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Structural Styles and Petroleum Potential of Miano Block, Central Indus Basin, Pakistan  [PDF]
Saif-Ur-Rehman K. Jadoon, Muhammad F. Mehmood, Zohaib Shafiq, Ishtiaq A. K. Jadoon
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2016.710086
Abstract: The main purpose of this research article is to evaluate the structural styles and hydrocarbon potential of Miano Block using seismic and well log data. The Miano Block discovered in 1993 is located in the Central Indus Basin which is a part of an extensional regime exhibiting normal faulting, formed as a result of split of the Indian Plate firstly from Africa and then from Madagascar and Seychelles. Tectonically, the Miano Block lies on the Panno-Aqil graben between two extensive regional highs i.e. Jacobabad-Khairpur High and Mari Kandhkot High. Four migrated seismic lines were used for structural enhancement; P2092-111, P2092-113 and P2092-115 (dip lines) and P2092-110 (strike line). Time and depth contours were generated for four horizons, HabibRahi Formation, Sui Main Limestone, Ranikot Formation and Lower Goru Formation which showed the presence of horst and graben structures in the subsurface. The interpretation of horst and graben structures is based on a parallel set of NS-oriented high-angle planar normal faults with dips either towards SE or SW with majority of the faults dipping towards the SW. The faults are observed to exhibit slight disruption of strata with limited displacement to the order of about 50 m in Lower Goru Formation. Thus, horst and graben structures with NS trend in the study area are interpreted. The NS trend of these structures along with similar structural dip is inconsistent to the NW-SE orientation of regional structures i.e. Panno- Aqil graben and the Jacobabad-Kharipur and Mari-Kandhkot Highs indicating about the presence of a second minor set of faults and complexity of deformation. In this setting, Maino-02 well was drilled with the primary target as B-Sands of Lower Goru Formation belonging to Lower Cretaceous age while secondary target was A-Sands of Lower Goru belonging to the same age. The result of the petrophysical analysis supports two potential zones (zone 1 and zone 2) within the Lower Goru Formation. Potential reservoir zones were marked with average hydrocarbon saturation of zone 1 calculated as 63.5% and that of zone 2 as 68.9%.
Application of Seismic Attributes for Delineation of Channel Geometries and Analysis of Various Aspects in Terms of Lithological and Structural Perspectives of Lower Goru Formation, Pakistan  [PDF]
Tayyab Muhammad Naseer, Shazia Asim, Mirza Naseer Ahmad, Farrukh Hussain, Shahid Nadeem Qureshi
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2014.512121
Abstract: Miano area is one of the distinct major hydrocarbon producing fields of the Lower Indus basin. Lower Goru is the reservoir strait in this area. The aim of the present study is to exploit the channels reservoirs and other stratigraphic features in such a terrain where there is always a challenge for the geoscientist to search and exploit the channeled reservoirs. To resolve this issue we have utilized attribute analysis on high resolution 3D-seismic data for the detailed comparative studies for the channels. There are many astonishing features that are identified in the current study, which could not otherwise be easily enhanced with the help of 2D Seismic Data. Seismic attributes such as coherency, frequency (are also appropriate for lithological discrimination), which are sensitive to the channel edges are applied for the channel delineation and their geometrical analysis. Spectral decomposition techniques are also applied for the delineation of channels and to appropriately select the best band for channels identification. Three types of channel geometries are recognized: 1) highly sinuous channel; 2) narrow-broad meandering belts; 3) moderate to high sinuous channel. NW-SE, N-W trending faults can be helpful to compartmentalize the reservoir. Instantaneous and dominant frequency are more beneficial for further field development based on Gamma Ray logs from nearby drilled wells and dimensional perspectives analysis of the channel reservoir.
