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Influence of Host Plants on the Development of Caryedon serratus Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae), Insect Pest of Groundnut Stocks in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Issoufou Ouedraogo, Sacamba Aimé Omer Hema, Wendgoundi Guenda, Dona Dakouo
Advances in Entomology (AE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ae.2016.45029
Abstract:
The beetle Caryedon serratusOlivier is a major insect pest responsible for the infesta-tion and damage on groundnut during storage. To understand the infestation mecha-nism of groundnut stocks, studies have been carried out on this insect biology under laboratory conditions in relation with its host plants. The results have demonstrated that the pre-oviposition on groundnut lasts on average 1.28 days. The oviposition pe-riod is 12.04 days, during which 80.42 eggs on average are laid. From hatching to adult stage, C. serratus larvae development goes through four stages with variable durations according to the stage. Three families of host plants (Papilionaceae; Caesalpiniaceae and Mimosaceae) were selected for females C. serratusto lay on their seeds. The re-sults showed that more eggs were laid on the seeds of Papilionaceae (98.75% of in-fested seeds) followed by Caesalpiniaceae (28.59% of infested seeds). Studies were carried out on the laying behavior of C. serratus under laboratory conditions and have revealed that whatever the conditions, C. serratus?females lay on all the plant species seeds exposed. Insects’ development duration has varied according to the plant species seeds used.
Characterization and evaluation of accessions of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdcourt) from Burkina Faso
M Ouedraogo, JT Ouedraogo, JB Tignere, D Bilma, CB Dabire, G Konate
Sciences & Nature , 2008,
Abstract: Three hundred and ten (310) Bambara groundnut accessions mainly from the Northern semi arid zone of Burkina Faso were assessed for phenotypic variability of agronomic and morphological traits. Mixture of seed types in a given accession is common in Northern area of Burkina Faso. Two to twelve types of seeds compose the majority of accessions collected (82%) and only 18% of accessions are homogeneous. Characters like canopy spread, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, seed length, seed width and weight of 100 seeds are positively correlated to yield per plant. A negative correlation was revealed between days to 50% flowering and yield per plant indicating that plants which take more time on vegetative stage have less yield in semi-arid conditions of production. Accessions from Burkina assessed for agronomic and morphological characteristics in this study are less variable than 1384 accessions assessed by IITA in 1985 and 1986. This result can be explained by the restricted origin of accessions from Burkina Faso. La variabilité phénotypique des traits agronomiques et morphologiques de 310 accessions de pois Bambara collectées principalement dans la zone semi aride nord du Burkina Faso a été évaluée. Le mélange de différents types de semences dans les accessions est une pratique répandue dans le Nord du Burkina Faso. Deux à douze types de semence composent la majorité des accessions (82%) et seulement 18% des accessions sont homogènes. Les caractères tels que la largeur du feuillage, le nombre de gousses par plante, le nombre de graines par gousse, la longueur et largeur des graines et le poids de 100 graines ont une corrélation positive avec le rendement en graine par plante. Une corrélation négative a été mise en évidence entre la date de 50% floraison et le rendement par plante montrant que les plantes qui prennent plus de temps pour leur phase végétative produisent moins dans les conditions de production semi arides. Les accessions du Burkina évaluées pour leurs caractéristiques agronomiques et morphologiques sont moins variables que les 1384 accessions évaluées par l\'IITA en 1985 et 1986. Ce résultat peut s\'expliquer l\'origine restreinte des accessions originaires du Burkina.
