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Investigating the Relationship between Attachment Styles and the Manner of Mobile Phone Usage among Iranian Students  [PDF]
Hoseini Shadi, Toozandehjani Hassan
Social Networking (SN) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/sn.2017.62013
Abstract: The present study is an applied research in terms of purpose and a descriptive and correlational research in terms of the method of data collection, which has been conducted to examine the relationship between attachment styles and the manner of using the mobile phone. The statistical population of this study comprised male and female students studying at the undergraduate level of Islamic Azad Unidersity of Neyshabur (Department of Humanities) in the academic year 2013-2014. The statistical sample included 300 individuals from these students who were selected through stratified random sampling. Hazan and Shaver’s Adult Attachment Questionnaire (AAQ) and a researcher-made Mobile Phone Questionnaire was used to collect the data. The results indicated that there was a significant relationship between the manner of using mobile phone and its dimensions with attachment styles.
An Analysis on Negotiation Styles by Religious Beliefs  [cached]
Yu-Te Tu,Heng-Chi Chih
International Business Research , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ibr.v4n3p243
Abstract: Globalization and economic openness have contributed to increased international negotiations in the 21st century. Despite the enthusiasm for increased global interaction and economic exchange, many people have found that cultural differences have hindered their ability to efficiently conduct business or negotiations due to their lack of understanding of the cultural differences in different countries. This paper explores the impact of religious culture on negotiations. Specifically, we compare and contrast the effects of religious orientation on the negotiating styles of Greater China (Taiwan, Hong Kong and China). The research aims to investigate the role of religious culture as a factor in shaping the negotiation styles of people with different religious beliefs. Casse and Deols’ model of four negotiation styles was utilized in the research. The research found that there are different negotiation styles among the three countries which vary to significant degrees based upon the religious cultures within Taiwan, Hong Kong and China. These differences have imbued each country with a specific set of values and attitudes relating to their cultures. This study may help people develop more successful negotiation skills by giving them insight into the nuances of negotiations, and by identifying implications for negotiations and areas for future scholarly inquiry.
The Relationship between Attachment Styles in Adulthood and Attitudes towards Filial Responsibility: A Comparison between Three Generations of Arabs and Jewish Women  [PDF]
Pnina Ron
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.76077

Background: Care giving for an elderly parent is a universal developmental task, and in all societies is one of the women tasks; its expectations are considered norms known as filial responsibility. The aim of the study is to examine the possibility of connections between the attitudes toward filial responsibility to elderly parents and the attachment style in adulthood and age (generation) among women. Methods: The research participants were 63 Jewish and Arab university students, their mothers (N = 62) and their grandmothers (N = 63). Research instruments consisted of a self- report questionnaire, which revealed background characteristics, and measured attitudes toward filial responsibility, style of adult attachment; self-esteem; sense of mastery and, family support. Results revealed ethnicity differences as well as between-generations differences regarding normative attitudes toward filial responsibility, which may indicate a changing taking place in the Arab society’s approach concerning these attitudes. An additional finding brought to light the cross-generational differences in the relationship between the attachment style in adulthood and the attitudes regarding filial responsibility. Conclusion: It seems that in attitudes towards filial responsibility, Arab society is still traditional in terms of its approach to the institutions of clan and family mostly among the elderly Arab Muslims. All of the modern changes most likely have an effect on adults’ sense of filial responsibility, on social norms, and on familial traditions.

