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Indigenous Agroforestry Practices in Southern Ethiopia: The Case of Lante, Arba Minch
Molla Mekonnen Alemu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103278
Abstract:
Agroforestry has been practiced for centuries in different parts of the world by making use of indigenous technical knowledge. Since societies have lived for long period of time in a specific area, indigenous knowledge has been transferred from generation to generation by building on new inventions on what has been inherited across years. The practice has served communities to find indigenous medicinal plants; edible fruits, leaves, roots and steam; fuel; feed for livestock; shelter; construction materials; ameliorating micro climates; and many more. The southern part of Ethiopia is endowed with indigenous agroforestry practices that have evolved over years. The agroforestry activities of the communities have enabled to maintain the greenery of the region along with its magnificent contribution towards ecological values, food security and local economic benefits. This study was held in Lante, one of the Kebeles (the smallest administration unit) of Arba Minch Zuriya district of Southern Ethiopia so as to explore the indigenous agroforestry practices along with its present contribution for food security and local economic development. Primary and secondary data were collected by making use of interview questions and review of related literature. Then data were transcribed and analysed by descriptive statistics. Findings of the study showed that home garden, intercropping and livestock based agroforestry practices of the area are contributing a lot in maintaining food security at the household level through the provision edible items from backyard throughout the year. It has also enabled the communities to be empowered economically as they can always find to be cashed and fulfill household needs. Thus, since the case of Lante is a good role model for sustainable agroforestry development, sharing the indigenous agroforestry experience with the rest of the country could have a great impact in building green economy at grassroots levels.
Knowledge and practice of malaria prevention methods among residents of Arba Minch Town and Arba Minch Zuria District, Southern Ethiopia
A Astatkie
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: To date, there is no effective vaccine or no effective drug for mass chemoprophylaxis against malaria. Thus, proper know-how and use of prevention methods is crucial. This study aims to assess the knowledge and practice of malaria prevention methods among the residents of Arba Minch area, Southern Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study that utilized a two-stage sampling was conducted from January 22 to February 1, 2007 on a sample of 454 household heads or their deputies. SPSS 16 for windows was used for data analysis. Chi-square and Fisher’s exact probability tests were used to assess the association of selected variables with place of residence. RESULTS: Majority (86.8%) of the respondents mentioned fever as a symptom of malaria, and 98.2% of the respondents reported mosquito bite as the cause of malaria. Three hundred and eighty four (84.6%) of the respondents mentioned mosquito nets as protective measures against mosquito bites. The protective measure mostly used by the respondents or other household members in the last 12 months was mosquito net (73.3%) followed by aerosol insecticide (13%) with the former being used more in rural areas and the latter in urban areas. CONCLUSION: The study subjects’ awareness regarding the cause, symptoms and preventive measures of malaria was high. Use of mosquito net as protective measure against mosquito bites in the last 12 months was high. However, use of other preventive measures was low. Behavioral change communication is required to increase the use of other preventive measures along with mosquito nets.
Cost estimates of HIV care and treatment with and without anti-retroviral therapy at Arba Minch Hospital in southern Ethiopia
Asfaw Bikilla, Degu Jerene, Bjarne Robberstad, Bernt Lindtjorn
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1478-7547-7-6
Abstract: To estimate the average per person year (PPY) cost of care for HIV patients with and without anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in a district hospital.Data on costs and utilization of HIV-related services were taken from Arba Minch Hospital (AMH) in southern Ethiopia. Mean annual outpatient and inpatient costs and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. We adopted a district hospital perspective and focused on hospital costs.PPY average (95% CI) costs under ART were US$235.44 (US$218.11–252.78) and US$29.44 (US$24.30–34.58) for outpatient and inpatient care, respectively. Estimates for the non-ART condition were US$38.12 (US$34.36–41.88) and US$80.88 (US$63.66–98.11) for outpatient and inpatient care, respectively. The major cost driver under the ART scheme was cost of ART drugs, whereas it was inpatient care and treatment in the non-ART scheme.The cost profile of ART at a district hospital level may be useful in the planning and budgeting of implementing ART programs in Ethiopia. Further studies that focus on patient costs are warranted to capture all patterns of service use and relevant costs. Economic evaluations combining cost estimates with clinical outcomes would be useful for ranking of ART services.The prevalence of HIV in adults in Ethiopia is 2.1% according to 2007 estimates [1]. About 242,548 adults living with HIV/AIDS require anti-retroviral therapy (ART) [1]. Ethiopia launched a nationwide ART program in January 2005 [2] with a policy to implement treatment to rural settings through peripheral healthcare facilities. The number of treatment sites had reached 272 by June 2007 [1]. Treatment coverage is about 35% [1], and the unmet need for ART in Ethiopia remains considerable.ART provision in Ethiopia is funded mainly through external programs such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria; the United States President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief; and other donor agencies. External funding may not continue at its curr
A Qualitative Study of Barriers to Effectiveness of Interventions to Prevent Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Arba Minch, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Adebola Adedimeji,Nareen Abboud,Behailu Merdekios,Miriam Shiferaw
International Journal of Population Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/532154