Molecular Characterization of a Large Diversity of Bambara Groundnut Potyviruses (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Aboubié Elisabeth Zongo, Bouma James Néya, Essowé Palanga, Drissa Sérémé, Moustapha Koala, Régis Dimitri Sokpé Longué, Jean Zabré, Zakaria Bouda, Nicolas Barro, Oumar Traoré
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2019.109021
Abstract: Potyviruses are major constraints to grain legume production by causing significant yield losses. Potyviruses infecting Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) were investigated in Burkina Faso. Leaf samples collected from three agroclimatic zones were subjected to RT-PCR and sequence analyses. Of a total of 135 samples, 36 (26.67%) were detected positive in RT-PCR tests using potyvirus universal primers. Analysis of full coat protein (cp) sequences from 24 isolates revealed the occurrence of three groups of Bambara groundnut-infecting potyviruses. Virus isolates in group 1 shared 94.5% - 100% nucleotide (nt) identity with CABMV whereas those in group 2 and group 3 were distantly related Bean common necrosis virus (BCMNV) and Passiflora virus Ugandan which were their respective closest potyviruses. Group 2 shared 77.1% nt and 78.8% - 79.9% aa identity with BCMNV and group 3 shared 77.3% - 78.3% nt and 80.7% - 81.5% aa identity with Passiflora virus Ugandan
Abortion in the North of Burkina Faso
Karl Lorenz Dehane
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 1999,
Abstract: Knowledge and use of abortifacients were investigated in a remote ethnically heterogeneous area in the north of Burkina Faso. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 320 married women in 21 villages and supplemented with key informants' interviews, clinical observations at the provincial hospital, and observations in one of the villages. Almost half of the sampled women of all ethnic groups admitted to the existence of abortion carried out by their peers. Response rates and knowledge of abortions were lower among younger women and among those belonging to the Islamic Hamallist and Wahabiya sects. Abortions were commonly induced by drinking a watery solution of the roots and leaves of a commonly found bush –– Securidaca longepedunculata. The plant contains uterine contraction stimulating ergot-alkaloids, but also strychnine-like toxic substances. It is reportedly effective in provoking abortions within one day of treatment, but its side-effects are severe and include heavy vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, diarrhoea and vomiting, and death. There is a need for the rapid introduction of safer birth control methods in the region. (Afr J Reprod Health 1999; 3[2]: 40-50) Key Words: Burkina Faso, Fulbe, Gurmance, abortion, abortifacients, ergot-alkaloids
The rise of the “artist” in Burkina Faso
R Rousseau
Tydskrif vir letterkunde , 2007,
Abstract: It is only during the last twenty years that contemporary art has found actors in Burkina Faso. Thomas Sankara's revolutionary regime was the first to offer artists a frame to promote and perfect their technique. During the 1980s, the Semaine National de la Culture (National Week of Culture), the Pan-African Film Festival of Ouagadougou (Fespaco), and the Salon International de l'Artisanat de Ouagadougou (Ouagadougou International Handicraft Show) were the only major projects that allowed artists to learn new techniques and to be known. However, because Thomas Sankara's government expected the creators to participate in the revolutionary project, this left them little space for innovation and the expression of their artistic freedom. The early 1990s saw the rise of new events, which at last offered artists a space to practice their art, based on personal inspiration and competence in artistic technique. The Laongo symposium of granite sculpture, PIAMET (an event started by two well-known Burkinabè artists), and Ouaga'Art (organised by the French Cultural Centre of Ouagadougou) thus offered young artists the possibility of discovering the techniques of their colleagues from Africa and elsewhere in the world. However, except the Olorun Foundation, there is no permanent space dedicated to training and artistic exhibition. This lack is a source of obvious problems for the creator who, as a result, may find himself entrenched in a circuit where commercialism seems to dominate artistic research.
Prostate cancer outcome in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Kabore Fasnéwindé A,Zango Barnabé,Sanou Adama,Yameogo Clotaire
Infectious Agents and Cancer , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1750-9378-6-s2-s6
Abstract: Introduction African-American black men race is one of non-modifiable risk factors confirmed for prostate cancer. Many studies have been done in USA among African- American population to evaluate prostate cancer disparities. Compared to the USA very few data are available for prostate cancer in Sub-Saharan African countries. The objective of this study was to describe incident prostate cancer (PC) diagnosis characteristics in Burkina Faso (West Africa). Methods We performed a prospective non randomized patient’s cohort study of new prostate cancer cases diagnosed by histological analysis of transrectal prostate biopsies in Burkina Faso. Study participants included 166 patients recruited at the urology division of the university hospital of Ouagadougou. Age of the patients, clinical symptoms, digital rectal examination (DRE) result, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, histological characteristics and TNM classification were taking in account in this study. Results 166 transrectal prostate biopsies (TRPB) were performed based on high PSA level or abnormal DRE. The prostate cancer rate on those TRPB was 63, 8 % (n=106). The mean age of the patients was 71, 5 years (52 to 86). Urinary retention was the first clinical patterns of reference in our institution (55, 7 %, n = 59). Most patients, 56, 6 % (n = 60) had a serum PSA level over than 100 ng/ml. All the patients had adenocarcinoma on histological study of prostate biopsy cores. The majority of cases (54, 7 % n = 58) had Gleason score equal or higher than 7. Conclusion Prostate cancer is diagnosed at later stages in our country. Very high serum PSA level and poorly differentiated tumors are the two major characteristics of PC at the time of diagnosis.
