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Nutritive value of different hybrids of sorghum forage determined in vitro
D. Colombo,G. M. Crovetto,S. Colombini,G. Galassi
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2007.1s.289
Abstract: Eight hybrids of sorghum forage were tested in large plots of two farms in two consecutive years to evaluate their chemical characteristics, nutritive value and yield as a possible substitute for maize silage. Two or three cuts were made depending on climatic conditions. On forage samples taken at ensiling chemical analyses and 24 h gas production were performed, to predict the NEl content. In comparison with maize silage, the sorghum hybrids registered higher protein (13.7% on DM) and NDF (62.6% on DM) contents. Interestingly, the fibre fraction had a low lignin content (3.1% on DM). NEl content ranged from 4.53 to 5.28 MJ/kg DM, the latter for the hybrid with the lowest NDF content. Hybrid effect was significant for ash, NDF, ADF and NEl contents, whilst cut effect was significant for EE, CP, NDF and ADF. Yield was strongly influenced by fertilisation; when the latter was applied, it was in the range of 10-18 t DM, 1.7-2.8 t CP and 47-88 thousand MJ NEl per hectare, as a sum of the 2- 3 cuts. Sorghum forage seems to be a possible alternative to the fibrous maize silage fraction in diets of lactating cows, and an excellent forage for the rations of dry cows and heifers.
Genotype and Plant Density Effects on Corn (Zea mays L.) Forage Yield  [PDF]
Saban Yilmaz,Huseyin Gozubenli,Omer Konuskan,Ibrahim Atis
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Corn forage is an important source of feedstuff for beef and dairy cattles. A two-year study was conducted in Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey to determine the optimum plant densities for forage yields of corn genotypes commercially grown in Eastern Mediterranean Region during 2000 and 2001 growing seasons. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a split-plot arrangement with three replications. Main plots were corn hybrids of Dracma, Pioneer 3223, Pioneer 3335, Dekalb 711 and Dekalb 626 and Arifiye. Split-plots were plant densities of 143 000, 114 000, 95 000, 82 000 and 71 000 plant. Split-plot size was 2.8 m by 5.0 m with four rows per plot. The effects of corn genotypes and plant densities on the forage and dry matter yield and some agronomic characteristics were significant. The highest forage and dry matter yields were obtained from Dracma genotype (69.5 and 27.0 t ha-1, respectively). The highest forage and dry matter yield obtained at 114000 and 143000 plant densities (64.4 and 62.3 t ha-1 forage yield and 24.8 and 23.1 t ha-1 dry matter yield, respectively).
Effect of Nitrogen Rate on Growth , Forage Yield and Silage Quality of Three Sorghum Hybrids  [cached]
A. Mirlohi,N. Bozorgvar,M. Bassiri
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2000,
Abstract: In order to determine the most suitable cultivar and N level based on yield and silage value of forage sorghum, an experiment was conducted in summer 1995. The experiment was arranged in a split-plot design with four replications. Two levels of N (300, 500 Kg/ha urea) were the main plots and the subplots were three sorghum hybrids (Sugar graze, Super dan and Speed feed). Seeds were hand sown on June 29 with an inter row space of 50 cm and a final density of 20 plant/m2. The results showed that when the N rate increased, forage yields and percent of protein in forage and silage increased. Also panicle dry weight increased at anthesis. The N rate had no significant effect on other traits. A significant difference was observed among hybrids for all characteristics measured. Sugar graze with a bigger stem diameter was taller and produced higher number of leaves. At anthesis, plant leaf and stem dry weight was also highest for Sugar graze; however, the highest panicle dry weight belonged to Speed feed. There was a significant interaction between hybrids and N levels for dry matter production. The percent of leaf, stem and panicle dry matter was highest in sugar graze, Super dan and Speed feed, respectively. The Sugar graze produced the highest forage and dry matter yield. This hybrid produced 30 ton/ha of dry matter and 97 ton/ha of forage, respectively. Furthermore, this cultivar had the highest percent of forage crude protein (7.45%) and the least percent of forage crude fiber (25.12%). Ensiling caused a decrease in percentage of crude protein and an increase in crude fiber. The Sugar graze and Speed feed had the highest and lowest dry matter digestibility, respectively. Based on the results obtained from this study, Sugar graze was found to be the most suitable hybrid due to its highest forage and dry matter yield and better silage quality. Higher N rate (500 kg/ha) is also recommended for higher forage yield and higher percentage of protein.
