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User Experience of ColdZyme Mouth Spray against Common Cold in Competitive Athletes  [PDF]
Ulf Blom, Ida Nelson
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2018.82002
Abstract:
ColdZyme Mouth Spray (ColdZyme) is intended to reduce the probability of catching a cold and/or can help shorten the duration of a cold, if used at an early stage of the infection, by forming a barrier on the pharyngeal mucous membrane. The user experience of ColdZyme on naturally occurring common cold infections was evaluated in competitive athletes training professionally or on an amateur level. Thirteen athletes completed weekly electronic surveys on occurrence of common colds, cold severity and user experience over the course of 3 months. The 13 participants reported in total 15 cold incidents with an average duration of 7.4 days. The average cold severity was 31.2 on a visual-analogue scale (VAS) ranging from 0 (mildest possible cold) to 100 (worst possible cold). The overall user satisfaction with ColdZyme was high. 81% of the reported colds were experienced to be milder and/or shorter than usual. None of the participants reported “No effect”. Out of the participants who reported absence of a cold in the previous week, 69% reported a positive answer to the question if ColdZyme had prevented them from catching a cold in the previous week. Conclusion: The present study evaluated prevention and alleviation of naturally occurring common cold in athletes, and demonstrated that ColdZyme may be an easy and practical way for competitive athletes to prevent or reduce infections of the common cold virus and corresponding unwanted absence from training and competition. Due to the lack of a comparator group, a placebo effect cannot be excluded.
Evaluation of ColdZyme Mouth Spray against Common Cold in Elderly Care Personnel  [PDF]
Mats Clarsund, Christina Br?kenhielm Persson
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2017.71002
Abstract: ColdZyme? Mouth Spray (ColdZyme) is a mouth spray intended to reduce the probability of catching a cold and/or can help shorten the duration of a cold if used at an early stage of the infection, by forming a barrier on the pharyngeal mucous membrane. This study evaluated the preventative effect of ColdZyme on common cold infections in personnel at elderly care facilities, and assessed the level of reduction in corresponding sick leave. The number of sick-leave days for the personnel decreased from an average of 5.2 days to 3.7 days (29%) when using ColdZyme compared to control period (p = 0.054). 63% of those who had a cold reported the symptoms to be milder than previous colds. Conclusion: Using ColdZyme? Mouth Spray to apply a barrier to the oropharynx may be an easy and practical way to prevent or reduce infections of the common cold virus and corresponding sick leave in personnel working in elderly care.
Evaluation of ColdZyme Mouth Spray against Common Cold in Preschool Staff  [PDF]
Mats Clarsund
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2017.74014
Abstract:
The common cold is one of the most frequently encountered infectious diseases in humans and, despite the modest severity in most cases; it presents a significant economic burden upon society and individuals. ColdZyme Mouth Spray (ColdZyme, Enzymatica AB, Lund, Sweden) is a mouth spray intended to reduce the probability of catching a cold and can also help shorten the duration of a cold if used at an early stage of the infection, by forming a barrier on the oropharyngeal mucous membrane. This study evaluated the effect of ColdZyme on common cold related sick-leave in preschool (kindergarten) staff. Fifteen preschool staff members were evaluated over a 6-month period and ColdZyme was used according to instructions. Sick-leave days were recorded and compared to historical data. The number of average sick leave days decreased during the period from 7.4 days to 4.1 days (p = 0.04). It is notable that, if occurring, the majority of subjects perceived a common cold infection as milder than usual. Conclusion: Using ColdZyme to apply a barrier to the pharyngeal mucous membrane may be an easy and practical way to prevent or reduce infections and corresponding sick leave in personnel from the preschool environment.
