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 Mathematics , 2010, Abstract: The structural constants of an evolution algebra is given by a quadratic matrix $A$. In this work we establish equivalence between nil, right nilpotent evolution algebras and evolution algebras, which are defined by upper triangular matrix $A$. The classification of 2-dimensional complex evolution algebras is obtained. For an evolution algebra with a special form of the matrix $A$ we describe all its isomorphisms and their compositions. We construct an algorithm running under Mathematica which decides if two finite dimensional evolution algebras are isomorphic.
 Patrick S. Osmer Physics , 2003, Abstract: This article reviews and discusses 1) the discovery and early work on the evolution of quasars and AGNs, 2) the different techniques used to find quasars and their suitability for evolutionary studies, 3) the current status of our knowledge of AGN evolution for 0 < z < 6, 4) the new results and questions that deep radio and X-ray surveys are producing for the subject, 5) the relation of AGNs to massive black holes being found in local galaxies and what they tell us about both galaxy and AGN evolution, and 6) current research problems and future directions in quasar and AGN evolution.
 Computer Science , 2011, Abstract: Evolution is one of the major omnipresent powers in the universe that has been studied for about two centuries. Recent scientific and technical developments make it possible to make the transition from passively understanding to actively mastering evolution. As of today, the only area where human experimenters can design and manipulate evolutionary processes in full is that of Evolutionary Computing, where evolutionary processes are carried out in a digital space, inside computers, in simulation. We argue that in the near future it will be possible to move evolutionary computing outside such imaginary spaces and make it physically embodied. In other words, we envision the "Evolution of Things", rather than just the evolution of code, leading to a new field of Embodied Artificial Evolution (EAE). The main objective of the present paper is to offer an umbrella term and vision in order to aid the development of this high potential research area. To this end, we introduce the notion of EAE, discuss a few examples and applications, and elaborate on the expected benefits as well as the grand challenges this developing field will have to address.
 Horace Lockwood Fairlamb Cosmos and History : the Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy , 2007, Abstract: Since both modern moral theory and evolutionary theory arose in the shadow of Newtonian and Humean conceptions of nature, debates about evolutionary ethics have typically been vexed by deeper problems with the nature of evolution itself as well as meta-ethical questions about the link between facts and values. Humean skepticism and mechanistic selectionism have recently coincided in postmodern attacks on essentialism,on meta-narratives of progress, on models of human nature, and on moral collectivism. Against this most recent wave of skepticism, however, contemporary reconstructions of evolution in light of complex systems science suggest useful ways of reinterpreting both evolutionary causation, the biology of human nature, and their implications for ethics.
 Quantitative Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1162/artl.2008.14.3.14300 Abstract: The evolution of complexity has been a central theme for Biology [2] and Artificial Life research [1]. It is generally agreed that complexity has increased in our universe, giving way to life, multi-cellularity, societies, and systems of higher complexities. However, the mechanisms behind the complexification and its relation to evolution are not well understood. Moreover complexification can be used to mean different things in different contexts. For example, complexification has been interpreted as a process of diversification between evolving units [2] or as a scaling process related to the idea of transitions between different levels of complexity [7]. Understanding the difference or overlap between the mechanisms involved in both situations is mandatory to create acceptable synthetic models of the process, as is required in Artificial Life research. (...)
 Russell K. Standish Physics , 2000, Abstract: In the {\em Many Worlds Interpretation} of quantum mechanics, the range of possible worlds (or histories) provides variation, and the Anthropic Principle is a selective principle analogous to natural selection. When looked on in this way, the process'' by which the laws and constants of physics is determined not too different from the process that gave rise to our current biodiversity, i.e. Darwinian evolution. This has implications for the fields of SETI and Artificial Life, which are based on a philosophy of the inevitability of life.
 Computer Science , 2013, Abstract: We show that, if truth assignments on $n$ variables reproduce through recombination so that satisfaction of a particular Boolean function confers a small evolutionary advantage, then a polynomially large population over polynomially many generations (polynomial in $n$ and the inverse of the initial satisfaction probability) will end up almost certainly consisting exclusively of satisfying truth assignments. We argue that this theorem sheds light on the problem of novelty in Evolution.
 Quantitative Biology , 2000, Abstract: The idea of this review is to connect the different models of evolution to those of biological ageing through Darwin's theory. We start with the Eigen model of quasispecies for microevolution, then introduce the Bak-Sneppen model for macroevolution and, finally, present the Penna model for biological ageing and some of its most important results. We also explore the concept of coevolution using this model.
 Physics , 2002, Abstract: A simple model of macroevolution is proposed exhibiting both the property of punctuated equilibrium and the dynamics of potentialities for different species to evolve towards increasingly higher complexity. It is based on the phenomenon of "fractal evolution" which has been shown to constitute a fundamental property of nonlinear discretized systems with one memory- or random-based feedback loop. The latter involves a basic "cognitive" function of each species given by the power of distinction of states within some predefined resolution. The introduction of a realistic background noise limiting the range of the feedback operation yields a pattern signature in fitness space with a distribution of temporal boost/mutation distances according to a randomized devil's staircase function. Introducing a further level in the hierarchy of the system's rules, the possibility of an adaptive evolutionary change of the resolution itself is implemented, thereby providing a time-dependent measure of the species' cognitive abilities: an additional feedback loop makes use of the inevitable intrinsic fluctuations within the fitness landscape to direct the temporal change of the resolution. Feeding back the small adaptive changes of resolution into the essentially directionless variations of the patterns' lifetimes in fitness space effectively leads to a clear tendency towards increasing evolution potentials for each species ("hierarchically emergent fractal evolution").
 Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 1959, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v2i1.854 Abstract: Observations and thoughts on the evolution of facial mimic
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