Heterosis and heterotic patterns among maize landraces for forage  [PDF]
Lopez Cesar Gabriel,Bertoia Luis Maximo,Burak Ruggero
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: Corn silage is a high-quality forage crop used in many areas of the world. Although vegetative and reproductivecomponents of the plant must be considered, breeding programs in temperate regions are mainly based on the Reid xLancaster heterotic pattern that has undergone several cycles of improvement for grain yield. Moreover, hybrids selected forforage production are early maturing genotypes not adapted to warm-temperate or subtropical areas. Consequently, exoticgermplasm should be considered as a source of materials for breeding programs. Eight landraces were crossed following adiallel mating design. Interpopulation crosses showed high heterosis for ear, stover, and whole plant dry matter yield (EY, SY,and WY, respectively). On average, crosses had higher SY than checks, but lower EY. Considering WY, two interpopulationcrosses had higher means than all commercial checks, indicating the potential of the germplasm evaluated. Two compositeswere selected and different breeding strategies are discussed.
THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS UPON THE ORIGIN AND NOMENCLATURE OF THE PRESENT ROSE CULTIVARS  [PDF]
ADUMITRESEI LIDIA,ST?NESCU IRINA
Journal of Plant Development , 2009,
Abstract: The rose cultivars are inter-specific hybrids with polyphyletic and heterogeneous origin. The present rose cultivars are the result of introgressive hybridization, where the fertile hybrids from F1 are repetively crossbreeding with one of the parental species or with both species.
Influence of stage of maturity on bromatological quality of corn forage
Filho, Alano Xavier Souza;Pinho, Renzo Garcia Von;Pereira, José Luiz de Andrade Resende;Reis, Matheus Costa dos;Rezende, Adauton Vilela de;Castro Mata, Diego de;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982011000900008
Abstract: the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of stalk/leaf ratio and the stage of maturity on the digestibility of the corn plant. hybrids ag1051, ag4051, ag5011, dow2b710, dow2c577, dow2a525, nb7315 and p30f90 were used, harvested at the one-half milk line (? ml), three-quarters milk line (? ml) and black layer (bl) stages. a randomized block design was used in an 8 (hybrids) × 3 (stages of maturity) factorial design, with three replications. the means generated were used for grouping into high and low stalk/leaf ratio and a new analysis of variance was generated in a 2 × 3 (two groups and three stages of maturity) factorial design. the whole plant and its stalk, leaf, husk, cob and grain components were incubated in situ in the rumen of three cows for determination of degradability of dry matter and degradable neutral detergent fiber. stalk/leaf ratio did not influence neutral detergent fiber content or the degradability of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber of any of the components, except for the cob, in which the high ratio group had greater degradable neutral detergent fiber contents. there was a reduction in the degradability of all the parts, except for the stalk and cob, and an increase in the neutral detergent fiber contents of the vegetative parts, except for the stalk. unlike the vegetative components, the neutral detergent fiber contents of the whole plant decreased throughout the stages evaluated. for degradable neutral detergent fiber, there was a reduction in the whole plant and in its components. the advance of maturity reduces the quality of the vegetative components; however, this loss in the entire plant is moderated by grain filling. forage quality depends more on the quality of the components than on their proportions in the dry matter.