Subsurface and Petrophysical Studies of Shaly-Sand Reservoir Targets in Apete Field, Niger Delta  [PDF]
P. A. Alao,A. I. Ata,C. E. Nwoke
ISRN Geophysics , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/102450
Abstract: Conventional departures from Archie conditions for petrophysical attribute delineation include shaliness, fresh formation waters, thin-bed reservoirs, and combinations of these cases. If these departures are unrecognized, water saturation can be overestimated, and this can result in loss of opportunity. Wireline logs of four (4) wells from Apete field were studied to delineate petrophysical attributes of shaly-sand reservoirs in the field. Shale volume and porosities were calculated, water saturations were determined by the dual water model, and net pay was estimated using field-specific pay criteria. Ten sand units within the Agbada formation penetrated by the wells were delineated and correlated and their continuity was observed across the studied wells. The reservoirs had high volume of shale (Vcl), high hydrocarbon saturation, low water saturation, and good effective porosity ranging 12.50–46.90%, 54.00–98.39%, 1.61–46.0%, and 10.40–26.80%, respectively. The pay zones are relatively inhomogeneous reservoirs as revealed from the buckle’s plot except in Apete 05. The direction of deposition of the sands was thus inferred to be east west. Empirical relationships apply with variable levels of accuracy with observation of the porosity-depth, water saturation-depth, and water saturation-porosity trends. Core data is recommended for better characterization of these reservoirs. 1. Introduction Shales can cause complications for the petrophysicist because they are generally conductive and may therefore mask the high resistance characteristic of hydrocarbons [1]. Several factors are to be considered when delineating petrophysical attributes for shaly-sand reservoirs because clay minerals add conductivity to the formation especially at low water saturations. Clay minerals attract water that is adsorbed onto the surface, as well as cations (e.g., sodium) that are themselves surrounded by hydration water. This gives rise to an excess conductivity compared with rock, in which clay crystals are not present, and this space might otherwise be filled with hydrocarbon. Using Archie’s equation in shaly sands results in very high water saturation values and may lead to potentially hydrocarbon bearing zones being missed. Moreover, in clean sands, the irreducible water volume is a function of the surface area of the sand grains and therefore the grain size, but for shaly sands the addition of silt and clay usually decreases effective porosity due to poorer sorting and increases the irreducible water volume with the finer grain size [2]. Archie’s equation was developed for
Petrophysical Characterization of Gongola Basin (Kolmani River1) Shaly-Sand Reservoir Using Dual Water Model  [cached]
E.E.Epuh,D. O.Olorode,P.C. Nwilo,C. U Ezeigbo
Journal of Asian Scientific Research , 2012,
Abstract: Qualitative and quantitative analysis were carried out in Kolmani River -1 exploratory wells to determine the shaly-sand reservoir petrophysical parameters such as: shale volume effective porosity, effective water saturation, free water resistivity and hydrocarbon saturation. The reservoir at depth between 6720ft and 7117ft contains a non associated gas and it occurs within the Yolde/Bima stratigraphic formations. The presence of igneous intrusive and the pressure and temperature observations from the well logs show that the basin has been subjected to high geothermal effects which have destroyed a substantial part of the hydrocarbon in place. The geothermal effects converted the hydrocarbon to a dry gas with an estimate of 680Mcf (six hundred and eighty thousand cubic feet) available for production. Also, the 12% effective water saturation shows that the well will not flow during production. The gas volume within the Gongola basin is insignificant.
Mapping the productive sands of Lower Goru Formation by using seismic stratigraphy and rock physical studies in Sawan area, southern Pakistan: a case study
Khyzer Munir,M. Asim Iqbal,Asam Farid,Syed Mohammad Shabih
Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technologies , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s13202-011-0003-9
Abstract: This study has been conducted in the Sawan gas field located in southern Pakistan. The aim of the study is to map the productive sands of the Lower Goru Formation of the study area. Rock physics parameters (bulk modulus, Poisson’s ratio) are analysed after a detailed sequence stratigraphic study. Sequence stratigraphy helps to comprehend the depositional model of sand and shale. Conformity has been established between seismic stratigraphy and the pattern achieved from rock physics investigations, which further helped in the identification of gas saturation zones for the reservoir. Rheological studies have been done to map the shear strain occurring in the area. This involves the contouring of shear strain values throughout the area under consideration. Contour maps give a picture of shear strain over the Lower Goru Formation. The identified and the productive zones are described by sands, high reflection strengths, rock physical anomalous areas and low shear strain.
Indus Water Treaty Vis-à-vis International Transboundary Water Management Principles  [PDF]
Raja Nazakat,Rafiq Ahamad
Golden Research Thoughts , 2012, DOI: 10.9780/22315063
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to examine the relevance of Indus basin treaty with internationally recognized transboundary water resources management principles. The Indus basin treaty known as the Indus Water Treaty (IWT) was signed between India and Pakistan in 1960. The IWT incorporates various international transboundary water resources management principles, e.g. the principle of equitable and reasonable utilization, an obligation not to cause significant harm, principles of cooperation, data exchange, notification, consultation and the peaceful settlement of disputes. The analysis of Indus water treaty with internationally recognized principles reveals that these internationally recognized principles have provided the common ground and guidelines for IWT arbitration. Meanwhile its principles have provided guidelines for various water management principles. As for as implementation of IWT is concerned, India and Pakistan have happily accepted it and able to curb water dispute.
