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Jarzynski equality for a gas particle driven out of equilibrium  [PDF]
T. G. Philbin,J. Anders
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: One particle in a classical perfect gas is driven out of equilibrium by changing its mass over a short time interval. The work done on the driven particle depends on its collisions with the other particles in the gas. This model thus provides an example of a non-equilibrium process in a system (the driven particle) coupled to an environment (the rest of the gas). We calculate the work done on the driven particle and compare the results to Jarzynski's equality relating a non-equilibrium work process to an equilibrium free-energy difference. The results for this model are generalised to the case of a system that is driven in one degree of freedom while interacting with the environment through other degrees of freedom.
LET WOMEN OUT AND MEN IN. THE SWEDISH GENDER EQUALITY POLITICS ON LABOUR MARKET AND IN FAMILIES  [PDF]
Katarzyna Szymoniak
Studia Humanistyczne (Kraków. 2003) , 2011,
Abstract: The aim of this article is to analyze the Swedish gender equality politics and its influence on the gender equality on the Swedish labour market and within families in period between 1970s and 2000s. Problems such as wage differentials, occupational sex segregation and unequal distribution of paid and unpaid work between the sexes were faced from the beginning of the 20th century up to 1960s. In order to address those issues gender equality politics was launched in 1970s including enacting of the law on separate taxation and law on gender equality. Moreover, a special family politics was launched encouraging men and women to divide childcare and housework equally. On one hand Swedish gender equality politics contributed to the growth of women’s participation in labour market, to minimize wage differentials and it also made sex distribution between the occupations and at the leading positions in companies and institutions more equal. Moreover, this politics led to more equal distribution of unpaid work between men and women at home. On the other hand it must be pointed out that none of these problems has been completely solved. Women’s wages are still generally lower than men’s and women and men tend to work in different sectors. Women still take greater part of parental leave and tend to do the bigger part of unpaid work. Although a significant change in the level of gender equality has been made since 1960s, which can be considered a success of the Swedish gender equality politics, there is still much that needs to be done in order to achieve gender equality both on labour market and in families.
Dress and fashion
Ivanovi?-Bari?i? Milina
Glasnik Etnografskog Instituta SANU , 2006, DOI: 10.2298/gei0654245i
Abstract: Fashion is a contemporary phenomenon, with an increasing role in shaping behavior in contemporary societies. Fashion influences many areas of human creativity, especially mode of dressing. Dressing usually assumes traditional costume, which somewhat stayed static during history. Starting with Renaissance period, Europe experienced frequent changes in fashion styles (all changes came later to Serbia). In its beginnings, fashion was accepted mostly by wealthier classes, but in time, it gradually became available to general population, becoming so a part of the "consumers mentality". This availability of the fashion industry facilitates to many a brief, sharp cut with past in a short period of time. And while costume was characterized by certain stability of forms and materials, fashion represents a completely different phenomenon. That is, fashion is characterized by instability of forms and constant changes, and by relatively short periods of duration of styles and contemporary dressing.
Fashion and Innovation
Márta Kisfaludy
Acta Polytechnica Hungarica , 2008,
Abstract: The link between fashion and innovation is showed from the point of view of afashion designer, who did research work on this theme in her doctoral thesis. The authordemonstrates some of the results expressed in her practical work.
Equality of Proofs for Linear Equality  [PDF]
K. Dosen,Z. Petric
Mathematics , 2006,
Abstract: This paper is about equality of proofs in which a binary predicate formalizing properties of equality occurs, besides conjunction and the constant true proposition. The properties of equality in question are those of a preordering relation, those of an equivalence relation, and other properties appropriate for an equality relation in linear logic. The guiding idea is that equality of proofs is induced by coherence, understood as the existence of a faithful functor from a syntactical category into a category whose arrows correspond to diagrams. Edges in these diagrams join occurrences of variables that must remain the same in every generalization of the proof. It is found that assumptions about equality of proofs for equality are parallel to standard assumptions about equality of arrows in categories. They reproduce standard categorial assumptions on a different level. It is also found that assumptions for a preordering relation involve an adjoint situation.