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FOUR FORAGE SORGHUM HYBRIDS UNDER COMPOSI O BROMATOLóGICA DE QUATRO HíBRIDOS DE SORGO FORRAGEIRO SOB DOSES DE NITROGêNIO  [cached]
Régis De Paula Oliveira,Aldi Fernandes de Souza Fran?a,Alzira Gabriela Da Silva,Eliane Sayuri Miyagi
Ciência Animal Brasileira , 2009,
Abstract: The chemical composition of four forage sorghum hybrids was evaluated under three doses of nitrogen (N). The experimental design was in randomized blocks in a 4x3 factorial scheme with four repetitions. Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), soluble carbohydrates (SCs), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), hemicellulose (Hem) and lignin (Lig) were determinate through Spectrophotometry of Reflectance in Proximal Infrared. The dates were analysed for SISVAR 4.6 program comparing average by Tukey test 5% probability. The DM contents differed (P<0.05) between N doses and varieties in the first cut (21.1% to 28.7%). The PB tenors (6.4% and 7.5%) and lignin (Lig) didn’t differed (P>0.05) among varieties and N doses, both cuts. The SCs ranged between doses in the first cut and the varieties in the second cut (13.7%). The ADF and NDF tenors didn’t differed (P>0.05) in N doses in both cut, however the varieties showed difference. The Hem differed between varieties and N doses. The hybrids evaluated presented adequate chemical compositions regarding the process of ensilaging. KEY WORDS: Crude protein, nitrogen fertilization, fibers, Shorgum bicolor and soluble carbohydrates. Avaliou-se a composi o bromatológica de quatro híbridos de sorgo forrageiro sob doses de nitrogênio (N). Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 4 x 3, com quatro repeti es. Foram determinados os teores de matéria seca (MS), proteína bruta (PB), carboidratos solúveis (CHOs), fibra em detergente neutro (FDN), fibra em detergente ácido (FDA), hemicelulose (Hem) e lignina (Lig), de acordo com a técnica da espectrofotometria de refletancia no infravermelho proximal. Analisaram-se os dados pelo programa SISVAR 4.6, testando-se os fatores pelo teste Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. Os valores de MS diferiram (P<0,05) em fun o das doses de N e entre os híbridos avaliados no primeiro corte (21,1% a 28,7%). Os teores de PB (6,4% e 7,5%) e Lig n o diferiram (P>0,05) entre os híbridos e doses de N, em ambos os cortes. Os CHOs apresentaram varia o entre as doses no primeiro corte e entre os híbridos no segundo corte (13,7%). Os teores de FDN e FDA n o diferiram (P>0,05) em fun o das doses de N em ambos os cortes, entretanto houve diferen a entre os híbridos. A Hem diferiu entre os híbridos e as doses de N. Os híbridos avaliados apresentaram boas composi es bromatológicas, para o processo de ensilagem. PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Aduba o nitrogenada, carboidratos solúveis, fibras, proteína bruta e Shorgum bicolor.
Valor nutritivo da silagem de dez híbridos de milho = Nutritional value of silage from ten corn hybrids
Geane Dias Gon?alves Ferreira,Yves Barrière,Jean-Claude Emile,Clóves Cabreira Jobim
Acta Scientiarum : Animal Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Objetivou-se avaliar a composi o químico-bromatológica e a digestibilidade aparente de dez híbridos de milho (DK265bm3, DK265, HS5, HS6, HTV2, HTV27, Anjou285, Mexxal, Pistache e Buxxil) cultivados no INRA (Unité de Génétique et d’Amélioration des Plantes Fourragères, Lusignan-France), em parcelas de 150 m2, com trêsrepeti es. Para o estudo de digestibilidade in vivo, os ovinos foram alimentados com silagem da planta inteira dos híbridos de milho com três repeti es. Os híbridos de milho foram avaliados antes de ensilados pelo método NIRS, em que se pode constatar que houve diferen a (p < 0,05) entre os híbridos para a composi o química. Quanto aos valores de digestibilidade in vivo, observou-se que, o DK265bm3 se destacou dos demais híbridos quanto aos valores de MS, MO, celulose, PC e da DIVMS. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the chemical-bromatological composition and apparent digestibility of ten hybrids of corn (DK265bm3, DK265, HS5, HS6, HTV2, HTV27, Anjou285, Mexxal, Pistachio and Buxxil) planted at INRA (Unité of Génétique Amélioration des Plantes Fourragères, Lusignan-France), in 150 m2 areas with three replications. The digestibility study was conducted using sheep fed corn hybrid whole plant silage with three replications. Corn hybrids were evaluated before ensilage using NIRS, and a significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed among treatments for chemical composition. DK265bm3 showed higher values than other hybrids for digestibility of DM, OM, cellulose, NDF and for IVDMD.