Abstract: Objectives. Despite the availability of services to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, socio-cultural, health system and operational factors constrain many pregnant women from accessing services or returning for followup thereby increasing the risk of vertical transmission of HIV to newborns. We highlight and describe unique contextual factors contributing to low utilization of PMTCT services in Arba-Minch, Ethiopia. Methods. Qualitative research design was utilized to obtain data through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with antenatal clinic attendees, health workers health facilities in the study area. Results. Awareness of PMTCT services and knowledge of its benefits was nearly universal, although socioeconomic, cultural and health system factors, including stigma and desire to prevent knowledge of serostatus, impede access to and utilization of services. Health system factors—lack of appropriate followup mechanisms, inadequate access to ARV drugs and poorly equipped manpower also contribute to low utilization of services. Conclusion. Reducing mother-to-child transmission of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa will be more effective when unique contextual factors are identified and addressed. Effectiveness of PMTCT interventions rests on a well functioning health system that recognize the importance of social, economic, cultural contexts that HIV positive pregnant women live in. 1. Background In 2009, the United Nations AIDS Program (UNAIDS) reported that 430,000 of the approximately 2.5 million children under the age of 15 living with HIV were newly infected, the majority in sub-Saharan Africa [1]. Many of these children acquired the infection from their mothers during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding. Timely administration of antiretroviral drugs to a HIV-positive pregnant woman and her newborn child significantly reduces the risk of mother-to-child transmission [2]. Now recognized as an attainable public health strategy, preventing mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) has four basic components: (i) prevention of primary infection among women, (ii) prevention of unintended pregnancies among HIV positive women, (iii) provision of specific interventions to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission, and (iv) provision of care, treatment and support to HIV infected women, their infants and families [3, 4]. Providing highly active antiretroviral therapy to a woman will reduce viral replication and viral load during pregnancy, and as a postexposure prophylaxis, prevent infection in newborns [3, 5, 6]. Interventions to
Anemia and Its Associated Risk Factors at the Time of Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation in Public Health Facilities of Arba Minch Town, Southern Ethiopia  [PDF]
Andamlak Gizaw Alamdo, Temesgen Fiseha, Amanuel Tesfay, Mesfin Kote Deber, Zemedu Mehamed Tirfe, Tizta Tilahun
Health (Health) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/health.2015.712179
Abstract: Background: Anemia is the most common hematologic abnormality in HIV patients and is associated with disease progression and decreased survival. This study aims to describe the prevalence and predictors of anemia in HIV positive patients at the time of ART initiation at public health facilities of Arba Minch town, Southern Ethiopia. Methods: A total of 411 adults (?15 years) HIV positive patients with complete information on hemoglobin levels and CD4 count and clinical characteristics registered from 2006 to 2013 were assessed for anemia prevalence and risk factors at the ART clinic of the Arba Minch hospital and health center. The measurements of Hemoglobin and CD4 + T cell count were performed using standard methodology at baseline of ART initiation. Results: A total of 411 HIV positive patients (195 males and 216 females) with a mean ± SD age of 33.9 ± 9.0 years were assessed. Hemoglobin levels were between 6.0 and 16.5 mg/dL. The overall prevalence of anemia at the time of ART initiation was 52.3%; with 28.1%, 22.9% and 1.3% mild, moderate and severe anemia respectively. The overall prevalence of anemia was 62.4% among males and 46.7% among females (P < 0.001). An increased risk of anemia was seen in males (adjusted OR = 2.78, 95% CI = 1.77 - 4.35); low CD4 cell counts (adjusted OR = 3.48, 95% CI = 2.09 - 5.79); and history of TB (adjusted OR = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.28 - 6.54). Conclusions: Anemia in HIV-positive patients was highly prevalent at the time of ART initiation. Male gender, low CD4 count and history of TB were associated with higher risk of baseline anemia.
Knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptives among female college students in Arba Minch Town, Southern Ethiopia
A Worku
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Young and unmarried women constitute a high risk group for unplanned pregnancies and unsafe abortions. It has been estimated that widespread use of emergency contraception (EC) may significantly reduce abortion-related morbidity and mortality. Objective: To assess knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptives among female college students in Arba Minch town. Method: A cross-sectional institution-based study was conducted from March 1st to 5th 2010 among 407 female students that were selected by using a stratified sampling technique. Result: One hundred seventy three (42.5%) of the respondents said that they heard about emergency contraceptive. Of those who mentioned pills as an emergency contraceptive method, 26.4% correctly identified 72 hours as the time limit for use of the method. The summary index for knowledge disclosed that 21.9% had good knowledge about EC. Though 50% of students had positive attitude towards EC, 11 (2.7%) of the total students had used emergency contraception. EC use was significantly higher among students who were married and among students who have good knowledge on EC, (P<0.027, P< 0.01 respectively). Conclusion: The study showed that knowledge of emergency contraception among female students is low and the method is still underused. Therefore, there is a need to expand IEC about RH and regular methods in general and EC in particular at college level. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2011;25(3):176-183]
Resilient Children and Youths Overcoming Risks and Achieving in Life in Arba Minch town of Ethiopia
Tekalign AYALEW
Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie Multidimensionala , 2011,
Abstract: The development ecology of Children and youths are not favorable in many parts of urban areas of Ethiopia. There are risk situations in schools, in the community and family environments. Among others, family disintegration for various reasons, in effective schools, as well as poor other social services, and expansion of illegal drugs and movies have made the lives of large number of children and youths vulnerable .Moreover, physical , sexual and labor abuses of children are prevalent in different settings and situations .However , despite the presence of such risk factors against the positive child and youth developments, there are stories of success achieved by children and youths who were once vulnerable and exposed to various types of adversities. Thus, the purpose of this study is to explore developmental challenges and risks to children and youths in the town and protective factories and developmental assets that helped some children to overcome early life difficulties and become successful in their late life. Data from life histories of 30 successful children and young adults, interviews and group desiccations with the concerned bodies indicated that proper socialization, attachment to positive peers and role models, martial, financial and moral supports at appropriate times as well as children’ internal qualities could nurture resilience capabilities in children and youths who are growing in adverse situations. It could also facilitate attaining life goals.
