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Evaluation of relationship of ocular parameters and depth of anisometropic amblyopia with the degree of anisometropia  [cached]
Zaka-ur-Rab Simi
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 2006,
Abstract: Purpose: (1) To find out the relationship of the depth of amblyopia with the degree of anisometropia, in untreated cases of anisometropic amblyopia without strabismus, for both myopic and hypermetropic individuals. (2) To find out the relationship between various ocular parameters, such as axial length and corneal curvature, with the degree of anisometropia between the two eyes. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted between January 2001 and March 2003, in 85 cases of untreated anisometropic amblyopia, who attended the author′s out patient department. All these patients were subjected to a meticulous ocular examination, with special emphasis on (1) refraction under cycloplegia (2) best corrected visual acuity (3) measurement of axial length by A Scan (4) keratometry . The depth of amblyopia was calculated in two ways: (1) By finding out decimal visual acuity for each eye and subsequently calculating their difference. (2) By converting the Snellen acuity into Log MAR units, which was calculated by finding the Logarithm of the reciprocal of the decimal visual acuity for the two eyes, followed by calculating the difference between the two. The difference in refraction between the two eyes as a measure of anisometropia, was determined by the difference in spherical equivalent between the refraction for each eye. Results: On comparing hypermetropic and myopic cases, a significant correlation was found between depth of amblyopia and the degree of anisometropia, in both myopic and hypermetropic patients. The correlation coefficients were however, found to be greater for hypermetropic than myopic individuals. It was observed that the difference between the axial length of the two eyes contributed to a major part of anisometropia, more so in myopic cases. Conclusions: The depth of amblyopia correlates with the degree of anisometropia in previously untreated anisometropic amblyopia patients.
The effect of anisometropia on binocular visual function.  [cached]
Dadeya S,Kamlesh,Shibal F
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 2001,
Abstract: PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of anisometropia on binocular vision. METHODS: One to three dioptres of unilateral hyperopia, myopia or astigmatism was induced in 30 normal adults. The effect on binocularity was assessed with the Worth-four dot test, Titmus stereo test and Bagolini′s lenses. RESULTS: Binocular vision deteriorated with increasing anisometropia. Spherical anisometropia was more deleterious than astigmatic anisometropia. CONCLUSION: In addition to amblyopia, the potential effect of anisometropia on binocular vision should be considered while prescribing spectacles in young children during the sensitive period.
Epidemiologic study of anisometropia in students of Natal, Brazil
Garcia, Carlos Alexandre de Amorim;Dantas, Erymar de Araújo;Souza, Araken Britto de;Uchoa, Raquel Araújo Costa;Oréfice, Fernando;
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-27492005000100013
Abstract: purpose: to perform an epidemiologic study in students in natal/brazil, with relation to refractional anisometropia, evaluating criteria such as: gender, age, and association with strabismus and amblyopia. methods: a study of 1,024 students randomly selected from several districts of natal/brazil was undertaken by the department of ophthalmology of the federal university of rio grande do norte (ufrn), observing the following criteria of > 2 spherical or cylindrical diopter refractional anisometropia relating it to sex, age, association with strabismus, amblyopia and anisometropia classification. results: we found a prevalence of 2% (n=21) anisometropia in the students. the female gender predominated with 81% (n=17). in students with anisometropia, we observed an association with strabismus in 9.5% of cases (n=2), both with exotropia. the association of anisometropia with amblyopia occurred in 47.6% of the cases (n=10), with 8 cases of unilateral amblyopia and 2 cases of bilateral amblyopia. conclusions: there was a predominance of anisometropia in females, and an increased prevalence of strabismus and amblyopia in students with anisometropia.