The meaning of sexuality in nurse education
Lúcia Beatriz Ressel, Maria de Lourdes Denardin Budó, Carolina Frescura Junges, Graciela Dutra Sehnem, Izabel Cristina Hoffmann, Emanoeli Büttenbender
Revista de Enfermagem UFPE On Line , 2010,
Abstract: Objectives: to reflect on sexuality in a cultural perspective. In a group reflexive exercise, the concepts of this theme have been discussed in groups of undergraduate students of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria in the years 2003 and 2004. Methodology: this is a research with a qualitative approach whose data collection was based on presuppositions of the focus group. Population included 80 nursing undergraduate students of a university in south Brazil, at ages between 18 and 25 years old, male and female, at the third year. A theme analysis of the data was applied. The study has been approved by the Ethics Committee of the Health Sciences Center of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (113/03). Results: the meanings revealed expressed varied senses about sexuality which was highlighted as an element of mediation for the interpersonal relationships and as a human expression of a sexed body. Conclusion: The study enabled the inborn human visibility, universal and singular, however rarely discussed in the formation of nurses. It was possible to visualize sexuality in the perspective of cultural, social, and historic construction; sensitizing participants for the singularities that this topic approaches to each person.
A Theory on Fashion Consumption  [cached]
Fang Ma,Huijing Shi,Lihua Chen,Yiping Luo
Journal of Management and Strategy , 2012, DOI: 10.5430/jms.v3n4p84
Abstract: Both the theory of top-down penetration of fashion consumption (Veblen - Simmel model) and the theory of bottom-up fashion consumption have been found consistent with the consumer behavior in the China’s fashion consumer market and the trend of such behavior keeps growing. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out a study on fashion consumption to meet the needs of the development of real life and fashion consumption. Firstly, we describe the content of fashion consumption, discuss the connotation and main features of fashion and analyze the relationship among fashion, innovation, classic and prevalence; namely, innovation is the pioneer of fashion while the classic is the denotation of faded fashion and prevalence is the continuance of fashion. Secondly, we examine the psychological motivations and behavioral mechanisms of fashion consumption, pointing out that the psychological motivations of fashion consumption is showing-off and it is of symbolic significance. The general characteristics of fashion buyers and consumer characteristics including the elegant fashion, the popular fashion, the cool fashion and the Bobos fashion are presented. We put forward a decision-making process in fashion consumption according to the influence of fashion, the extent of consumer involvement and the purchase decision time. Finally, by analyzing the fashion consumption behavior of the Chinese consumers, we point out that the core of the cool fashion or the Bobo fashion is actually not materialism and both cool fashion and Bobo fashion will have a profound influence in the fashion consumption in the future.
Sexuality and shifting paradigms – setting the scene  [cached]
Yolanda Dreyer
HTS Theological Studies/Teologiese Studies , 2009, DOI: 10.4102/hts.v61i3.471
Abstract: The social environment of the Biblical world can be distinguished in the Eastern Mediterranean (Semitic) and the Western Mediterranean (Greco-Roman) contexts. From a historical chronological perspective these contexts first functioned separately and then later merged because of Hellenisation. In both these Mediterranean contexts sexuality, religion and marriage were intertwined, but the values attributed to them, were different. The Old Testament mostly mirrors the Eastern Mediterranean world, whereas the New Testament represents a syncretism of the values of the Eastern and Western Mediterranean worlds. In order to understand the changes in the values attributed to sexuality, religion and marriage over time – from premodern, to modern, to postmodern times – it is necessary to investigate the social dynamics in the different eras. The aim of the article is to explore the nature of the interconnections and the values attributed to sexuality, religion and marriage in Biblical times.
Retail and Fashion – A Happy Marriage? The Making of a Fashion Industry Research Design  [cached]
Cecilia Fredriksson
Culture Unbound : Journal of Current Cultural Research , 2011,
Abstract: Fashion and retail ought to be a happy marriage. Yet several entrepreneurs in the field of fashion speak of a climate that is difficult to penetrate because of economic and cultural factors. For example, the chain store concept is an expression of the specific and current fashion situation in Sweden: democratic fashion that is cheap and accessible. At the same time, customers now demand personal, unique and ethical fashions. However, there are few possibilities in this climate for low cost development in progressive Swedish design. This article addresses the questions of how special trade conditions are reflected in the relationship between fashion and retail, and how different interests and values are expressed in the culture of Swedish fashion. To gain a deeper understanding of diverse working conditions and strategies, this article analyzes the culture of the Swedish fashion business as a narrative of different social and cultural processes. A conclusion drawn is that a cultural perspective on the oppositions between different practices and logics in the fashion business may contribute to mapping and managing these oppositions.
Design on Knitwear Fashion  [cached]
Jing Gao
Asian Social Science , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v5n1p128
Abstract: Knitwear fashion owns both the characters of knitted garments and fashion. Its unique fabrics, colors, shapes and technology, as well as casualness and comfortableness to wear, attract people’s hearts on beauty and it becomes popular rookie. This paper, based on the designer's point of view, through market research, focuses on the analysis of the characteristics of knitwear fashion, fabric choices, color matching and fashion trend, which highlights the significance of knitwear fashion in today's society as well as the quick development of knitted fabrics whose roles could not be ignored.
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