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Distribution of indoor air pollutants in downtown Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Siqueira, Celeste Y. S.;Gioda, Adriana;Carneiro, Fabiana P.;Ramos, Maria da Concei??o K. V.;Aquino Neto, Francisco R.;
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-50532011001100016
Abstract: indoor air quality (iaq) has been a matter of public concern in brazil. however, few studies have been performed in the whole country. this work presents an iaq survey conducted in different kinds of indoor environments in rio de janeiro city. air samples were analyzed to determine individual and total volatile organic compounds (tvocs), aldehydes, total particulate matter (tpm) and fungi. tvoc concentrations ranged from 101 to 12823 μg m-3 with an average of 1594 μg m-3, exceeding the suggested limit from anvisa7 (500 μg m-3). indoor/outdoor ratios for most of the parameters were higher than unit, indicating indoor sources of pollution. on the other hand, low levels of airborne fungi were detected (14-314 cfu m-3) being below than the anvisa standard7 (750 cfu m-3). overall, the environments did not present good air quality for the occupants due to chemical pollutants.
Development of an indoor air quality checklist for risk assessment of indoor air pollutants by semiquantitative score in nonindustrial workplaces
Syazwan AI, Rafee BM, Hafizan J, Azman AZF, Nizar AM, Izwyn Z, Muhaimin AA, Syafiq Yunos MA, Anita AR, Muhamad Hanafiah J, Shaharuddin MS, Ibthisham AM, Hasmadi Ismail M, Azhar MNM, Azizan HS, Zulfadhli I, Othman J
Risk Management and Healthcare Policy , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S26567
Abstract: pment of an indoor air quality checklist for risk assessment of indoor air pollutants by semiquantitative score in nonindustrial workplaces Original Research (3180) Total Article Views Authors: Syazwan AI, Rafee BM, Hafizan J, Azman AZF, Nizar AM, Izwyn Z, Muhaimin AA, Syafiq Yunos MA, Anita AR, Muhamad Hanafiah J, Shaharuddin MS, Ibthisham AM, Hasmadi Ismail M, Azhar MNM, Azizan HS, Zulfadhli I, Othman J Published Date April 2012 Volume 2012:5 Pages 17 - 23 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S26567 Received: 19 December 2011 Accepted: 17 January 2012 Published: 13 April 2012 AI Syazwan1, B Mohd Rafee1, Juahir Hafizan2, AZF Azman1, AM Nizar3, Z Izwyn4, AA Muhaimin5, MA Syafiq Yunos6, AR Anita1, J Muhamad Hanafiah1, MS Shaharuddin1, A Mohd Ibthisham7, Mohd Hasmadi Ismail8, MN Mohamad Azhar1, HS Azizan1, I Zulfadhli9, J Othman10 1Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 3Pharmacology Unit, Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Department of Therapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Science and Biomedical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia; 5Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 6Plant Assessment Technology (PAT), Industrial Technology Division (BTI), Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuklear Malaysia), Bangi, Kajang, Malaysia; 7Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia; 8Department of Forest Production, Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 9Faculty of Built Environment and Architect, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia; 10Department of Counsellor Education and Counselling Psychology (DCECP), Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia Background: To meet the current diversified health needs in workplaces, especially in nonindustrial workplaces in developing countries, an indoor air quality (IAQ) component of a participatory occupational safety and health survey should be included. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and suggest a multidisciplinary, integrated IAQ checklist for evaluating the health risk of building occupants. This IAQ checklist proposed to support employers, workers, and assessors in understanding a wide range of important elements in the indoor air environment to promote awareness in nonindustrial workplaces. Methods: The general structure of and specific items in the IAQ checklist were discussed in a focus group meeting with IAQ assessors based upon the result of a literature review, previous industrial code of practice, and previous interviews with company employer
DNA Damage in Buccal Mucosa Cells of Pre-School Children Exposed to High Levels of Urban Air Pollutants  [PDF]
Elisabetta Ceretti, Donatella Feretti, Gaia C V. Viola, Ilaria Zerbini, Rosa M. Limina, Claudia Zani, Michela Capelli, Rossella Lamera, Francesco Donato, Umberto Gelatti
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096524
Abstract: Air pollution has been recognized as a human carcinogen. Children living in urban areas are a high-risk group, because genetic damage occurring early in life is considered able to increase the risk of carcinogenesis in adulthood. This study aimed to investigate micronuclei (MN) frequency, as a biomarker of DNA damage, in exfoliated buccal cells of pre-school children living in a town with high levels of air pollution. A sample of healthy 3-6-year-old children living in Brescia, Northern Italy, was investigated. A sample of the children's buccal mucosa cells was collected during the winter months in 2012 and 2013. DNA damage was investigated using the MN test. Children's exposure to urban air pollution was evaluated by means of a questionnaire filled in by their parents that included items on various possible sources of indoor and outdoor pollution, and the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5) and NO2 in the 1–3 weeks preceding biological sample collection. 181 children (mean age±SD: 4.3±0.9 years) were investigated. The mean±SD MN frequency was 0.29±0.13%. A weak, though statistically significant, association of MN with concentration of air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5 and NO2) was found, whereas no association was apparent between MN frequency and the indoor and outdoor exposure variables investigated via the questionnaire. This study showed a high MN frequency in children living in a town with heavy air pollution in winter, higher than usually found among children living in areas with low or medium-high levels of air pollution.