Ruminal silage degradability and productivity of forage and grain-type sorghum cultivars
Resende, José Ant?nio;Pereira, Marcos Neves;Pinho, Renzo Garcia Von;Fonseca, Abeilard Henrique;Silva, Aloísio Ricardo Pereira da;
Scientia Agricola , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-90162003000300007
Abstract: forages for feeding dairy cows should conciliate the potential for high dry matter yield per unit area, maximizing animal stocking rate, with high nutritive value, which enables decreasing the amount of concentrate feedstuffs per milk unit produced. eighteen sorghum cultivars were cultivated 0.70 m apart and with 12 plants per linear meter. plants harvested at the milk-to-dough stage were ensiled in the laboratory. eleven agronomic and chemical traits were evaluated. silage samples were incubated in situ and the effective ruminal dry matter degradation (def) was calculated assuming a fractional passage rate of -0.04 h-1. dry matter yield was 13.0 ± 2.3 (mean ± s.d.) t ha-1. the neutral detergent fiber content was 50.3 ± 3.8 and the def was 48.8 ± 2.8% (dry matter basis). the average sorghum def was 84% of the def of a composite sample of 60 corn hybrids simultaneously cultivated, ensiled and ruminally incubated. the 12 forage-type cultivars were taller, more productive, had higher fiber content and lower def than the 6 grain and dual purpose-type cultivars. the acid detergent fiber content had the greatest correlation with def (r= -0.64). the linear model correlating def with productivity was: def=54.694 - 0.4449 x t of dry matter ha-1 (r2=0.14). although there are cultivars that show high productivity and digestibility, it seems to be difficult to conciliate the maximum nutritive value with the maximum productivity of the sorghum crop.
Manejo agronómico para incrementar el rendimiento de grano y forraje en híbridos tardíos de maíz Agronomic management to increase grain and forage yield in full season maize hybrids  [cached]
Alfonso Pe?a Ramos,Fernando González Casta?eda,Francisco Javier Robles Escobedo
Revista mexicana de ciencias agrícolas , 2010,
Abstract: El manejo agronómico del maíz tiene impacto sobre el rendimiento de grano y la producción y calidad del forraje. El objetivo fue determinar el efecto de dos dosis de nitrógeno y tres densidades de población sobre el rendimiento de grano y materia seca, así como la calidad del forraje de maíces híbridos tardíos. El experimento se estableció en mayo de 2003 en Aguascalientes, México. El dise o fue bloques completos al azar con arreglo en parcelas subdivididas, donde las parcelas de mayor a menor fueron: niveles de N, 180 y 240 kg ha-1; densidades de población, 60 000, 80 000 y 100 000 plantas ha-1 y los híbridos H-376 y Lobo. Las variables cuantificadas fueron: rendimiento de grano por hectárea y por planta; para el forraje se determinó, producción de materia seca total, contenidos de fibra detergente neutro y ácido, digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca y se estimó producción de leche por tonelada de materia seca y por hectárea. La dosis 240-90-00 incrementó el rendimiento y la materia seca total en 1.3 y 3.3 t ha-1, respectivamente. El aumento en densidad de población de 80 000 a 100 000 plantas ha-1 incrementó el rendimiento en 1 t ha-1 y el aumento de 60 000 a 100 000 plantas ha-1 incremento la materia seca total en 3.2 t ha-1. El H-376 obtuvo el mayor rendimiento de materia seca total con 21.7 t ha-1 y los mayores contenidos de fibra detergente neutro y ácido y menor digestibilidad in vitro; sin embargo, Lobo produjo 216 kg de leche t-1 y 3.5 t de leche ha-1 más que H-376. The agronomic management of maize impacts grain yield and production and quality of forage. The objective was to determine the effects of two nitrogen levels and three plant stands upon grain yield and dry matter production, also on the forage quality of full season maize hybrids. The experiment was established on May 2003 in Aguascalientes, Mexico. The experimental design was a completely random with split-split plots, in large plots N levels, 180 and 240 kg ha-1, were tested; in medium plot plant stands, 60 000, 80 000 and 100 000 plants ha-1 and the hybrids H-376 and Lobo in the small plots. The recorded variables were: grain yield per ha and total dry matter production, neutral and acid detergent fiber content, dry matter digestibility in vitro and milk production per ton of dry matter as well as per hectare. The 240-90-00-fertilization level increased grain yield and total dry matter in 1.3 and 3.3 t ha-1 respectively. The increase in plant stand from 80 000 to 100 000 plants ha-1 increased grain yield in 1 t ha-1 and the change of 60 000 to 100 000 plants ha-1 increased
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