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Two-Dimensional Mechanism Design and Implementability by an Indirect Mechanism  [PDF]
Naoki Kojima
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2017.76107
Abstract: This paper studies the problem on two-dimensional mechanism design where the buyer’s taste and budget are his private information. The paper investigates the problem by the method of dimension-reduction, i.e., by focusing only on the buyer’s budget and constructing an indirect mechanism: function of one variable, the buyer’s budget. It is an approach quite antipodal to that by Kojima [1] where he focused on the buyer’s taste instead of his budget. It is shown that the seller does not lose any money by adopting the indirect mechanism of this paper. In other words, the seller’s revenue-maximizing direct mechanism is implemented by such an indirect mechanism
Reconsidering the Indirect Elections for the Head of Region, Response towards the Current Direct Democration Mechanism System in Indonesia  [cached]
Muhadam Labolo,Muhammad Afif Hamka
Asian Social Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v8n13p1
Abstract: Local elections are part of the framework of the mechanisms of democracy in Indonesia. In its essence, the purpose of direct democracy through the election mechanism is an open access to the widest possible public participation in determining the government leaders. Direct election is a mechanism that allows the conscious involvement of the people to choose their leaders, as practiced in Polis, Athens. This is what is called as political participation, the involvement of every citizen in the political process.Since the enactment of the 2005 elections in Indonesia, a number of issues emerged as the implications of the election in achieving the initial objectives. At the operational level, on Field survey there are problems in the aspects of voter registration, registration and establishment of regional head and deputy regional head, campaigning, voting and counting, as well as the establishment and ratification of the selected candidates. The urgency for indirect election seems need to be reconsidered to address a number of major issues that confront the implementation of direct democracy. If direct election is the antithesis of indirect election the other day, it would require an instrument that is able to answer the contrary antithesis raising the fundamental issues of indirect election. Above all the benefits of direct elections, which in turn indicates a failure at the implementation level, it seems require an alternative like switching into indirect election with a number of advantages.
Strain engineered direct-indirect band gap transition and its mechanism in 2D phosphorene  [PDF]
Xihong Peng,Andrew Copple,Qun Wei
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.085402
Abstract: Recently fabricated two dimensional (2D) phosphorene crystal structures have demonstrated great potential in applications of electronics. In this work, strain effect on the electronic band structure of phosphorene was studied using first principles methods. It was found that phosphorene can withstand a surface tension and tensile strain up to 10 N/m and 30%, respectively. The band gap of phosphorene experiences a direct-indirect-direct transition when axial strain is applied. A moderate -2% compression in the zigzag direction can trigger this gap transition. With sufficient expansion (+11.3%) or compression (-10.2% strains), the gap can be tuned from indirect to direct again. Five strain zones with distinct electronic band structure were identified and the critical strains for the zone boundaries were determined. The origin of the gap transition was revealed and a general mechanism was developed to explain energy shifts with strain according to the bond nature of near-band-edge electronic orbitals. Effective masses of carriers in the armchair direction are an order of magnitude smaller than that of the zigzag axis indicating the armchair direction is favored for carrier transport. In addition, the effective masses can be dramatically tuned by strain, in which its sharp jump/drop occurs at the zone boundaries of the direct-indirect gap transition.
Complexity of Strong Implementability
Clemens Thielen,Sven O. Krumke
Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science , 2009, DOI: 10.4204/eptcs.4.1
Abstract: We consider the question of implementability of a social choice function in a classical setting where the preferences of finitely many selfish individuals with private information have to be aggregated towards a social choice. This is one of the central questions in mechanism design. If the concept of weak implementation is considered, the Revelation Principle states that one can restrict attention to truthful implementations and direct revelation mechanisms, which implies that implementability of a social choice function is easy to check. For the concept of strong implementation, however, the Revelation Principle becomes invalid, and the complexity of deciding whether a given social choice function is strongly implementable has been open so far. In this paper, we show by using methods from polyhedral theory that strong implementability of a social choice function can be decided in polynomial space and that each of the payments needed for strong implementation can always be chosen to be of polynomial encoding length. Moreover, we show that strong implementability of a social choice function involving only a single selfish individual can be decided in polynomial time via linear programming.
Direct and indirect detection of WIMPs  [PDF]
O. Martineau,for the EDELWEISS collaboration
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: We present here the principles of detection of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, which could represent a large contribution to Dark Matter. A status of the experimental situation is given both for indirect and direct detection. In particular, the DAMA claim for a WIMP signal is confronted to the recent results of the CDMS and EDELWEISS experiments. We conclude by comparing direct and indirect search sensitivities.
Direct and Indirect Effects  [PDF]
Judea Pearl
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: The direct effect of one eventon another can be defined and measured byholding constant all intermediate variables between the two.Indirect effects present conceptual andpractical difficulties (in nonlinear models), because they cannot be isolated by holding certain variablesconstant. This paper shows a way of defining any path-specific effectthat does not invoke blocking the remainingpaths.This permits the assessment of a more naturaltype of direct and indirect effects, one thatis applicable in both linear and nonlinear models. The paper establishesconditions under which such assessments can be estimated consistentlyfrom experimental and nonexperimental data,and thus extends path-analytic techniques tononlinear and nonparametric models.
Mechanism of Indirect Taxation in Ukraine: Establishment and Development Механизм непрямого налогообложения в Украине: становление и развитие  [PDF]
Pasechnyy Nikolay D.