Mitigation of building-related polychlorinated biphenyls in indoor air of a school
David L MacIntosh, Taeko Minegishi, Matthew A Fragala, Joseph G Allen, Kevin M Coghlan, James H Stewart, John F McCarthy
Environmental Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-11-24
Abstract: Three interventions (ventilation, contact encapsulation, and physical barriers) were evaluated in an elementary school with PCB-containing caulk and elevated PCB concentrations in indoor air. Fluorescent light ballasts did not contain PCBs. Following implementation of the final intervention, measurements obtained over 14 months were used to assess the efficacy of the mitigation methods over time as well as temporal variability of PCBs in indoor air.Controlling for air exchange rates and temperature, the interventions produced statistically significant (p < 0.05) reductions in concentrations of PCBs in indoor air of the school. The mitigation measures remained effective over the course of the entire follow-up period. After all interventions were implemented, PCB levels in indoor air were associated with indoor temperature. In a "broken-stick" regression model with a node at 20°C, temperature explained 79% of the variability of indoor PCB concentrations over time (p < 0.001).Increasing outdoor air ventilation, encapsulating caulk, and constructing a physical barrier over the encapsulated material were shown to be effective at reducing exposure concentrations of PCBs in indoor air of a school and also preventing direct contact with PCB caulk. In-place management methods such as these avoid the disruption and higher costs of demolition, disposal and reconstruction required when PCB-containing building materials are removed from a school. Because of the influence of temperature on indoor air PCB levels, risk assessment results based on short-term measurements, e.g., a single day or season, may be erroneous and could lead to sub-optimal allocation of resources.PCBs are a class of compounds that had numerous commercial uses in the U.S. from 1929 until their prohibition in 1979 [1,2]. Although their most common application was as an insulating fluid in transformers, capacitors, and other electric equipment, PCBs were also used as a plasticizer in open systems that included
Indoor Air Quality in Selected Samples of Primary Schools in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia  [PDF]
Marzuki Ismail
EnvironmentAsia , 2010,
Abstract: Studies have found out that indoor air quality affects human especially children and the elderly more compared to ambient atmospheric air. This study aims to investigate indoor air pollutants concentration in selected vernacular schools with different surrounding human activities in Kuala Terengganu, the administrative and commercial center of Terengganu state. Failure to identify and establish indoor air pollution status can increase the chance of long-term and short-term health problems for these young students and staff; reduction in productivity of teachers; and degrade the youngsters learning environment and comfort. Indoor air quality (IAQ) parameters in three primary schools were conducted during the monsoon season of November 2008 for the purposes of assessing ventilation rates, levels of particulate matter (PM10) and air quality differences between schools. In each classroom, carbon monoxide (CO), CO2, air velocity, relative humidity and temperature were performed during school hours, and a complete walkthrough survey was completed. Results show a statistically significant difference for the five IAQ parameters between the three schools at the 95.0% confidence level. We conclude our findings by confirming the important influence of surrounding human activities on indoor concentrations of pollutants in selected vernacular schools in Kuala Terengganu.
