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Prevalence of human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus DNA in penile cancer cases from Brazil
Afonso, Larissa Alves;Moyses, Natalia;Alves, Gilda;Ornellas, Ant?nio Augusto;Passos, Mauro Romero Leal;Oliveira, Ledy do Horto dos Santos;Cavalcanti, Silvia Maria Baeta;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762012000100003
Abstract: penile cancer is a potentially mutilating disease. although its occurrence is relatively rare worldwide, penile cancer rates can be high in developing countries. a few studies have been conducted on the involvement of human papillomavirus (hpv) in penile carcinoma, which have found hpv present in 30-70% of penile malignant lesions, with a higher prevalence of hpv 16 and 18. it has been assumed that cofactors, such as epstein-barr virus (ebv) infections, may play a role in the progression of penile neoplasia. the aim of this study was to determine hpv and ebv prevalence in 135 penile malignant lesions from brazilian men through the use of my09/11 polymerase chain reaction (pcr), type-specific pcr and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. hpv prevalence among the men tested was 60.7%. of the men who tested positive, 27 presented with hpv 16 (29.7%), five with hpv 18 (5.5%), 21 with hpv 45 (23.1%) and nine with hpv 6 (9.9%). seven mixed infections were detected (9.2%), while 11 cases remained untyped (13.4%). regarding ebv positivity, 46.7% of the samples contained ebv dna with ebv-1 as the most prevalent type (74.6%). more than 23% of the men were co-infected with both hpv and ebv, while 35% presented exclusively with hpv dna and 20% presented only with ebv dna. penile carcinoma aetiology has not been fully elucidated and the role of hpv and ebv infections individually or synergistically is still controversial. hence, more studies are needed to determine their possible role in carcinogenesis.
Somatic mutations of STK11 gene in human papillomavirus positive and negative penile cancer  [cached]
Annunziata Clorinda,Buonaguro Luigi,Losito Simona,Buonaguro Franco M
Infectious Agents and Cancer , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1750-9378-8-2
Abstract: Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection accounts for about 40-50% of all cases of penile carcinoma suggesting that other factors, including host genetic status, are involved in neoplastic transformation. In this perspective, STK11 gene, which has been found frequently mutated in HPV-related cervical carcinoma, has been analyzed in HPV-positive and HPV-negative invasive penile cancers to establish its mutational status and the possible correlation of HPV infection with specific genetic alterations. Methods Genomic DNAs extracted from 26 cases of penile squamous cell carcinoma were analyzed for genetic alterations in the exons 1 to 9 of STK11 gene by quantitative real-time PCR. Ratios of potentially deleted and non-deleted exons were indicative of specific loss of STK11 coding regions. DNA samples of 5 cancer cases were subjected to standard PCR amplification of STK11 exons 1 to 9 and analyzed for somatic mutations by direct nucleotide sequencing analysis. Results Heterozygous deletions of STK11 exon 1 and 2 were identified in 2 out of 14 HPV-positive (14.3%) and 1 out of 12 HPV-negative cases (8.3%). Complete nucleotide sequencing analysis of exons 1 to 9 showed a single nucleotide change upstream the exon 2 coding region in 1 out of 5 penile carcinoma samples. Conclusions The present results suggest that single nucleotide mutations and/or deletions of STK11 gene are rare events in penile cancer. Moreover, no significant association was observed between STK11 alterations and HPV infection in these tumors.
Limitations of widely used high-risk human papillomavirus laboratory-developed testing in cervical cancer screening
Nance KV
Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DHPS.S41886
Abstract: Limitations of widely used high-risk human papillomavirus laboratory-developed testing in cervical cancer screening Letter (989) Total Article Views Authors: Nance KV Published Date January 2013 Volume 2013:5 Pages 1 - 3 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DHPS.S41886 Received: 20 December 2012 Accepted: 20 December 2012 Published: 21 January 2013 Keith V Nance Medical Directory of Cytology, Rex Hospital, Raleigh, and Department of Pathology, The University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA I read with interest the recently published article by Naryshkin and Austin entitled "Limitations of widely used high-risk human papillomavirus laboratory-developed testing in cervical cancer screening".1 The article is a single case report of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix diagnosed in a patient who had negative Hybrid Capture 2 (Qiagen NV, Hilden, Germany) high-risk human papillomavirus testing from SurePath (Becton-Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ) samples. The authors then discuss several valid points regarding the use of human papillomavirus testing and cervical cancer screening not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Their conclusion is that such testing should not be done using the SurePath collection medium. View the original paper by Naryshkin and Austin. Post to: Cannotea Citeulike Del.icio.us Facebook LinkedIn Twitter Readers of this article also read: Optical imaging to trace near infrared fluorescent zinc oxide nanoparticles following oral exposure Limitations of widely used high-risk human papillomavirus laboratory-developed testing in cervical cancer screening Pseudomembranous colitis within radiotherapy field following concurrent chemoradiation therapy: a case report Collagen-based wound dressings for the treatment of diabetes-related foot ulcers: a systematic review Repeated renal infarction in native and transplanted kidneys due to left ventricular thrombus formation caused by antiphospholipid antibody syndrome Validation of an equation for estimating maximal oxygen consumption of nonexpert adult swimmers Characterization and stability studies of a novel liposomal cyclosporin A prepared using the supercritical fluid method: comparison with the modified conventional Bangham method
Update in the management of penile cancer
Caso, Jorge R.;Rodriguez, Alejandro R.;Correa, Jose;Spies, Philippe E.;
International braz j urol , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1677-55382009000400003
Abstract: purpose: the management of penile cancer has evolved as less invasive techniques are applied in the treatment of the primary tumor and inguinal lymph nodes. materials and methods: herein we review the literature focusing on advances in the preservation of the phallus as well as less morbid procedures to evaluate and treat the groins. results: promising imaging modalities for staging are discussed. new techniques are described and tables provided for penile preservation. we also review the contemporary morbidity of modified surgical forms for evaluation of the inguinal nodes. conclusions: advances in surgical technique have made phallic preservation possible in a greater number of primary penile cancers. the groins can be evaluated for metastasis with greater accuracy through new radiologic means as well as with less morbid modified surgical techniques.
Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of L1-VLP-Based Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Efficacy against Anogenital Pre-Cancer in Women with Evidence of Prior HPV Exposure  [PDF]
Ada Miltz, Huw Price, Maryam Shahmanesh, Andrew Copas, Richard Gilson
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090348
Abstract: Background It is unclear whether L1-VLP-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are efficacious in reducing the likelihood of anogenital pre-cancer in women with evidence of prior vaccine-type HPV exposure. This study aims to determine whether the combined results of the vaccine trials published to date provide evidence of efficacy compared with control (hepatitis A vaccine/placebo). Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. Randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) were identified from MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and references of identified studies. The bivalent vaccine containing HPV-16 and 18 VLPs from GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (Rixenstart, Belgium), the quadrivalent vaccine containing HPV-6, 11, 16, and 18 VLPs from Merck & Co., Inc., (Whitehouse Station, NJ USA), and the HPV-16 monovalent vaccine from Merck Research Laboratories (West Point, PA USA) were evaluated. Findings Three RCT reports and two post-trial cohort studies were eligible, comprising data from 13,482 women who were included in the vaccine studies but had evidence of HPV infection at study entry. Data on efficacy was synthesized using the Mantel-Haenszel weighted fixed-effect approach, or where there was heterogeneity between studies, the DerSimonian and Laird weighted random-effect approach. The mean odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between Cervarix, Gardasil and HPV-16 monovalent vaccine and HPV-associated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse was 0·90 (95% CI: 0·56, 1·44). For the association between Gardasil and HPV-associated vulval/vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2–3, the overall OR and 95% CI was 2.25 (95% CI: 0·78, 6.50). Sample size and follow-up were limited. Conclusions There was no evidence that HPV vaccines are effective in preventing vaccine-type HPV associated pre-cancer in women with evidence of prior HPV exposure. Small effects of vaccination however cannot be excluded and a longer-term benefit in preventing re-infection remains possible.
Human papillomavirus and penile cancers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: HPV typing and clinical features
Scheiner, Marcos A.;Campos, Mercia M.;Ornellas, Antonio A.;Chin, Eduardo W.;Ornellas, Maria H.;Andrada-Serpa, Maria J.;
International braz j urol , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1677-55382008000400009
Abstract: objective: to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (hpv) dna in penile cancers in rio de janeiro, brazil. materials and methods: we studied, prospectively, 80 consecutive cases of patients with penile cancers who underwent surgical treatment at three different hospitals in rio de janeiro between march 1995 and june 2000. of these patients, 72 were diagnosed with invasive squamous cell carcinoma and 8 patients with verrucous carcinoma. the following parameters were observed: presence or absence of hpv dna viral type, histological subtypes, clinical stage and overall survival. results: hpv dna was detected in 75% of patients with invasive carcinomas and in 50% of patients with verrucous carcinomas. high risk hpvs were detected in 15 of 54 (27.8%) patients with hpv positive invasive tumors and in 1 of 4 (25%) patients with hpv positive verrucous tumors. hpv 16 was the most frequent type observed. no correlation was observed between hpv status and histological subtype (p = 0.51) as well as hpv status and stage stratification (p = 0.88). hpv status was also not significantly associated with the presence of regional metastases (p = 0.89). the overall survival was related to the presence of lymph node metastases (p < 0.0001). conclusions: hpv infection may have contributed to malignant transformation in a large proportion of our penile cancer cases but only inguinal metastasis was a prognostic factor for survival in these patients with penile carcinoma.