Business Inform , 2013,
Abstract: The article conducts analysis of foreign experience of the role of indirect taxes in formation of the revenue part of the budget, reveals tendencies of development of indirect taxation in the end of XIX – ХХ centuries, identifies specific features of establishment and development of the domestic mechanism of indirect taxation under conditions of economic transformations and performs assessment of fiscal efficiency of indirect taxes. It reveals approaches to institutional foundations of establishment of the mechanism of indirect taxation, identifies main factors that influence the level of indirect tax proceeds and effectiveness of the budget and taxation policy. It analyses the structure of value added tax proceeds in the context of types of economic activity and excise tax in the context of groups of excisable goods. It identifies priority directions of the taxation system development in the sphere of indirect taxes. В статье проведен анализ зарубежного опыта роли косвенных налогов в формировании доходной части бюджета, выявлены тенденции развития косвенного налогообложения в конце XIX – ХХ вв., определены особенности становления и развития отечественного механизма косвенного налогообложения в условиях экономических преобразований, осуществлена оценка фискальной эффективности косвенных налогов. Раскрыты подходы к институциональным основам становления механизма косвенного налогообложения, определены основные факторы, которые влияют на уровень косвенных налоговых поступлений, результативность бюджетно-налоговой политики. Проанализирована структура поступлений налога на добавленную стоимость в разрезе видов экономической деятельности, акцизного налога в разрезе групп подакцизных товаров. Определены приоритетные направления развития налоговой системы в сфере косвенных налогов.
Indirect and direct search for dark matter  [PDF]
Michael Klasen,Martin Pohl,Günter Sigl
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1016/j.ppnp.2015.07.001
Abstract: The majority of the matter in the universe is still unidentified and under investigation by both direct and indirect means. Many experiments searching for the recoil of dark-matter particles off target nuclei in underground laboratories have established increasingly strong constraints on the mass and scattering cross sections of weakly interacting particles, and some have even seen hints at a possible signal. Other experiments search for a possible mixing of photons with light scalar or pseudo-scalar particles that could also constitute dark matter. Furthermore, annihilation or decay of dark matter can contribute to charged cosmic rays, photons at all energies, and neutrinos. Many existing and future ground-based and satellite experiments are sensitive to such signals. Finally, data from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN are scrutinized for missing energy as a signature of new weakly interacting particles that may be related to dark matter. In this review article we summarize the status of the field with an emphasis on the complementarity between direct detection in dedicated laboratory experiments, indirect detection in the cosmic radiation, and searches at particle accelerators.
Direct and Indirect Gradient Control for Static Optimisation
Yi Cao,
Yi Cao School of Engineering
,Cranfield University,UK

国际自动化与计算杂志 , 2005,
Abstract: Static “self-optimising” control is an important concept, which provides a link between static optimisation and control. According to the concept, a dynamic control system could be configured in such a way that when a set of certain variables are maintained at their setpoints, the overall process operation is automatically optimal or near optimal at steady-state in the presence of disturbances. A novel approach using constrained gradient control to achieve “self-optimisation” has been proposed by Cao. However, for most process plants, the information required to get the gradient measure may not be available in real-time. In such cases, controlled variable selection has to be carried out based on measurable candidates. In this work, the idea of direct gradient control has been extended to controlled variable selection based on gradient sensitivity analysis (indirect gradient control). New criteria, which indicate the sensitivity of the gradient function to disturbances and implementation errors, have been derived for selection. The particular case study shows that the controlled variables selected by gradient sensitivity measures are able to achieve near optimal performance. The work was supported by the EPSRC UK under grant GR/R57324. Yi Cao is a Lecturer in Control Engineering in School of Engineering at Cranfield University. He obtained his PhD degree at the University of Exeter in 1996 for theoretical work on Control Structure Selection for Chemical Processes Using Input-Output Controllability Analysis. Prior to joining Cranfield in 2000, he was for three years in the Chemical Engineering Department at Loughborough University working on the EPSRC research project, “Operability and Control of Highly-Integrated Chemical Processes” and for two years in the Engineering Department at the University of Leicester working on an industrially linked EPSRC project, “The Development of an Intelligent Knowledge-Based System for Supervisory Control of Rolling Mills”. He is the author and co-author of one monograph and over forty conference and journal papers on advanced control, controllability analysis and control structure selection. One of his research paper on controllability analysis and control structure selection was awarded the best industrial application paper prize at the Control’96 conference by the journal of Control Engineering Practice Dr. Yi Cao’s research area is in Advanced Process Control, which includes Nonlinear System Modelling, Optimization, Controllability Analysis, Control Structure Selection, Self-Optimizing Control, Nonlinear Model Predictive Control, Sliding Mode Control and Plantwide Control.
Mechanism and Algorithm for Indirect Schema Mapping Composition
Bo Wang,Bo Guo
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing , 2009,
Abstract: There are a large number of indirect schema mappings between peers in the network. To improve the efficiency of data exchange and queries, indirect mappings are needed to be composed. Direct mappings can be derived directly by the constraints defined between schemas, but not for indirect mappings’ composition. Defined the combination operations of schema elements in indirect mappings, and gave the expression of indirect mappings. Analyzed the composition of indirect mappings, and proposed a strategy, named schema element back, to solve the problem of indirect mapping composition, and gave the indirect mapping composition generation algorithm based on such strategy. Experiments showed that indirect mapping composition can improve the efficiency of data exchange, and compared with other non-full mapping composition generation algorithms, and indirect mapping composition generated by our algorithm based on schema element back strategy can completely eliminate the infection of media schema with no reduction of the composition efficiency.
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