Home and community based care program assessment for people living with HIV/AIDS in Arba Minch, Southern Ethiopia
Taddese Zerfu, Yaliso Yaya, Selamawit Dagne, Kebede Deribe, Horacio Ruise?or-Escudero, Sibhatu Biadgilign
BMC Palliative Care , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-684x-11-8
Abstract: A cross-sectional quantitative study combined with qualitative methods was conducted in Southern Ethiopia among 226 randomly selected PLWHAs and 10 service providers who were purposively selected. Data was collected using a pre-tested structured interview questionnaire and in-depth interview guideline. Quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS windows based statistical software while qualitative data was analyzed manually using thematic framework analysis.A total of 226 PLWHAs were interviewed. Socio-economic support (material and income generating activities) was being received by 108 (47.8%) of the respondents, counseling services (e.g. psychological support) were being received 128(56.6%), 144 (63.7%) alleviation of stigma and discrimination as human right and legal support for study participants. Inadequate external financial support, lack of proper referral systems between different care providers were among the reasons identified for the low quality and redundancy of care and support activities. Nonetheless, many opportunities and prospects, including easily accessible care receivers (PLWHA), good political and societal will were also implicated.Care and support services provided to PLWHAs in the study area are by far lower in terms of coverage and quantity. Strategies for improvement could be facilitated given the observed political will, social support and access to care givers.In 2009, an estimated 33.3 million people [31.4-35.3 million] were living with HIV and 2.6 million [2.3 million–2.8 million] people who became newly infected with HIV worldwide. In 33 countries, the HIV incidence has fallen by more than 25% between 2001 and 2009; 22 of these countries are in sub-Saharan Africa [1], the region where the majority of new HIV infections continue to occur. It was estimated that 1.8 million [1.6 million–2.0 million] people became infected in 2009 [1]. The global burden of HIV is heaviest in lower-income countries, where the majority of adults with HIV live
Magnitude and Correlates of Contraceptive Use among Females in Reproductive Age in Arba Minch Zuria Woreda: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study  [PDF]
Girma Temam Shifa
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.611155
Abstract: Background: Despite its positive impact in reducing maternal and child mortality and morbidity, the utilization rate of contraceptives is unacceptably low in many developing countries including Ethiopia. This warrants the investigation of the contributing factors of this low utilization for appropriate interventions. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the magnitude and associated factors of contraceptive use in Arba Minch Zuria Woreda, Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to July 2010 in 9 kebeles of Arba Minch Demographic and Health Development Program. Results: In this study, 28.3% of all women & 32.7% currently married were using any contraceptive methods during the time of the survey. Almost all current users were using modern methods; the most widely used method was injectable (24.2%) followed by implants (2.4%) and pills (1.3%). Current marital status, ethnicity, age, education, presence of radio set in the house hold and discussion about family planning in the last 6 month before the study with their partner were the independent predictors of contraceptive use. Conclusion: The contraceptive prevalence rate is promising but efforts should continue to further increase the contraceptive coverage especially on kebeles with low coverage by targeting men and misconceptions about family planning.
Awareness of antenatal care clients on mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV infection and its prevention in Arba Minch
Mesfin Haddis, Degu Jerene
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2006,
Abstract: This study was done on pregnant mothers attending the antenatal care in Arba Minch Hospital and Arba Minch Health Centre from June15-Aug 30, 2003. Four hundred and eighty four mothers were interviewed at the antenatal clinics. The majority of the mothers (97%) were married. The risk of transmission of HIV, perinatally and through breastfeeding is well known to most mothers. However, the use of ARV prophylaxis was not known to 386(80%) of the mothers. During interview 444(92.3%) of the mothers did not know their HIV serostatus and, 360(74.4%) of all the mothers interviewed volunteered for HIV test. The results of this study indicate the need to integrate voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) in antenatal programmes and the need of educating mothers on the role of ARV prophylaxis in PMTCT. The Ethiopian Journal of Health Development Vol. 20(1) 2006: 55-57
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