Multifocal visual evoked potentials in amblyopia due to anisometropia
MM Moschos, I Margetis, S Tsapakis, et al
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S11762
Abstract: ltifocal visual evoked potentials in amblyopia due to anisometropia Original Research (3384) Total Article Views Authors: MM Moschos, I Margetis, S Tsapakis, et al Published Date July 2010 Volume 2010:4 Pages 849 - 853 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S11762 MM Moschos, I Margetis, S Tsapakis, G Panagakis, IK Chatzistephanou, E Iliakis Department of Ophthalmology, University of Athens, Greece Purpose: To investigate multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEP) of the amblyopic and fellow eye in amblyopia due to anisometropia. Methods: We recorded mfVEP in both eyes of 15 anisometropic amblyopic patients and 15 normal control subjects. The responses from the central 7.0° arc of the visual field were measured, and changes in latency and amplitude were compared between the amblyopic, fellow, and normal control eyes. Results: There was a significant difference in the latency and amplitude of mfVEP between the amblyopic and fellow eyes. The responses in the central region of the visual field (rings 1 and 2) had a longer latency and smaller amplitude in the amblyopic eye. In contrast, there was no difference in mfVEP latency or amplitude between the fellow eye and normal control eyes. Conclusion: These results suggest that mfVEP may be used as an alternative objective method for diagnosis and monitoring of anisometropic amblyopia.
Multifocal visual evoked potentials in amblyopia due to anisometropia  [cached]
MM Moschos,I Margetis,S Tsapakis,et al
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2010,
Abstract: MM Moschos, I Margetis, S Tsapakis, G Panagakis, IK Chatzistephanou, E IliakisDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Athens, GreecePurpose: To investigate multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEP) of the amblyopic and fellow eye in amblyopia due to anisometropia.Methods: We recorded mfVEP in both eyes of 15 anisometropic amblyopic patients and 15 normal control subjects. The responses from the central 7.0° arc of the visual field were measured, and changes in latency and amplitude were compared between the amblyopic, fellow, and normal control eyes.Results: There was a significant difference in the latency and amplitude of mfVEP between the amblyopic and fellow eyes. The responses in the central region of the visual field (rings 1 and 2) had a longer latency and smaller amplitude in the amblyopic eye. In contrast, there was no difference in mfVEP latency or amplitude between the fellow eye and normal control eyes.Conclusion: These results suggest that mfVEP may be used as an alternative objective method for diagnosis and monitoring of anisometropic amblyopia.Keywords: amblyopia, anisometropia, multifocal visual evoked potentials
Pupillography of automated swinging flashlight test in amblyopia  [cached]
Atsushi Miki,Atsuhiko Iijima,Mineo Takagi,Kiyoshi Yaoeda
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2008,
Abstract: Atsushi Miki1, Atsuhiko Iijima2, Mineo Takagi1, Kiyoshi Yaoeda1, Tomoaki Usui1, Shigeru Hasegawa1, Haruki Abe1, Takehiko Bando21Department of Ophthalmology; 2Department of Physiology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, JapanAbstract: Relative afferent pupillary defects (RAPDs) in amblyopia have been reported, and it is widely accepted that amblyopes can have an RAPD. We investigated whether or not this could be confirmed by the use of binocular pupillography. We examined twelve patients (6 males and 6 females, aged 7–57 years) with unilateral amblyopia associated with anisometropia and/or strabismus, using binocular infrared video pupillography (Newopto, Kawasaki, Japan). Eight normal subjects were also tested in the same manner. Two patients’ data had to be excluded because of poor recording quality. Only one patient with moderate anisometropic amblyopia was found to have reduced contraction amplitude in the amblyopic eye, and one patient with a borderline pupillary defect. The other amblyopes, some of whom showed even denser amblyopia, did not have a pupillary defect. This study has confirmed that only a small proportion of amblyopes have a reduced pupillary contraction amplitude in the affected eye, as established by pupillographic recordings, and even these amblyopes are not necessarily associated with dense amblyopia.Keywords: relative afferent pupillary defect, amblyopia, pupillography
A Morphological Study of Retinal Changes in Unilateral Amblyopia Using Optical Coherence Tomography Image Segmentation  [PDF]
Andrea Szigeti, Erika Tátrai, Anna Szamosi, Péter Vargha, Zoltán Zsolt Nagy, János Németh, Delia Cabrera DeBuc, Gábor Márk Somfai
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088363
Abstract: Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible structural changes of the macula in patients with unilateral amblyopia using optical coherence tomography (OCT) image segmentation. Patients and Methods 38 consecutive patients (16 male; mean age 32.4±17.6 years; range 6–67 years) with unilateral amblyopia were involved in this study. OCT examinations were performed with a time-domain OCT device, and a custom-built OCT image analysis software (OCTRIMA) was used for OCT image segmentation. The axial length (AL) was measured by a LenStar LS 900 device. Macular layer thickness, AL and manifest spherical equivalent refraction (MRSE) of the amblyopic eye were compared to that of the fellow eye. We studied if the type of amblyopia (strabismus without anisometropia, anisometropia without strabismus, strabismus with anisometropia) had any influence on macular layer thickness values. Results There was significant difference between the amblyopic and fellow eyes in MRSE and AL in all subgroups. Comparing the amblyopic and fellow eyes, we found a statistically significant difference only in the thickness of the outer nuclear layer in the central region using linear mixed model analysis keeping AL and age under control (p = 0.032). There was no significant difference in interocular difference in the thickness of any macular layers between the subgroups with one-way between-groups ANCOVA while statistically controlling for interocular difference in AL and age. Conclusions According to our results there are subtle changes in amblyopic eyes affecting the outer nuclear layer of the fovea suggesting the possible involvement of the photoreceptors. However, further studies are warranted to support this hypothesis.
