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Reducing Human-Tsetse Contact Significantly Enhances the Efficacy of Sleeping Sickness Active Screening Campaigns: A Promising Result in the Context of Elimination  [PDF]
Fabrice Courtin?,Mamadou Camara?,Jean-Baptiste Rayaisse?,Moise Kagbadouno?,Emilie Dama?,Oumou Camara?,Ibrahima S. Traoré?,Jérémi Rouamba?,Moana Peylhard?,Martin B. Somda
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003727
Abstract: Background Control of gambiense sleeping sickness, a neglected tropical disease targeted for elimination by 2020, relies mainly on mass screening of populations at risk and treatment of cases. This strategy is however challenged by the existence of undetected reservoirs of parasites that contribute to the maintenance of transmission. In this study, performed in the Boffa disease focus of Guinea, we evaluated the value of adding vector control to medical surveys and measured its impact on disease burden. Methods The focus was divided into two parts (screen and treat in the western part; screen and treat plus vector control in the eastern part) separated by the Rio Pongo river. Population census and baseline entomological data were collected from the entire focus at the beginning of the study and insecticide impregnated targets were deployed on the eastern bank only. Medical surveys were performed in both areas in 2012 and 2013. Findings In the vector control area, there was an 80% decrease in tsetse density, resulting in a significant decrease of human tsetse contacts, and a decrease of disease prevalence (from 0.3% to 0.1%; p=0.01), and an almost nil incidence of new infections (<0.1%). In contrast, incidence was 10 times higher in the area without vector control (>1%, p<0.0001) with a disease prevalence increasing slightly (from 0.5 to 0.7%, p=0.34). Interpretation Combining medical and vector control was decisive in reducing T. b. gambiense transmission and in speeding up progress towards elimination. Similar strategies could be applied in other foci.
Perceived Impeding Factors for Return-to-Work after Long-Term Sickness Absence Due to Major Depressive Disorder: A Concept Mapping Approach  [PDF]
Gabe de Vries, Hiske L. Hees, Maarten W. J. Koeter, Suzanne E. Lagerveld, Aart H. Schene
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085038
Abstract: Objective The purpose of the present study was to explore various stakeholder perspectives regarding factors that impede return-to-work (RTW) after long-term sickness absence related to major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods Concept mapping was used to explore employees', supervisors' and occupational physicians' perspectives on these impeding factors. Results Nine perceived themes, grouped in three meta-clusters were found that might impede RTW: Person, (personality / coping problems, symptoms of depression and comorbid (health) problems, employee feels misunderstood, and resuming work too soon), Work (troublesome work situation, too little support at work, and too little guidance at work) and Healthcare (insufficient mental healthcare and insufficient care from occupational physician). All stakeholders regarded personality/coping problems and symptoms of depression as the most important impeding theme. In addition, supervisors emphasized the importance of mental healthcare underestimating the importance of the work environment, while occupational physicians stressed the importance of the lack of safety and support in the work environment. Conclusions In addition to the reduction of symptoms, more attention is needed on coping with depressive symptoms and personality problems in the work environment support in the work environment and for RTW in mental healthcare, to prevent long term sickness absence.
Sickness behaviour pushed too far – the basis of the syndrome seen in severe protozoal, bacterial and viral diseases and post-trauma
Ian A Clark, Alison C Budd, Lisa M Alleva
Malaria Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-7-208
Abstract: The idea of acute infectious illness being caused by rampant overproduction of inflammatory cytokines that, in lower concentrations, mediate innate immunity, was first argued a quarter of a century ago [1], and has generated a large literature. Once recombinant tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) became available in the late 1980s, and assays based on them replaced earlier methods, the concept spread to other pro-inflammatory cytokines, and from malaria and sepsis to viral and certain autoimmune diseases. It is now also well-entrenched in the literature of the post-trauma syndrome. Clearly, different triggers for cytokine generation and release can be expected to generate different foci, profiles, concentrations and kinetics of these mediators – now numerous enough to form superfamilies – and thus clinical variation within the same general principle is to be expected. But an accepted fundamental pattern has emerged.At a time of shifting perceptions on the interaction between sickness and host activity (reviewed by Dantzer [2]), Hart [3] argued that the distinctive behaviour of sick humans and animals (lethargy, anorexia, depressed motor activity etc.) was not simply another untoward aspect of being ill. Instead, it was reasoned to be an adaptive syndrome that had evolved as a protective mechanism to maximize chances of survival through encouraging the sick animal to seek out and remain in a safe resting place, and not search for food, until a survivable infectious episode had passed. Hart also proposed that sickness behaviour was caused by the inflammatory cytokines, TNF and IL-1. This was later confirmed by others [4], and investigated further through showing that IL-1 contributes significantly to the anorexia caused by both endotoxin and influenza infection [5,6]. The literature on this field is now considerable. Indeed, Cavadini and co-workers [7] note that this link between TNF and IL-1 and sickness behaviour induced them to investigate if thes
Sickness Behaviour: Causes and Effects
M Viljoen, A Panzer
South African Family Practice , 2003,
Abstract: This paper discusses sickness behaviour as a central motivational state. It deals with the adaptational value and underlying mechanisms of sickness behaviour and with the consequences of the body's failure to terminate the activity of the symptoms-producing cytokines. SA Fam Pract 2003;45(10):15-18
Acute mountain sickness
Chiara Tassan Din,Massimo Pesenti Campagnoni
Emergency Care Journal , 2006, DOI: 10.4081/ecj.2006.4.6
Abstract: “Acute mountain sickness” is multifaceted syndrome comprising neurological and respiratory symptoms, that can arise in unacclimatised people ascending rapidly to high altitudes. Physiopathology, clinical aspects and treatment of patients affected by this disorder will be discussed here. Moreover a case study of a 56 year old man, with acute pulmonary edema and acute mountain sickness will be presented in this report.
