absence of stabilizers was 38.6 kJ mol–1 and in the presence of Ca/Hg and Ca/Hg/ESO were 53.3 and 64.7 kJ mol–1 respectively. In order of compare the efficiency of the epoxidized sunflower oil with these metal soap stabilizers, thermal stabilities were evaluated on the basis of evolved hydrogen chloride determined by conductometry technique and degree of discoloration are discussed.
Influence of Foliar Applied Nitrogen on Reproductive Growth of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under Water Stress  [PDF]
Muhammad Haseeb, Nazimah Maqbool
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/as.2015.612137
Abstract: Nitrogen is a major nutrient involved in plant growth and yield. Plants cannot get the nutrients from the soil medium under water stress condition to testify foliar application in stress condition to fulfil plant need for better performance. In this regard, a field study was conducted to evaluate the effect of foliar-applied nitrogen (0, water and 1% urea) on sunflower (cv. Hysun-33) under normal and water stress at reproductive stage. Two soil applied nitrogen levels control (0 kg·ha-1) and recommended dose (115 kg·ha-1). Supplemental foliar application of nitrogen in the form of urea significantly increased the growth, yield and yield components of sunflower under water stress. The increase in yield with 1% urea spray was recorded up to 1.37 t·ha-1 in comparison to water spray (1.07 t·ha-1) and no spray (1.00 t·ha-1). While maximum values of all factors were obtained where 1% urea spray with soil applied nitrogen was used in both stresses as well as in non-stress condition. Therefore, reasonable yield can be achieved by applying foliar application of urea (1%) as a supplemental source to soil applied nitrogen under water stress.
Response of Wheat to Foliarly Applied Urea at Different Growth Stages and Solution Concentrations  [PDF]
K.H. Shah,M.Y. Memon,S.H. Siddiqui,M. Imtiaz
Plant Pathology Journal , 2003,
Abstract: Field investigations were carried out to evaluate the performance of two wheat genotypes when sprayed at different growth stages using 2, 4 and 6% urea solution. Compared to standard soil application, foliarly applied urea was betterly utilized by Soghat-90 and Sind-81. Irrespective of growth stages, foliage efficacy of urea was most prominent at 4% solution. Significantly higher crop harvests, N uptake and agronomic efficiency were recorded when both wheat cultivars were sprayed at tillering and heading stages. Grain protein content was improved by late season spraying with 6% urea solution.
Ammonia losses estimated by an open collector from urea applied to sugarcane straw
Mariano, Eduardo;Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze;Vieira, Michele Xavier;Leite, José Marcos;Otto, Rafael;Franco, Henrique Coutinho Junqueira;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-06832012000200010
Abstract: the quantification of ammonia (nh3) losses from sugarcane straw fertilized with urea can be performed with collectors that recover the nh3 in acid-treated absorbers. thus, the use of an open nh3 collector with a polytetrafluoroethylene (ptfe)-wrapped absorber is an interesting option since its cost is low, handling easy and microclimatic conditions irrelevant. the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of an open collector for quantifying nh3-n volatilized from urea applied over the sugarcane straw. the experiment was carried out in a sugarcane field located near piracicaba, s?o paulo, brazil. the nh3-n losses were estimated using a semi-open static collector calibrated with 15n (reference method) and an open collector with an absorber wrapped in ptfe film. urea was applied to the soil surface in treatments corresponding to rates of 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1 n. applying urea-n fertilizer on sugarcane straw resulted in losses nh3-n up to 24 % of the applied rate. the amount of volatile nh3-n measured in the open and the semi-open static collector did not differ. the effectiveness of the collection system varied non-linearly, with an average value of 58.4 % for the range of 100 to 200 kg ha-1 of urea-n. the open collector showed significant potential for use; however, further research is needed to verify the suitability of the proposed method.
Antioxidant Activity of Different Solvent Extracts of Moringa oleifera Leaves under Accelerated Storage of Sunflower Oil  [PDF]
Asma Siddiq,Farooq Anwar,Maleeha Manzoor,Ammara Fatima
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of different solvent extracts of Moringa oleifera leaves by using accelerated aging of sunflower oil. Methanolic and acetone (80 and 100%) extracts of M. oleifera leaves were added at the concentration of 0.06% (wt/wt) into the refined, bleached and deodorized sunflower oil. The stabilized sunflower oil samples were subjected to accelerated aging (65°C) for a period of 18 days and analysis was done periodically after every three days. The extent of oxidation was followed by the measurement of AI-, PV-, conjugated dienes-, trienes- and para-anisidine values. The overall order of antioxidant efficacy of the extracts of M. oleifera leaves as assessed by various oxidation parameters was followed as; 80% methanolic extract > 100% methanolic extract > 80% acetone extract > 100% acetone extract. The antioxidant activity of M. oleifera leaves might be attributed to the presence of high amount of flavonoids, polyphenolics and tocopherol contents. The results of present study revealed that M. oleifera leaves might be explored as a viable source of natural antioxidants and nutraceuticals.
Effect of split applications of urea on protein size distribution, physical dough properties, and baking performance of five experimental bread wheat lines  [PDF]
Alma Rosa Islas-Rubio, Karla Chávez-Quiroz, Francisco Vásquez-Lara, Brenda Silva-Espinoza, María del Carmen Granados-Nevárez, Humberto Gonzalez-Ríos, Miguel Camacho-Casas
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/as.2011.23025
Abstract: Five experimental bread wheat lines (BWL) were grown at the Yaqui Valley Experimental Station in Sonora, México during two consecutive growing cycles. The effect of five nitrogen fertilization (NF) treatments on protein size distribution (PSD), physical dough properties (PDP), and baking performance of the BWL was evaluated. Polymeric and monomeric proteins were evalu-ated by SE-HPLC. PDP were carried out by the National Mixograph and the TA-XT2 Texture Analyzer. Baking performance was evaluated using the straight dough method. Protein content (PC), main protein fractions (glutenins, gliadins, albumins-globulins), and mixograph development time (MDT) were significantly influenced by NF treatment and BWL but not by their interaction. On the other hand, PDP measured by the Kieffer rig, and baking performance were significantly influenced by the main factors (NF and BWL) and their interaction. The amount and timing of fertilizer applied to the BWL modified the PC, PSD, PDP, and bread loaf volume. PDP exhibited a larger variation in comparison to the PSD of glutenins. The split application of 150 kg of urea/ha (50-50-50) to all BWL showed a better loaf volume response than the same amount of urea applied at sowing (150-0-0). The application of 300 kg of urea/ha to all BWL, either at sowing or at three split applications of 100 kg of urea/ha each, resulted in higher flour unextractable polymeric protein (FUPP). On the other hand, the split application of 100-100-100 kg of urea/ha to three of the BWL represented the higher total unextractable polymeric protein (TUPP). Differences on PC and PSD were reflected on differences on PDP and bread loaf volume observed among the BWL.
Thinning of Emulsion Water-in-Oil Films Stabilized with Modified Aluminum Hydroxide under Influence of Applied Pressure Drop  [PDF]
Alla V. Nushtaeva
Soft (Soft) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/soft.2014.31002

The results of studies of thinning free water-in-oil emulsion films stabilized by solid particles by the Applied Pressure Drop Technique (APDT) are reported. The quasi-equilibrium film thickness achieved by slow increasing the pressure drop was smaller than the rupture thickness obtained by sharp increasing the pressure. It is shown that non-equilibrium films ruptured with thicknesses corresponding to adjustment of the packing of solid particles in the films. It is supposed that the restructuring package is the cause of the earlier breakthrough of the film.

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