Evaluation of central, steady, maintained fixation grading for predicting inter-eye visual acuity difference to diagnose and treat amblyopia in strabismic patients  [cached]
Kothari Mihir,Bhaskare Amar,Mete Deepali,Toshniwal Svetlana
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 2009,
Abstract: Background : Diagnosis of amblyopia in preverbal strabismic patients is frequently made by binocular fixation preference (BFP) testing. The reports on reliability of BFP are equivocal. This study evaluated the reliability of BFP testing in patients with horizontal strabismus. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study included patients with manifest, horizontal, comitant deviation> 10 prism diopter (PD). Inter-eye acuity difference (IEAD) was calculated by converting Snellen visual acuity to logMAR and was compared with BFP testing. The fixation behavior of the non-preferred eye was evaluated by a single investigator as central or uncentral, steady or unsteady and maintained or unmaintained. Amblyopia was defined as the IEAD of> 0.2 logMAR. Results: Of total 61 patients 36 were females and 36 had convergent squint, mean age 9.8 years. The correlation of BFP testing with IEAD was good for esotropia and exotropia. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of central, steady, maintained (CSM) grading was 93%, 78%, 79%, and 93% respectively. Sensitivity and negative predictive values were higher in children aged four to nine years and anisometropia> 1 diopter. The correlation between IEAD and lower grades of BFP testing was poor. Conclusions: CSM grading for BFP testing is useful for the detection of strabismic amblyopia but not useful to differentiate the depth of the amblyopia.
Anisometropia and amblyopia in straight eyes
Gupta S,Scood S,Jain I
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1973,
Abstract:
AMBLYOPIA
SOHAIL SHAHZAD
The Professional Medical Journal , 2004,
Abstract: Objective: To study the effects of supervisedocclusion treatment for amblyopia in children aged 5-9 years. Design: Descriptive Study. Place &Duration: Military Hospital, Rawalpindi (Aug, 2001 to June, 2002). Materials and Methods: Fifty childrenwho failed to respond occlusion therapy previously, were given two weeks of supervised intensive occlusiontherapy for 09 hours daily during waking hours directly under staff supervision. Visual acuity of amblyopicand fellow eye was recorded at each clinic visit before admission, daily during admission and at eachoutpatient visit after discharge. Appropriate spectacles have been prescribed. Visual acuity was recordedusing Snellen chart. After discharge visual acuity was checked at 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month and at mostrecent clinic visit if still receiving treatment or at final clinic visit if discharged. Results: Depending uponthe age and improvement of the visual acuity after two weeks of occlusion therapy we have divided thepatients into two groups. Group-1 between 5-7 years of age included 37 patients showed an improvement of3-4 lines of the visual acuity. Group – 2 between 7-9 years of age included 13 patients showed animprovement of 1-2 lines. Conclusion: The acuity of amblyopic eyes did not improve without effectivetreatment. Subsequent supervised occlusion therapy was effective in majority of children.
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