Inventory and Distribution of Mango Mealybugs Species in Western Burkina Faso: Relative Abundance and Population Fluctuation  [PDF]
Karim Nébié, Souleymane Nacro, Issoufou Ouédraogo, Dona Dakouo, Lenli Claude Otoidobiga
Advances in Entomology (AE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ae.2016.43020
Abstract: Rastrococus invadens was the only reported mealybug species on the mango tree in Western Burkina Faso. This study aimed at carrying out the inventory and showing the importance and distribution of other mealybug species associated with the mango tree. It was also important to determine the periods of abundance of these species vis-a-vis R. invadens. For this purpose, the density of mealybugs was assessed in three study sites (Toussiana, Bérégadougou and Orodara) in Western Burkina Faso. The observations were made from June 2014 to June 2015 at a frequency of 15 ± 1 days. They focused on 20 leaves (5 leaves/cardinal point) levied on each mango tree. The species identified as Ferrisia virgata Cockerell and Icerya aegyptiaca Douglas were collected from mangos infested by R. invadens representing 98% - 99% of the density of the observed mealybug species. The periods of abundance of F. virgata and I. aegyptiaca were respectively the dry season and the rainy season. The effect of temperature, relative humidity and rainfall on the populations of F. virgata and I. aegyptiaca was also discussed. These results highlight the distribution range of F. virgata and I. aegyptiaca worldwide including Burkina Faso. R. invadens was the main mealybug species on mango in Burkina Faso in general and in the Western region of the country in particular.
Plants used in traditional beekeeping in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Schweitzer Paul, Nombré Issa, Aidoo Kwamé, Boussim I. Joseph
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2013.35040
Abstract:

Beekeeping is one of the recommended approaches in the implementation of poverty alleviation programs in rural areas of Burkina Faso. However, plants that are important in beekeeping have not been identified. The use of parts and organs of plants by beekeepers and their methods of harvesting remain unknown. These limit the conservation efforts of these important plants and affect beekeeping development. The study was carried out in the south-central, eastcentral regions and in Comoé and Boucle of Mouhoun regions ofBurkina Faso. The objective of the study was to identify the plants species used by traditional beekeepers, the different uses made of these plant parts and organs and then to discuss the impact of these activities on the survival of the plant resources. An ethnoapiculture survey was conducted in the main apiculture zone of Burkina Faso, using semi-structured interviews. The methodology of botanical coherence or convergence was applied to classify botanical species. Results showed that 35 botanical species were used in traditional beekeeping. The use of plant parts or organs in traditional hives construction represents 55%, attraction of wild swarms in new beehives is 37.50% and use as a torch or as a smoker, 7.50%. The barks are the organs most used. Trees are botanical type most used. The results are not exhaustive and therefore other additional studies need to be carried out. In order to sustain the use of these important plants, their growing in nursery and their planting in the field are recommended.

Molecular Variability and Genetic Structure of IYMV in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Moustapha Koala, Drissa Sérémé, Florence Vignols, Eric Lacombe, Martine Bantgratz, Bouma James Neya, Christophe Brugidou, Nicolas Barro, Oumar Traoré
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2018.92025
Abstract:

Imperata yellow mottle virus (IYMV, Sobemovirus) was first described in 2008 in the south-western region of Burkina Faso (West Africa). The genetic diversity of IYMV was not documented up to day. In this study, the variability of CP of IYMV was evaluated through the molecular characterization of 38 isolates collected in the western part of Burkina Faso. Comparison of sequences of these new isolates and one IYMV sequence available in GenBank revealed that the average nucleotide diversity was low. The ratio of non-synonymous over synonymous nucleotide substitutions per site was low, indicating a CP diversification under strong purifying selection. Despite of the low nucleotide diversity, phylogenetic analyses revealed segregation of IYMV isolates into six major clades. There was no correlation of phylogenetic grouping of isolates based on geographical location. This is the first study of the genetic diversity of IYMV.

Elderly Men Sexuality in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)  [PDF]
Brahima Kirakoya, Moussa Kabore, Fanéwendé Aristide Kabore, Abdoul Karim Pare, Abubakar Babagana Mustapha, Ky Bienvenue Désiré, Barnabé Zango
Open Journal of Urology (OJU) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oju.2019.93007
Abstract: Background: In general, sexuality is a taboo subject. It is more so in elderly people, as it is believed that they do not complain about sexual disorder. Objective: To analyse the sexual activity of elderly men in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study on the sexual activity of men aged at least 60 years old. The study was carried out in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, from 1st June to 31st August 2014. All consenting males who were aged 60 and above at the time of the study were included. Results: We contacted 652 men, but only 200 responded i.e. a response rate of 30.67%. The age of the respondents was between 60 years and 89 years with a mean age of 66.38 ± 5.72 years. 80.15% of the respondents had at least one sexual intercourse in a month. Erection was considered satisfactory or very satisfactory in 45.8% (60/131) of respondents and 63.36% of them always had orgasm during sexual intercourse. Premature ejaculation was noted in 23.66% of respondents, while a decline in libido was noted in 82.44% of them. Conclusion: This study which is the first of its kind in Burkina Faso has helped reveal the importance of sexuality in the lives of elderly men.
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