A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Clinical Study on ColdZyme® Mouth Spray against Rhinovirus-Induced Common Cold  [PDF]
Mats Clarsund, Marcus Fornbacke, Lena Uller, Sebastian L. Johnston, Cecilia Ahlstr?m Emanuelsson
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2017.74013
Abstract:
Common colds incur significant costs in terms of sick leave and personal discomfort for affected individuals. This study investigated the performance of ColdZyme Mouth Spray (ColdZyme), a protective barrier against common cold, in rhinovirus-inoculated healthy volunteers. This randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled pilot study was conducted on 46 healthy volunteers inoculated with rhinovirus 16 via the nose. Subjects self-administered ColdZyme or placebo 6 times daily for 11 days. Symptoms were recorded daily in a diary. Rhinovirus 16 in nasal and oropharyngeal samples at days 0, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 10 were quantified by RT-qPCR. The primary outcome measure was the reduction in viral load in oropharyngeal samples. Rhinovirus 16 was only detected in 35 out of 46 inoculated subjects. Exploratory analysis measuring the total viral load (i.e., area under the curve (AUC)) for days 3 - 10 in successfully inoculated subjects found that ColdZyme treatment resulted in a lower total viral load in the oropharynx (p = 0.023). In subjects who experienced symptomatic common cold, irrespectively, if virus were detected, treatment with ColdZyme resulted in a reduction in the number of days with common cold symptoms from 6.5 to 3.0 days (p = 0.014) in comparison to placebo. ColdZyme reduced virus infection in the oropharynx and reduced the number of days with common cold symptoms and highlights the possible importance of the oropharynx in common cold infections. Suitable outcome measures for a feasible study on ColdZyme are total viral load in the oropharynx in subjects having detectable virus present in nasal or oropharyngeal samples.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN IMAGERY TYPE AND COLLECTIVE EFFICACY IN ELITE AND NON ELITE ATHLETES  [cached]
David A. Shearer,Rob Thomson,Stephen D. Mellalieu,Catherine R. Shearer
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2007,
Abstract: This study investigated the relationship between imagery function and individual perceptions of collective efficacy as a function of skill level. Elite (n = 70) and non elite (n = 71) athletes from a number of interactive team sports completed the Sport Imagery Questionnaire (SIQ) and the Collective Efficacy Inventory (CEI). Multiple hierarchical regression analysis was then used to examine which SIQ sub-scales predicted individual perceptions of collective efficacy. For the elite sample, Motivational General-Mastery (MG-M) imagery accounted for approximately 17% of the variance in collective efficacy scores. No significant predictions were observed in the non elite sample. The findings suggest MG-M imagery as a potential technique to improve levels of collective efficacy although competitive level may moderate the effectiveness of such interventions
Immune response to hepatitis B vaccine in elite athletes
Rosi? Ilija,Mali?evi? Sead,Medi? Sne?ana
Medicinski Pregled , 2008, DOI: 10.2298/mpns0802055r
Abstract: Introduction. Hepatitis B viral infection can create serious health problems, such as acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis of liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. Athletes have bigger risk of hepatitis B infection due to frequent injuries with bleeding, their style of living (promiscuity), close contact with teammates, etc. The aim of this study was to investigate the immune response to hepatitis B vaccine among elite athletes, compared to corresponding control group of male subjects from general non-athlete population, and to test out reaction in relation to age. Method. There were 21 elite football players and 30 control non-athlete males. After written consent, they all received three doses of hepatitis B vaccine (Euvax B, Sanofi Pasteur) during 6 months. Eight weeks later, their immune response (as anti-HBs antibody titre in serum) was assessed and statistical significance of the findings was tested. The level of immune response was also evaluated in different age clusters within test groups. Results. None of the footballers was without response to the vaccine. One of the subjects from the control group did not develop it. The group of athletes was with better mean values of antibody titre (1626621 mIU/ml vs. 1568455 mIU/ml), but without statistical significance (t=0.375; p > 0.05), and with a greater deal of subjects who developed very good immune response (titre over 2000 miU/ml). Younger football players had better immune reaction than older (age 18-24, 1795560 miU/ml, vs. age 25-29 years, 1597470 mIU/ml vs. age 30 and more, 1360904 miU/ml), but without statistical importance (II - 1.593; p > 0.05). Conclusion. Our study has shown that elite athletes respond very well to hepatitis B vaccination and have good immune response. Vaccination against hepatitis B of elite athletes is very important, because viral infection can seriously affect their health and stop their careers. .
SOMATOTYPES OF NATIONAL ELITE COMBATIVE SPORT ATHLETES  [PDF]
Willy Pieter,Luigi T. Bercades
Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity , 2009,
Abstract: PIETER, W.; BERCADES, L. T. Somatotypes of National Elite Combative Sport Athletes. Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity, v. 3, n. 1, p. 21-30, 2009. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the somatotypes of elite adult combative sport athletes. Subjects were members of the Philippine national senior teams in karate and pencak silat (30 men, 24.27 ± 4.66 years, 168.85 ± 5.09 cm, 64.88 ± 10.63 kg and 10 women, 20.33 ± 2.58 years, 158.65 ± 5.18 cm, 54.55 ± 7.06 kg) as well as fencing (6 women, 24.33 ± 3.72 years, 153.25 ± 6.04 cm, 54.25 ± 8.37 kg). The Heath-Carter somatotype method was used to assess the physiques of the athletes. To determine differences between combative sports groups, 1-way Anovas were used. The global somatotype analysis almost revealed a trivial difference in somatotype attitudinal mean (SAM) between karate and silat men (p = 0.056, eta2 = 0.211). There was no difference in SAM between elite and developmental silat athletes (p = 0.883, eta2 = 0.001). However, there was a trivial difference (eta2 = 0.226) in age between the two levels of competition (26.88 ± 2.03 years and 22.50 ± 5.40 years for the elite and developmental men, respectively) (p = 0.046).