A Review of Penile Cancer  [PDF]
A. Rando Sous,M. Pérez-Utrilla Pérez,A. Aguilera Bazán,A. Tabernero Gomez,J. Cisneros Ledo,J. De la Pe a Barthel
Advances in Urology , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/415062
Abstract: Cancer of the penis is a rare tumour in Europe and mainly affects the elderly patient population. The aim of this paper was to analyse and study the characteristics of this tumour, in our patient population. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study was conducted on penile tumours diagnosed and treated in the Urology Department of the Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, in the last ten years. Results. A total of 34 patients were diagnosed and treated. The mean age at presentation was 71.27 years. The mean time between symptoms and the first consultation was 12.54 months with a median of 6 months. The most common form of presentation was balanoposthitis (32%) and the most common site in our series was the glans. Partial penectomy was performed in 22 cases, total amputation in 8, and local excision in 3. Discussion. Carcinoma of the penis is a pathology which mostly affects elderly patients; in our series, the highest incidence was observed in patients in the group aged 75–84 years. The most common histological type was epidermoid carcinoma in its various forms of presentation. We recorded a mortality of 23%. Conclusion. Penile carcinoma is a rare pathology which affects elderly persons and is diagnosed late.
An exaggerated manifestation of penile cancer: a report from Japan  [cached]
Okano Masaki
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 1997,
Abstract: This report describes a Japanese case of penile carcinoma characterized by an extravagantly harsh clinical presentation. Report of penile cancer from Japan is extremely rare.
Epidemiologic study on penile cancer in Brazil
Favorito, Luciano A.;Nardi, Aguinaldo C.;Ronalsa, Mario;Zequi, Stenio C.;Sampaio, Francisco J. B.;Glina, Sidney;
International braz j urol , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1677-55382008000500007
Abstract: objectives: to assess epidemiologic characteristics of penile cancer in brazil. materials and methods: from may 2006 to june 2007, a questionnaire was distributed to all brazilian urologists. their patients' clinical and epidemiological data was analyzed (age, race, place of residence, history of sexually transmitted diseases, tobacco smoking, performance of circumcision, type of hospital service), as well as the time between the appearance of the symptoms and the diagnosis, the pathological characteristics of the tumor (histological type, degree, localization and size of lesion, stage of disease), the type of treatment performed and the present state of the patient. results: 283 new cases of penile cancer in brazil were recorded. the majority of these cases occurred in the north and northeast (53.02%) and southeast (45.54%) regions. the majority of patients (224, or 78.96%) were more than 46 years of age while only 21 patients (7.41%) were less than 35 years of age. of the 283 patients presenting penile cancer, 171 (60.42%) had phimosis with the consequent impossibility to expose the glans. a prior medical history positive for hpv infection was reported in 18 of the 283 cases (6.36%). in 101 patients (35.68%) tobacco smoking was reported. the vast majority of the cases (n = 207; 73.14%) presented with tumors localized in the glans and prepuce. in 48 cases (16.96%) the tumor affected the glans, the prepuce and the corpus penis; in 28 cases (9.89%) the tumor affected the entire penis. the majority of the patients (n = 123; 75.26%) presented with t1 or t2; only 9 patients (3.18%) presented with t4 disease. conclusion: penile cancer is a very frequent pathology in brazil, predominantly affecting low income, white, uncircumcised patients, living in the north and northeast regions of the country.
Current and Future Strategies in the Diagnosis and Management of Penile Cancer  [PDF]
Samuel M. Lawindy,Alejandro R. Rodriguez,Simon Horenblas,Philippe E. Spiess
Advances in Urology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/593751
Abstract: Penile cancer is an uncommon malignancy that has a devastating effect on the patient while also being challenging to diagnose and treat. By implementing preventive measures, we can decrease the incidence of this disease and improve the quality of life of our patients. Early detection plays an important role in disease control and proper diagnostic modalities must be used in order to accurately identify the cancer and its progression. Primary penile lesions should be initially approached when surgically feasible and clinically appropriate with penile preserving surgical techniques. Advances in inguinal lymph node detection and management, has improved the clinical outcome of penile cancer. Advanced penile cancer still portends a poor prognosis and should be approached via a multimodal treatment regimen. In this review, we address the importance of prevention, early detection, and the contemporary management of primary penile lesions, as well as the advances in inguinal lymph node disease detection and surgical treatment, for both localized and advanced disease. 1. Introduction Penile cancer is an uncommon disease in the US and Europe that has a devastating effect on the patient while also being challenging to diagnose and treat. A distinction between benign and malignant penile neoplasms must be made in order to offer the most effective treatment [1]. In 2010, the new cases of penile cancer in the United States are about 1,250 with 310 deaths, with an incidence rate of 0.3 to 1.8 per 100,000 [2, 3]. Penile cancer is much more common in African, Asian, and South American countries, constituting about 10% of malignant disease in these countries and thus posing a considerable health concern [1, 4]. Notably, Paraguay and Uganda have an incidence rate of 4.2 and 4.4 per 100,000, respectively [4]. The lowest incidence is found in Israeli Jews (0.1/100,000) [3]. Cancer of the penis most commonly affects men between the ages of 50–70, with only 19% at ages <40 and 7% <30 [3]. Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis was found to be 43% greater in men from countries where the poverty level is >20% [3]. 2. Risk Factors The presence of an intact foreskin has been identified as an important risk factor for developing penile cancer. Maden et al. [5] found that the risk of penile cancer was 3.2-times greater among men who had never been circumcised relative to men circumcised at birth and 3.0-times greater among men circumcised after the neonatal period [3, 5]. In addition, penile cancer is rarely seen in Jews, as they are circumcised at birth [3]. A history of phimosis
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