Abstract:
In this book, the authors define several new types of soft neutrosophic algebraic structures over neutrosophic algebraic structures and we study their generalizations. These soft neutrosophic algebraic structures are basically parameterized collections of neutrosophic sub-algebraic structures of the neutrosophic algebraic structure. An important feature of this book is that the authors introduce the soft neutrosophic group ring, soft neutrosophic semigroup ring with its generalization, and soft mixed neutrosophic N-algebraic structure over neutrosophic group ring, then the neutrosophic semigroup ring and mixed neutrosophic N-algebraic structure respectively.

Abstract:
In this book, for the first time we introduce the notion of neutrosophic algebraic structures for groups, loops, semigroups and groupoids; and also their neutrosophic N-algebraic structures. One is fully aware of the fact that many classical theorems like Lagrange, Sylow and Cauchy have been studied only in the context of finite groups. Here we try to shift the paradigm by studying and introducing these theorems to neutrosophic semigroups, neutrosophic groupoids, and neutrosophic loops. This book has seven chapters. Chapter one provides several basic notions to make this book self-contained. Chapter two introduces neutrosophic groups and neutrosophic N-groups and gives several examples. The third chapter deals with neutrosophic semigroups and neutrosophic N-semigroups, giving several interesting results. Chapter four introduces neutrosophic loops and neutrosophic N-loops. We introduce several new, related definitions. In fact we construct a new class of neutrosophic loops using modulo integer Z_n, n > 3, where n is odd. Several properties of these structures are proved using number theoretic techniques. Chapter five just introduces the concept of neutrosophic groupoids and neutrosophic N-groupoids. Sixth chapter innovatively gives mixed neutrosophic structures and their duals. The final chapter gives problems for the interested reader to solve.

Abstract:
This book has seven chapters. In Chapter one, an elaborate recollection of Smarandache structures like S-semigroups, S-loops, and S-groupoids is given. It also gives notions about N-ary algebraic stuctures and their Smarandache analogue, Neutrosophic structures viz. groups, semigroups, groupoids and loops are given in Chapter one to make the book a self-contained one. For the first time, S-neutrosophic groups and S-neutrosophic N-groups are introduced in Chapter two and their properties are given. S-neutrosophic semigroups and S-neutrosophic N-semigroups are defined and discussed in Chapter three. Chapter four defines S-neutrosophic S-loops and S-N-neutrosophic groupoids and their generalizations are given in Chapter five. Chapter six gives S-neutrosophic mixed N-structures and their duals. Chapter seven gives 68 problems for any interested reader.

Abstract:
Study of soft sets was first proposed by Molodtsov in 1999 to deal with uncertainty in a non-parametric manner. The researchers did not pay attention to soft set theory at that time but now the soft set theory has been developed in many areas of mathematics. Algebraic structures using soft set theory are very rapidly developed. In this book we developed soft neutrosophic algebraic structures by using soft sets and neutrosophic algebraic structures. In this book we study soft neutrosophic groups, soft neutrosophic semigroups, soft neutrosophic loops, soft neutrosophic LA-semigroups, and their generalizations respectively.

Abstract:
The involvement of uncertainty of varying degrees when the total of the membership degree exceeds one or less than one, then the newer mathematical paradigm shift, Fuzzy Theory proves appropriate. For the past two or more decades, Fuzzy Theory has become the potent tool to study and analyze uncertainty involved in all problems. But, many real-world problems also abound with the concept of indeterminacy. In this book, the new, powerful tool of neutrosophy that deals with indeterminacy is utilized. Innovative neutrosophic models are described. The theory of neutrosophic graphs is introduced and applied to fuzzy and neutrosophic models. This book is organized into four chapters. In Chapter One we introduce some of the basic neutrosophic algebraic structures essential for the further development of the other chapters. Chapter Two recalls basic graph theory definitions and results which has interested us and for which we give the neutrosophic analogues. In this chapter we give the application of graphs in fuzzy models. An entire section is devoted for this purpose. Chapter Three introduces many new neutrosophic concepts in graphs and applies it to the case of neutrosophic cognitive maps and neutrosophic relational maps. The last section of this chapter clearly illustrates how the neutrosophic graphs are utilized in the neutrosophic models. The final chapter gives some problems about neutrosophic graphs which will make one understand this new subject.

Abstract:
We develop simple models for the global spread of infectious diseases, emphasizing human mobility via air travel and the variation of public health infrastructure from region to region. We derive formulas relating the total and peak number of infections in two countries to the rate of travel between them and their respective epidemiological parameters.

Abstract:
In this paper we study spread codes: a family of constant-dimension codes for random linear network coding. In other words, the codewords are full-rank matrices of size (k x n) with entries in a finite field F_q. Spread codes are a family of optimal codes with maximal minimum distance. We give a minimum-distance decoding algorithm which requires O((n-k)k^3) operations over an extension field F_{q^k}. Our algorithm is more efficient than the previous ones in the literature, when the dimension k of the codewords is small with respect to n. The decoding algorithm takes advantage of the algebraic structure of the code, and it uses original results on minors of a matrix and on the factorization of polynomials over finite fields.

Abstract:
This book has four chapters. Chapter one is introductory in nature, for it recalls some basic definitions essential to make the book a self-contained one. Chapter two, introduces for the first time the new notion of neutrosophic rings and some special neutrosophic rings like neutrosophic ring of matrix and neutrosophic polynomial rings. Chapter three gives some new classes of neutrosophic rings like group neutrosophic rings,neutrosophic group neutrosophic rings, semigroup neutrosophic rings, S-semigroup neutrosophic rings which can be realized as a type of extension of group rings or generalization of group rings. Study of these structures will throw light on the research on the algebraic structure of group rings. Chapter four is entirely devoted to the problems on this new topic, which is an added attraction to researchers. A salient feature of this book is that it gives 246 problems in Chapter four. Some of the problems are direct and simple, some little difficult and some can be taken up as a research problem.

Abstract:
Networks of person-person contacts form the substrate along which infectious diseases spread. Most network-based studies of the spread focus on the impact of variations in degree (the number of contacts an individual has). However, other effects such as clustering, variations in infectiousness or susceptibility, or variations in closeness of contacts may play a significant role. We develop analytic techniques to predict how these effects alter the growth rate, probability, and size of epidemics and validate the predictions with a realistic social network. We find that (for given degree distribution and average transmissibility) clustering is the dominant factor controlling the growth rate, heterogeneity in infectiousness is the dominant factor controlling the probability of an epidemic, and heterogeneity in susceptibility is the dominant factor controlling the size of an epidemic. Edge weights (measuring closeness or duration of contacts) have impact only if correlations exist between different edges. Combined, these effects can play a minor role in reinforcing one another, with the impact of clustering largest when the population is maximally heterogeneous or if the closer contacts are also strongly clustered. Our most significant contribution is a systematic way to address clustering in infectious disease models, and our results have a number of implications for the design of interventions.

Abstract:
Infectious diseases spread through human networks. Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) model is one of the epidemic models to describe infection dynamics on a complex network connecting individuals. In the metapopulation SIR model, each node represents a population (group) which has many individuals. In this paper, we propose a modified metapopulation SIR model in which a latent period is taken into account. We call it SIIR model. We divide the infection period into two stages: an infected stage, which is the same as the previous model, and a seriously ill stage, in which individuals are infected and cannot move to the other populations. The two infectious stages in our modified metapopulation SIR model produce a discontinuous final size distribution. Individuals in the infected stage spread the disease like individuals in the seriously ill stage and never recover directly, which makes an effective recovery rate smaller than the given recovery rate.