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Energy and economy savings in the process of methanol synthesis using Pinch technology
Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society , 2004,
Abstract: A heat exchanger network (HEN) for the process of methanol synthesis has been studied by pinch design analysis. Great economic and energy savings were realized by the pinch analysis in comparison to the existing plant. Also, it was found that it is possible to reduce the requirements for the consumption of utilities. The HEN was reconstruded by adding new heat exchangers. In order to produce new HEN, the capital costs had to be increased, but the total cost trade-off between the capital and energy costs will be decrease by 30 %.
Observation of neutron emission in the process of X-pinch  [PDF]
O. D. Dalkarov,A. S. Rusetskii,S. A. Pikuz,T. A. Shelkovenko,I. N. Tilikin
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The results of measuring the neutron flux in the process of the X-pinch are presented. The measurements were carried out using CR-39 track detectors. It was found that in the process of X-pinch recorded neutron emission over a wide energy range (from thermal to energies greater than 10 MeV) with an intensity of more than 108 neutrons per shot into 4{\pi} sr solid angle (assuming isotropy of radiation and localizing the source in the "hot spot"). Data of track detectors suggest that at the time of discharge produced fast neutrons are then slowed down and turned into thermal.
Analysis of Cryogenic Ammonia System for Energy Conservation
B. Raei,F. Shahraki,M. Khorrami,A. Ghadi
Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment (IJEE) , 2010,
Abstract: There are several alternatives to enhance the efficiency of energy usage and to decrease energy losses. Pinch technology is the best method of approach to enhance energy efficiency. Heat exchangers network (HEN) of refrigeration unit of ammonia production process was analyzed to use pinch technology to decrease energy usage. The obtained results showed that pinch technology was unsuccessful for the shaft work targeting capabilities. In contrast, it is posed that for optimization of such systems, one should use the combined pinch and exergy analysis (CPEA) method. In this analysis CPEA method was used in the system. It was observed that the refrigeration system use cold streams for cooling the hot streams. Therefore, retrofitting the refrigeration cycle without changing the main process is impossible. Some suggestions were made for improving the refrigeration system, such as the use of economizer after cooler, multistage cycle and removal of the 111-FFD3 stream. It was also observed that the exchanger 128-E act as an intercooler and the flashed 110-F, 111-F and 112-F act as an economizer. In addition, ammonia refrigerant was used at three different temperatures of -33,-7 and 13.5 C. Also, eliminated the 111-FFD3 stream bring about 2% reduction in exergy loss.
Viability of Millet as Adjunct to Malted Barley in Brewing Process
S.O. Ogbeide
Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: This study presents the discussion and result of the assessment of locally available millet as an adjunct to malted barley in wort production for brewery operation. The investigation carried out included formulating models using linear programming to actually optimize productivity in the brewing industries. The use of mainly imported raw material in the brewery industry has both economical and technological merit and will lead to high cost of production and poor utilization of locally available resources which cannot help the Nigeria industry as a developing nation. It was therefore concluded from the work that millet could be used as adjunct to malted barley for wort production leading to a cost reduction of #26.42K.
Composite Table Algorithm - A Powerful Hybrid Pinch Targeting Method for Various Problems in Water Integration  [PDF]
R. Parand,H. M. Yao,M. O. Tadé,V. Pareek
International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications , 2013, DOI: 10.7763/ijcea.2013.v4.300
Abstract: Water management has become a very vital issue due to stringent environmental regulations and rising cost of water resources. Pinch analysis provides a conceptual approach for water network synthesis. Targeting is the first stage in most pinch analysis techniques to provide the baseline for detailed water network design. Although Water Cascade Analysis and Material Recovery Pinch Diagram methods have been developed to handle diverse water network problems, Composite Table Algorithm (CTA) is another water pinch targeting tool with its unique combination of both numerical and graphical characteristics. CTA was originally developed for fixed flow rate problems. In this work, the applicability of CTA for various water network problems such as fixed load, mixed fixed load and fixed flow rate, multiple pinch, and threshold problem is discussed. To facilitate, the approach has been programed in MATLAB and results obtained are validated by comparing with literature.