The Indus Water Distribution in Sindh, Pakistan: Management, Impacts and Conflicts
Habibullah Magsi,Salman Atif
Agricultural Journal , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/aj.2012.382.387
Abstract: Little attention has been devoted to the water projects instituted to store and divert Indus water in the upper Indus basin which are causing water shortage in Sindh province of Pakistan. The water shortage further results in economic, social and ecological problems which became a source of conflict between provinces of the country. The study emphasizes on the mismanagement and flawed water distribution policies which are germinating inter-provincial social-conflicts. The study is in descriptive in parts where researchers tried to evaluate shortage of water in Sindh province with respect to planning, storage and distribution of Indus water and their impacts on the economic, social and environmental life of the province. Then researchers evaluate the impacts of water conflicts, especially in downstream riparian where Indus delta is moving towards an ecological disaster and famine like situation. Finally researchers recommend resolution measures. Therefore, the attention to such conflicts, their resolution and prevention is an important area for research and policy development.
A simulation of the Neolithic transition in the Indus valley  [PDF]
Carsten Lemmen,Aurangzeb Khan
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was one of the first great civilizations in prehistory. This bronze age civilization flourished from the end of the fourth millennium BC. It disintegrated during the second millennium BC; despite much research effort, this decline is not well understood. Less research has been devoted to the emergence of the IVC, which shows continuous cultural precursors since at least the seventh millennium BC. To understand the decline, we believe it is necessary to investigate the rise of the IVC, i.e., the establishment of agriculture and livestock, dense populations and technological developments 7000--3000 BC. Although much archaeological information is available, our capability to investigate the system is hindered by poorly resolved chronology, and by a lack of field work in the intermediate areas between the Indus valley and Mesopotamia. We thus employ a complementary numerical simulation to develop a consistent picture of technology, agropastoralism and population developments in the IVC domain. Results from this Global Land Use and technological Evolution Simulator show that there is (1) fair agreement between the simulated timing of the agricultural transition and radiocarbon dates from early agricultural sites, but the transition is simulated first in India then Pakistan; (2) an independent agropastoralism developing on the Indian subcontinent; and (3) a positive relationship between archeological artifact richness and simulated population density which remains to be quantified.
Indus basin floods of 2010: Souring of a Faustian bargain?
Daanish Mustafa,David Wrathall
Water Alternatives , 2011,
Abstract: The great flood of 2010 in Pakistan was not an accidental, unpredictable and random episode in the hydrologic development of the Indus basin, but rather a by-product of national decisions on water use, integrally linked, as well, to the design of the social landscape. In immediate and mid terms, acute impacts are expected to be concentrated among households with fragile and sensitive livelihoods. To attenuate an evolving low-level humanitarian, social and political crisis, and to prevent backsliding to Pakistan’s development progress, attention should focus on water drainage and rapid rehabilitation of farmland. Local government structures can be engaged in the distribution and implementation of recovery programs. In Pakistan, the hydrological priorities have always been irrigation and power generation, but in the interest of preventing a costly recurrence, Pakistani flood management and early alert systems require structural revision.
Integrated Geophysical Study of the Lower Indus Platform Basin Area of Pakistan  [PDF]
Nasir Khan, Ahmed Amara Konaté, Peimin Zhu
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2013.49118
Abstract:

Integrating various data sets to provide one optimal subsurface image is a major goal of geophysicst. In this paper, there is a synergetic approach used to delineate the tectonic-structural framework with analyzing the hydrocarbon reservoir in the Lower Indus Platform basin of Pakistan. The reflected seismic profiles and potential field map constitute the data base of this study. Our study in the line of the previous research is resulted from important oil and gas discoveries contained in the Early Cretaceous and Upper Jurassic formations of the Lower Indus Platform basin area. The result shows trapping mechanism in the Lower Indus Platform basin involves of the fault blocks and stratigraphic traps are present in the area. The more refined images are interpreted to provide greater insight into detailed integrated geophysical study of area.

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