Perceived parenting styles differ between genders but not between elite athletes and controls
Serge Brand,Markus Gerber,Johannes Beck,et al
Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics , 2011,
Abstract: Serge Brand1, Markus Gerber2, Johannes Beck1, Nadeem Kalak1, Martin Hatzinger1,3, Uwe Pühse2, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler11Depression and Sleep Research Unit, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 2Institute of Exercise and Health Sciences, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Psychiatric Hospital, Solothurn, SwitzerlandAbstract: For adolescent elite athletes, parental financial and emotional support is crucial. However, parents of elite athletes may be critical and demanding. Moreover, there is evidence that girls report more favorable perceived parenting styles compared with boys. The aim of the present study was to investigate perceived parenting styles among female and male adolescent elite athletes and controls. We sampled 258 adolescent elite athletes (139 females, 119 males) and 176 controls (139 females, 37 males). Participants completed a questionnaire to assess perceived parenting styles (support, commendation, reproach, restriction, inconsistency). Results showed that parenting styles did not differ between athletes and controls, except for restriction, for which athletes reported lower levels. Female adolescents had higher scores for positive and lower scores for negative perceived parenting styles.Keywords: parenting style, gender, elite athletes, controls
Asymmetry of muscle strength in elite athletes
Patrik Drid, Ph.D. , Miodrag Drapsin, Ph.D. , Tatjana Trivic, Ph.D. , Damir Luka , Ph.D. , Slavko Obadov, Ph.D. , Zoran Milosevic, Ph.D.
Biomedical Human Kinetics , 2009, DOI: 10.2478/v10101-009-0002-1
Abstract: Study aim: To determine muscle strength variables in elite judoists and wrestlers since thigh muscle strength and bilaterally balanced flexor-to-extensor ratio minimise injury risk and are desirable for achieving sport successes. Material and methods: Judoists, wrestlers and untrained subjects, 10 each, were subjected to isokinetic strength measurements of relative peak torques of knee flexor and extensor muscles on "Easy-Tech" dynamometer in concentric-concentric mode. Results: Mean relative peak muscle torques for knee flexors ranged from 1.14 ±0.27 (untrained) to 1.57 ±0.40 (judoists) N·m/kg and for knee extensors from 2.77 ± 0.34 (untrained) to 3.60 ± 0.64 (wrestlers) N·m/kg. The flexor-to-extensor ratios ranged from 39.3 ± 6.0 to 47.8 ± 10.8% and did not differ significantly between groups. Absolute right/left asymmetry for knee flexors ranged from 14.6 ± 10.4 to 17.4 ± 11.8% and was significantly (p<0.01) higher than for knee extensors (7.2 ± 6.8 to 8.6 ± 7.7%). All asymmetry indices were significant (p<0.01), no significant between group differences being detected. Conclusions: Implementing new training elements and modalities may improve the performance and prevent lateral asymmetry thus decreasing the risk of injuries.
Application of altitude/hypoxic training by elite athletes
RANDALL L. WILBER
Journal of Human Sport and Exercise , 2011,
Abstract: At the Olympic level, differences in performance are typically less than 0.5%. This helps explain why many contemporary elite endurance athletes in summer and winter sport incorporate some form of altitude/hypoxic training within their year-round training plan, believing that it will provide the “competitive edge” to succeed at the Olympic level. The purpose of this paper is to describe the practical application of altitude/hypoxic training as utilized by elite athletes. Within the general framework of the paper, both anecdotal and scientific evidence will be presented relative to the efficacy of several contemporary altitude/hypoxic training models and devices currently used by Olympic-level athletes for the purpose of legally enhancing performance. These include the three primary altitude/hypoxic training models: 1) live high + train high (LH + TH), 2) live high + train low (LH + TL), and 3) live low + train high (LL + TH). The LH + TL model will be examined in detail and will include its various modifications: natural/terrestrial altitude, simulated altitude via nitrogen dilution or oxygen filtration, and normobaric normoxia via supplemental oxygen. A somewhat opposite approach to LH + TL is the altitude/hypoxic training strategy of LL + TH, and data regarding its efficacy will be presented. Recently, several of these altitude/hypoxic training strategies and devices underwent critical review by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) for the purpose of potentially banning them as illegal performance-enhancing substances/methods. This paper will conclude with an update on the most recent statement from WADA regarding the use of simulated altitude devices.
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