Motion Sickness, Stress and the Endocannabinoid System  [PDF]
Alexander Choukèr,Ines Kaufmann,Simone Kreth,Daniela Hauer,Matthias Feuerecker,Detlef Thieme,Michael Vogeser,Manfred Thiel,Gustav Schelling
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010752
Abstract: A substantial number of individuals are at risk for the development of motion sickness induced nausea and vomiting (N&V) during road, air or sea travel. Motion sickness can be extremely stressful but the neurobiologic mechanisms leading to motion sickness are not clear. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) represents an important neuromodulator of stress and N&V. Inhibitory effects of the ECS on N&V are mediated by endocannabinoid-receptor activation.
THE CONCEPT OF
Ribut Basuki
K@ta : a Biannual Publication on the Study of Language and Literature , 2001,
Abstract: Melodrama has been a part of the American life since colonial time. This genre, with its 'hero-villain' or 'black and white' development of characters, has formed the idea of the American heroes. In Western films, in which the 'local' themes of westward movement on the American society are developed, melodrama treats the dichotomy of hero-villain more stereotypically. The heroes depict the concept of the American 'self' and the villains picture the 'other.' However, the development of Western film shows that the stereotypical treatment on 'self' and the 'other' undergoes some changes.
The Concept of
ANCA VELICU
Revista Roman? de Sociologie , 2010,
Abstract: The active publics issue and the question of the construction of publics are relatively recent in communication studies. After an initial period, when mass communication was seen as aiming at a holistic public, massified and passive and, thus, supposedly influenced via "targeted" messages, now the views on what "publics" mean is becoming diversified and nuanced under the influence of literary theories, cultural studies and what was later called "reception studies". Thus, from the "mass public" we got to the concept of "publics". However, in some recent studies, the mere existence of these publics is being questioned.In this paper, we detail the history of theories on the "public" - from the perspective of the public-as-spectator which later became public-as-audience and public-as-actor - and we set ourselves to show how, from theories on the re-active publics, we arrived, through the transformation of television and the emergence of the new IT&C, to the concept of publics as pro-active as a result of media efforts to build this activism.
Were the English Sweating Sickness and the Picardy Sweat Caused by Hantaviruses?  [PDF]
Paul Heyman,Leopold Simons,Christel Cochez
Viruses , 2014, DOI: 10.3390/v6010151
Abstract: The English sweating sickness caused five devastating epidemics between 1485 and 1551, England was hit hardest, but on one occasion also mainland Europe, with mortality rates between 30% and 50%. The Picardy sweat emerged about 150 years after the English sweat disappeared, in 1718, in France. It caused 196 localized outbreaks and apparently in its turn disappeared in 1861. Both diseases have been the subject of numerous attempts to define their origin, but so far all efforts were in vain. Although both diseases occurred in different time frames and were geographically not overlapping, a common denominator could be what we know today as hantavirus infections. This review aims to shed light on the characteristics of both diseases from contemporary as well as current knowledge and suggests hantavirus infection as the most likely cause for the English sweating sickness as well as for the Picardy sweat.
Relative Deprivation and Sickness Absence in Sweden  [PDF]
Jonas Helgertz,Wolfgang Hess,Kirk Scott
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph10093930
Abstract: Background: A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. Methods: 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absence during a year. Based on the complete Swedish population, an individual’s degree of relative deprivation is measured through income compared to individuals of the same age, sex, educational level and type. In accounting for the possibility that sickness absence and socioeconomic status are determined by common factors, discrete-time duration models were estimated, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity through random effects. Results: The results confirm that the failure to account for the dynamics of the individual’s career biases the influence from socioeconomic characteristics. Results consistently suggest a major influence from relative deprivation, with a consistently lower risk of sickness absence among the highly educated. Conclusions: Altering individual’s health behavior through education appears more efficient in reducing the reliance on sickness absence, rather than redistributive policies.
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