Engineering Application of MBR Process to the Treatment of Beer Brewing Wastewater  [cached]
Haiping Dai,Xinning Yang,Tingwei Dong,Yongwen Ke
Modern Applied Science , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/mas.v4n9p103
Abstract: According to the characteristics of beer brewing wastewater, Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Bed and Membrane Bio-Reactor integrated technics (UASB+MBR) was applied. This paper investigated various operating parameters during the process of wastewater treatment in MBRs. The sludge loading and the membrane fouling were analyzed by detecting the sludge concentration and sludge characteristics. The results showed that when CODCr, NH4-N, T-P and T-N concentrations of the feed water were 500~1000mg/L, 20~30mg/L, 0.6~14mg/L and 19.5~41.1mg/L, respectively, it got some conclusions in the process.(1)The CODCr , NH4-N , T-P and T-N of MBR effluent could reduce to 40mg/L, 2.3mg/L , 0.3mg/L, 3mg/L, respectively. The quality of the effluent water in this system met the reuse of urban recycling water—Water quality standard landscaping water according to GB/T18921-2002; (2)The DO of the aerobic pool should be controlled at the range of 2~4mg/L, which could increase the removing efficiency of the NH4-N. (3)Appropriate adjustments to the volume of sludge and maintain the sludge concentration of membrane pool at 6~8g /L, which could reduce the velocity of membrane fouling. (4) With 1000mg/L of sodium hypochlorite and 2000mg/L hydrochloric acid alternate cleaning, the recovery of membrane flux can maintain above 95%.
Renormalizable W Self-Energy in the Unitary Gauge via the Pinch Technique  [PDF]
Joannis Papavassiliou,Alberto Sirlin
Physics , 1994, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.50.5951
Abstract: We use the S-matrix pinch technique to derive to one loop order an effective renormalizable self-energy for the W gauge boson, when the theory is quantized in the unitary gauge. We then show that this amplitude is identical to the $\xi$-independent W self-energy previously constructed by applying the pinch technique in the context of the renormalizable $R_{\xi}$ gauges.}
The Gluon Self-Energy in the Coulomb and Temporal Axial Gauges via the Pinch Technique  [PDF]
M. Passera,K. Sasaki
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.54.5763
Abstract: The $S$-matrix pinch technique is used to derive an effective gluon self-energy to one-loop order, when the theory is quantized in the Coulomb gauge (CG) and in the temporal axial gauge (TAG). When the pinch contributions are added, the gluon self-energies calculated in CG and TAG turn out to be identical and coincide with the result previously obtained with covariant gauges. The issue of gauge independence of several quantities in hot QCD is discussed from the pinch technique point of view. It is also pointed out that the spurious singularities which appear in TAG calculations cancel out once the pinch contributions are combined.
Studies on the mechanism of energy transformation in implosion processes of the Z-pinches

Ning Cheng,Yang Zhen-Hua,Ding Ning,

物理学报 , 2003,
Abstract: In this paper, the energy transformation processes in neon gas puff pinch and Al wire array pinch were studied numerically by means of one dimensional three temperature radiation magneto hydrodynamic code. In the Z pinch, the main energy transformation process is the Coulomb collision process between ions and electrons. The second one is the photoelectric process and bremsstrahlung radiation process. The energy transformation in the Compton scattering process can be neglected in the computation. The x ray energy radiated from Z pinch was produced mainly by the photoelectric excitation and recombination process, and also by the bremsstrahlung radiation process and Compton scattering process. Numerical analysis indicates that the x ray radiation energy can be larger or smaller than the maximal plasma kinetic energy. In our numerical simulation, the radiation energy from neon gas puff pinch is smaller than the maximal plasma kinetic energy, however, that from Al wire array pinch is larger than the maximal plasma kinetic energy. They are all smaller than the work done by magnetic pressure. The electric energy consumed by Ohm heating is rather small.
Pinch analysis of evaporation systems
Westphalen, D.L.;Maciel, M.R. Wolf;
Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-66322000000400017
Abstract: evaporation systems are separation processes widely used in chemical industries. some guidelines can be found in the literature for the process integration of multiple effect evaporators. in the published methodologies some aspects are neglected as boiling point rise, effect of pressure on latent heat of water, sensible heat of liquid streams, heat of mixing, effects configuration and inclusion of accessories. in this work, a new graphical representation for the integration of multiple effect evaporators was developed, using rigorous physical properties. from this representation, an algorithm for optimization of bleed streams was conceived using the concepts of pinch analysis. as a case study, a crystal glucose plant was optimized using this new methodology. the optimization of bleed streams showed as result a steam consumption 16% smaller than a similar previous study. from energy and capital costs, it is shown that the integrated evaporator exhibits a total cost 14% smaller than the non-integrated configuration.
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