Development of an indoor air quality checklist for risk assessment of indoor air pollutants by semiquantitative score in nonindustrial workplaces  [cached]
Syazwan AI,Rafee BM,Hafizan J,Azman AZF
Risk Management and Healthcare Policy , 2012,
Abstract: AI Syazwan1, B Mohd Rafee1, Juahir Hafizan2, AZF Azman1, AM Nizar3, Z Izwyn4, AA Muhaimin5, MA Syafiq Yunos6, AR Anita1, J Muhamad Hanafiah1, MS Shaharuddin1, A Mohd Ibthisham7, Mohd Hasmadi Ismail8, MN Mohamad Azhar1, HS Azizan1, I Zulfadhli9, J Othman101Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 3Pharmacology Unit, Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Department of Therapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Science and Biomedical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia; 5Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 6Plant Assessment Technology (PAT), Industrial Technology Division (BTI), Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuklear Malaysia), Bangi, Kajang, Malaysia; 7Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia; 8Department of Forest Production, Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 9Faculty of Built Environment and Architect, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia; 10Department of Counsellor Education and Counselling Psychology (DCECP), Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, MalaysiaBackground: To meet the current diversified health needs in workplaces, especially in nonindustrial workplaces in developing countries, an indoor air quality (IAQ) component of a participatory occupational safety and health survey should be included.Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and suggest a multidisciplinary, integrated IAQ checklist for evaluating the health risk of building occupants. This IAQ checklist proposed to support employers, workers, and assessors in understanding a wide range of important elements in the indoor air environment to promote awareness in nonindustrial workplaces.Methods: The general structure of and specific items in the IAQ checklist were discussed in a focus group meeting with IAQ assessors based upon the result of a literature review, previous industrial code of practice, and previous interviews with company employers and workers.Results: For practicality and validity, several sessions were held to elicit the opinions of company members, and, as a result, modifications were made. The newly developed
Indoor air microbiological evaluation of offices, hospitals, industries, and shopping centers
Nunes, Zilma G;Martins, Alfredo S;Altoe, Ana Lúcia F;Nishikawa, Marília M;Leite, Marilene O;Aguiar, Paula F;Fracalanzza, Sérgio Eduardo L;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762005000400003
Abstract: in this study it was compared the mas-100 and the andersen air samplers' performances and a similar trend in both instruments was observed. it was also evaluated the microbial contamination levels in 3060 samples of offices, hospitals, industries, and shopping centers, in the period of 1998 to 2002, in rio de janeiro city. considering each environment, 94.3 to 99.4% of the samples were the allowed limit in brazil (750 cfu/m3). the industries' results showed more important similarity among fungi and total heterotrophs distributions, with the majority of the results between zero and 100 cfu/m3. the offices' results showed dispersion around 300 cfu/m3. the hospitals' results presented the same trend, with an average of 200 cfu/m3. shopping centers' environments showed an average of 300 cfu/m3 for fungi, but presented a larger dispersion pattern for the total heterotrophs, with the highest average (1000 cfu/m3). it was also investigated the correlation of the sampling period with the number of airborne microorganisms and with the environmental parameters (temperature and air humidity) through the principal components analysis. all indoor air samples distributions were very similar. the temperature and air humidity had no significant influence on the samples dispersion patterns.
Analysis of indoor air pollutants checklist using environmetric technique for health risk assessment of sick building complaint in nonindustrial workplace
Syazwan AI, Mohd Rafee B, Juahir H, Azman AZ, Nizar AM, Izwyn Z, Syahidatussyakirah K, Muhaimin AA, Syafiq Yunos MA, Anita AR, Muhamad Hanafiah J, Shaharuddin MS, Mohd Ibthisham A, Mohd Hasmadi I, Mohamad Azhar MN, Azizan HS, Zulfadhli I, Othman J, Rozalini M, Kamarul FT
Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DHPS.S33400
Abstract: nalysis of indoor air pollutants checklist using environmetric technique for health risk assessment of sick building complaint in nonindustrial workplace Original Research (1321) Total Article Views Authors: Syazwan AI, Mohd Rafee B, Juahir H, Azman AZ, Nizar AM, Izwyn Z, Syahidatussyakirah K, Muhaimin AA, Syafiq Yunos MA, Anita AR, Muhamad Hanafiah J, Shaharuddin MS, Mohd Ibthisham A, Mohd Hasmadi I, Mohamad Azhar MN, Azizan HS, Zulfadhli I, Othman J, Rozalini M, Kamarul FT Published Date September 2012 Volume 2012:4 Pages 107 - 126 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DHPS.S33400 Received: 28 April 2012 Accepted: 10 July 2012 Published: 21 September 2012 AI Syazwan,1 B Mohd Rafee,1 Hafizan Juahir,2 AZF Azman,1 AM Nizar,3 Z Izwyn,4 K Syahidatussyakirah,1 AA Muhaimin,5 MA Syafiq Yunos,6 AR Anita,1 J Muhamad Hanafiah,1 MS Shaharuddin,7 A Mohd Ibthisham,8 I Mohd Hasmadi,9 MN Mohamad Azhar,1 HS Azizan,1 I Zulfadhli,10 J Othman,11 M Rozalini,12 FT Kamarul13 1Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 2Department of Environmental Science/ Environmental Forensics Research Center (ENFORCE), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 3Pharmacology Unit, Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, 4Department of Therapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Science and Biomedical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, 5Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 6Plant Assessment Technology (PAT), Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 7Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 8Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, 9Department of Forest Production, Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 10Faculty of Built Environment and Architect, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, 11Department of Counselor Education and Psychology Counseling, Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 12Occupational Safety, Health and Environment Unit, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor, 13ERALAB SDN. BHD. (Environmental Research and Analytical Laboratory Sdn. Bhd.), Selangor, MALAYSIA Purpose: To analyze and characterize a multidisciplinary, integrated indoor air quality checklist for evaluating the health risk of building occupants in a nonindustrial workplace setting. Design: A cross-sectional study based on a participatory occupational health program conducted by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (Malaysia) and Universiti Putra Malaysia. Method: A modified version of the indoor environmental checklist published by the Department of Occupational Health and Safety, based on the liter
Household Ventilation May Reduce Effects of Indoor Air Pollutants for Prevention of Lung Cancer: A Case-Control Study in a Chinese Population  [PDF]
Zi-Yi Jin, Ming Wu, Ren-Qiang Han, Xiao-Feng Zhang, Xu-Shan Wang, Ai-Ming Liu, Jin-Yi Zhou, Qing-Yi Lu, Claire H. Kim, Lina Mu, Zuo-Feng Zhang, Jin-Kou Zhao
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102685
Abstract: Background Although the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified various indoor air pollutants as carcinogenic to humans, few studies evaluated the role of household ventilation in reducing the impact of indoor air pollutants on lung cancer risk. Objectives To explore the association between household ventilation and lung cancer. Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted in a Chinese population from 2003 to 2010. Epidemiologic and household ventilation data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORadj) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Among 1,424 lung cancer cases and 4,543 healthy controls, inverse associations were observed for good ventilation in the kitchen (ORadj = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.98), bedroom (ORadj = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79, 1.03), and both kitchen and bedroom (ORadj = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00). Stratified analyses showed lung cancer inversely associated with good ventilation among active smokers (ORadj = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.72, 1.00), secondhand smokers at home (ORadj = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.63, 0.94), and those exposed to high-temperature cooking oil fumes (ORadj = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99). Additive interactions were found between household ventilation and secondhand smoke at home as well as number of household pollutant sources. Conclusions A protective association was observed between good ventilation of households and lung cancer, most likely through the reduction of exposure to indoor air pollutants, indicating ventilation may serve as one of the preventive measures for lung cancer, in addition to tobacco cessation.
Microbiological Indoor and Outdoor Air Quality of Two Major Hospitals in Benin City, Nigeria
FO Ekhaise, BI Ogboghodo
Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research , 2011,
Abstract: Air contains large number of microorganisms including bacteria and fungi and their estimation is important as an index of cleanliness for any particular environment. It becomes imperative to undertake a study of the microbiological air quality of the airborne micro-flora in the environments of two major government hospitals, University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH) and Central Hospital, in Benin City metropolis. Both indoor and outdoor air samples were assessed monthly for the three (3) months in the wet season (June – August, 2010) and dry season (November 2010 - January 2011) using the settled plate methods. The study sites were divided into nine (9) units which include accident and emergency ward, laboratory, male ward, female ward, children ward, labour room, treatment room, theatre and outside the hospital gate. The mean airborne bacterial load in the two hospitals ranges from 8.5cfu/min to 172.5cfu/min and 5.5cfu/min to 64.5cfu/min for UBTH and Central hospital in the wet season. While the mean airborne fungal load in UBTH and Central Hospital in dry season ranges from 2.5cfu/min to 9.5cfu/min and 1.5cfu/min to 19.0cfu/min respectively. The female ward, children ward, accident and emergency ward and outside the hospital gate recorded the highest airborne micro-flora. The result revealed the isolation of ten (10) fungal isolates and six (6) bacterial isolates. These include Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Botryodiplodia acerina, Rhizopus stolonifer, Nigospora zimm, Mucor sp., Monilla infuscans, Penicillium sp., Candida sp. and Trichoderma viridis while the six (6) bacterial isolates include Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sp., Serratia marcescens and Micrococcus sp. The result shows the highest fungal population of 26.5cfu/min (outdoor) in UBTH followed by 24.0cfu/min (outdoor) in Central Hospital. The highest bacterial load of 172.5cfu/min (outdoor) was recorded in UBTH. The fungal isolates Aspergillus niger (53.0%) and Monilla infuscans (43.9%) were showed to be the most frequently isolated airborne fungal organisms while Staphylococcus aureus (91.3%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (85.8%) were the most frequently isolated bacterial isolates. The statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the microbial population obtained during the wet and dry seasons in both hospitals studied. Data generated underline the usefulness of monitoring hospital environments.
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