The Analysis of Attachment Styles through Interpersonal Circumplex Description  [PDF]
Wen Xue, Shouying Zhao
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.27101
Abstract: The study explored how the dyads with different attachment styles behave towards Leary’s circumplex in coop- erative and competitive tasks. 100 strangers as a sample were surveyed through two experiments on computer, by using RBQ (Riverside Behavioral Q-sort) to examine their interpersonal traits through rated by experimenters. Relation Questionnaire (RQ) and ECR were also used to measure their attachment styles. There are three con- clusions based on the results of this study that: 1) Individuals of different attachment styles in interpersonal in- teraction had shown different trend of interpersonal styles; 2) Individuals of different attachment styles take up different area in interpersonal circumplex, which proves that it is continuous not discrete of interpersonal at- tachment style; 3) the dyads in different sex of different attachment types showed different satisfaction in these two tasks.
Zarina Akhtar
Academic Research International , 2012,
Abstract: The Study was designed to explore the attachment styles of adolescents in relation to the parenting styles. The sample of the study was 179 (81 females and 98 males) respondents. A demographic sheet, adult attachment scale, and parental authority questionnaire was used to collect data. Collected data was analyzed by using mean and t-test. It was found that there is no significant difference in attachment styles of adolescents. Adolescents prefer avoidant attachment style. Authoritative paternal style and maternal styles was practiced by parents. Significant difference was found for father’s authoritarian style and mother’s authoritative and permissive styles. Father’s were more authoritarian for malechild. Mother’s were more authoritative for female child and permissive for male child. It was concluded that the adolescent’s age is the main factor of the study findings.
Investigating the influence of attachment styles on anxiety sensitivity  [cached]
At?lgan ER?ZKAN
International Journal of Human Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine if there are significant relationships between anxiety sensitivity and attachment styles and if attachment styles predict anxiety sensitivity. Descriptive method was used in this study. The study group is composed by 781 (379 females; 402 males) students studying in different departments of the Faculties of Education and Technical Education, and department of physical education and sports teaching of School of Physical Education and Sports at Mugla University. The data were collected using the Relationship Scales Questionnaire and Anxiety Sensitivity Index-R. Pearson Product-Moment Correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis was employed. Attachment styles were found to be significantly correlated to anxiety sensitivity. A significant effect of attachment styles, on anxiety sensitivity was detected.
The Relationship between Iranian EFL Instructors’ Understanding of Learning Styles and Their Students’ Success in Reading Comprehension  [cached]
Marzieh Khademi,Khalil Motallebzadeh,Hamid Ashraf
English Language Teaching , 2013, DOI: 10.5539/elt.v6n4p134
Abstract: Many variables reasonably influence teachers’ education. One of these considering variables is being aware of the students’ learning styles. D rnyei (2005) maintains that individual differences correlate strongly with L2 achievements. Keefe (1979) believes that learning styles might be thought of as cognitive, affective, and physiological traits that are relatively stable indicators of how learners perceive, interact with, and respond to the learning environment. The present study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL instructors’ understanding of learning styles and their students’ success in reading comprehension tests. To achieve this goal, the researchers randomly selected 240 Iranian EFL instructors at tertiary level with more than three years of experience in teaching reading comprehension courses. The Teacher’s View over Students’ Learning Preferences Inventory (TVSLPI) as well as a test of language proficiency (MELAB) was employed as the study’s instruments. The findings revealed a significant relationship (p?0.05) between the Iranian EFL instructors’ recognition of learning styles and their students’ success in reading comprehension test. Besides, the results of interviews showed that Iranian instructors have approximately similar attitudes toward teaching reading comprehension in Iranian contexts.
Attachment Styles as Predictors of Empathy in Nursing Students
Mohammadreza Khodabakhsh
Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: Previous studies have traced a relationship between the attachment styles of nurses working as in healthcare teams and their empathy which is an essential characteristic required of people concerned with managing relationships, supporting social events, and improving the of nurse-patient relationships. Since determining the effective variables in the quality of nurse-patient relationships in clinical settings is of paramount importance, current investigation is an effort to examine the relationship between attachment styles and empathy in nursing students.260 university students (male = 130 and female = 130) were chosen as the sample of the study based upon specific inclusion criteria. All participants completed the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ) and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Data was collected and analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis with SPSS (v.18).The results showed that secure and insecure attachment styles have significant positive and negative correlation with empathy respectively. Based on the results of regression analysis, it was shown that secure attachment style is predicting 53% of the variance empathy variable, whereas insecure attachment styles are explaining up to 76% of the variance empathy variable collectively.The increase of attention to instructions that focus on empathetic relationships with patients and that are based upon the secure attachment style can result in positive changes in the area of nurse-patient relations and in increasing attention to medical ethics. Findings are consistent with prediction derived from attachment theory and add to our understanding of relationship between attachment styles with empathy in nursing students. The meaning and limitations of this study and suggestions for further research are also discussed.
Iranian and Saudi Cultural and Religious Identities: Constructivist Perspective  [PDF]
Shokrollah Kamari Majin
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2017.71006
Abstract: National identity in a society is something that society tries to define, develop, and preserve. If we don’t believe that human nature is based on war, violence and hostility, we could argue that no nation could be enemies with another nation. Mahatma Gandhi once said if children “grow up in their natural innocence, we won’t have to struggle, we won’t have to pass fruitless idle resolutions” (Gandhi, 1931: p. 361). However, events in the Middle East region in the last three decades, and especially in recent years, show us that Iran and Saudi Arabia have stood face to face, as two archenemies. The relationship between the two countries has reached the point where both countries view “themselves as serious rivals” (Terril, 2011: p. 1). But are these two countries really two hostile national identities, or are they two rival states who have expanded their rivalry to include cultural and religious areas? It could be said that both Iran’s and Saudi Arabia’s political identities are currently under severe pressure. Neither of these states can easily continue their attitudes and behaviors in regards to international relations. However, “both sides are not interested in compromising and resolving them in a peaceful way” (Bar-Tal in Mabon, 2013: p. 109). The Shi’a-Sunni religious conflict is the main dispute between these two states, and is intertwined with many stories, narratives, exaggerations and distortion of the realities. Focusing on the relationship between the Iranian and Saudi states, with particular attention being paid to their perceptions of each other, is an appropriate way to understand both states’ behaviors. The question is whether these two states have grasped that they cannot continue with this kind of political adventurism. They may finally choose between the two opportunities and either give up fueling tensions in the region before the conflict reaches a no-return point, or continue to provoke cultural and religious conflicts in the region in order to overcome their internal legitimacy challenges.
Religious Practice and Attitudes towards Offenders  [PDF]
Lucas Marcelo Rodriguez, José Eduardo Moreno
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.48089

This ex post facto study aims to investigate the influence of religious practice on the types of reaction to situations of offence. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to evaluate the relationship between religious practice and the attitudes towards offenders. The study was carried out with adolescents and young people of both sexes. The sample comprised 673 male and female, with an average age of 18.28 and standard desviation of 1.21. As regards the religion that they practiced: 555 were catholic (82.5%) 39 were evangelical (5.8%) and others 79 (11.7%). To assess the level of religious practice, a grid with items containing the frequency of religious practice was prepared, taking into account the person’s self perception. The second instrument used was the Attitudes Towards Offenders Questionnaire (ATOQ). This instrument consists of seven scales, grouped into three factors: passive, aggressive and prosocial behavior, corresponding to the different responses to situations of offence: submission, denial, vengeance, resentment, hostility, claim for an explanation and forgiveness. The result of MANOVA of the tree factors of ATOQ, according to religious practice (practitioner, occasional practitioner and not practitioner), stated a significant difference. When analyzing the contrasts we can see that practitioners are less aggressive with respect to occasional practitioners and non practitioners. As regards the prosocial factor, the only significant contrast is shown in practitioners, who have a higher average of prosocial attitudes compared to non-practitioners.

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