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Characteristics and efficacy of early psychological interventions in children and adolescents after single trauma: a meta-analysis
Didier N. Kramer,Markus A. Landolt
European Journal of Psychotraumatology , 2011, DOI: 10.3402/ejpt.v2i0.7858
Abstract: Single traumatising events are associated with an elevated rate of psychological disorders in children and adolescents. To date, it remains unclear whether early psychological interventions can reduce longer term psychological maladjustment.To systematically review the literature to determine the characteristics and efficacy of early psychological interventions in children and adolescents after a single, potentially-traumatising event.Systematic searches were conducted of all relevant bibliographic databases. Studies on early psychological interventions were included if the first session was conducted within 1 month of the event. Two independent observers assessed each study for eligibility, using pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria, and rated the study's methodological quality. A meta-analysis was conducted on the group effects between individuals allocated to intervention versus control groups. Hence, effect sizes (ES) and confidence intervals were computed as well as heterogeneity and analogue-to-the ANOVA analyses.Seven studies (including four randomised controlled trials) met the inclusion criteria. Depending on the specific outcome variable (e.g., dissociation, anxiety and arousal), small to large beneficial ES were noted. Although the meta-analysis revealed unexplained heterogeneity between the ES of the included studies, and although studies varied greatly with regards to their methodological quality and the interventions tested, findings suggest that early interventions should involve psycho-education, provide individual coping-skills and probably involve some kind of trauma exposure. Also, a stepped procedure that includes an initial risk screen and the provision of multiple sessions to those children at risk may be a promising strategy.To date, research on the effectiveness of early interventions in children after a potentially traumatising event remains scarce. However, our review suggests that early interventions may be helpful.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online.
Sociological profiles of the candidate Turkish primary school teachers
D. Ali Arslan
International Journal of Human Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Teachers define the tomorrow’s of the society. In order to know and predict about future of the society, It has to be known the sociological profiles of the educators. In other words, it should be helpful to plan the education and to define the socio-political decisions on issue, if the social and psychological characteristics of the todays’ teachers were known before. Therefore, It was aimed to examine and analyse the sociological and social-psychological backgrounds of the candidate teachers. What a kind of social profile do they have? What are their opinion on particular actual social and political issues of the society. Do they present a homogeneus group character? Do they have enough skill and knowledge to educate tomorrow’s Turkish individuals? What are their major problems as the primary school teachers and teacher candidates? The answers of the theese kind of questions were examined within the research.A compherensive field reserarch realised to achieve the aim. A questionnaire form was developed and used for the interviews. There were structured, semi structured and open-ended questions in the questionnaire. A data sets was created from the data that were gathered from the field. The computer program of the SPSS (Statistical Packages for Social Sciences) was used for analysing the data sets.
ACCOUNTING AND CREATIVITY: A SOCIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH  [PDF]
Balaciu Diana Elisabeta
Annals of the University of Oradea : Economic Science , 2011,
Abstract: This article presents aspects related to creativity in accounting. In our approach we started from theoretical aspects regarding the position of accounting in the field of scientific knowledge. The paper aims to justify these positions (as a language of communication, communication tool, social game), and from there to mirror the way of expressing creativity in accounting. In terms of research methodology, we have appealed to a qualitative research inspired by sociology and psychology. The sociological survey shows the vision of society related to creators, the way in which it admits or rejects them. The sociological approach allows us to understand the importance of collective consciousness in assessing and maintaining the creation. The psychological study regarding the creator describes a creature endowed with an excessive sensitivity, accompanied by a worker with permanent activity, but who is constantly gripped by an existential doubt. In conclusion, the consultant or the researcher will have to recognise the creator's right to be wrong and surround him with a climate of confidence. This paper shows that there is a path where the one who talks to numbers (and does not have the skill of words) and those who possess the mastery of words actually meet. This paper is part of the PhD research entitled: Identifying and motivation of creative accounting practices the case of Romanian listed companies, carried out under the guidance of PhD Prof. Feleaga Liliana, research carried out within the framework of the Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies.
Psychological issues in acquired facial trauma  [cached]
De Sousa Avinash
Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery , 2010,
Abstract: The face is a vital component of one′s personality and body image. There are a vast number of variables that influence recovery and rehabilitation from acquired facial trauma many of which are psychological in nature. The present paper presents the various psychological issues one comes across in facial trauma patients. These may range from body image issues to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms accompanied by anxiety and depression. Issues related to facial and body image affecting social life and general quality of life are vital and the plastic surgeon should be aware of such issues and competent to deal with them in patients and families.
Psychological and Sociological Factors Influencing Cosmetics Use by Female Univesity Students
Mohammad Babamiri,Davoud Ghasemi,Razieh Zare,Mohammad Abasi
Dermatology and Cosmetic , 2011,
Abstract: Background and Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological and sociological factors influencing cosmetics usage by female students.Methods: The statistical population comprised 250 female students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Isfahan University were selected using a simple random sampling method and were asked to respond to the research questionnaires. NEO Personality Inventory was used to assess personality characteristics. Sociological factors that were assessed were comprised of body management, media consumption, religiousness, socio-economic status and social acceptance.Results: There was a significant association between body management, media consumption, religiousness, socio-economic status and social acceptance with cosmetics use. Regression analysis showed that predictive variables were able to predict 41% of attitude toward cosmetics use and body management was the best predictor of it.Conclusion: Sociological, but not psychological, factors influence cosmetics use by female university students.
Trauma-Focused Dynamic Therapy Model in Treating Complex Psychological Trauma  [PDF]
Vito Zepinic
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.813132
Abstract: Complex psychological trauma affects all structures of the personality—one’s image of the self, images of the others, and one’s values and ideals, and leads to the sense that the personality coherence and continuity is assaulted and systematically broken down. Complex trauma, such as war-related trauma, severe brutal rape, kidnaping, terrorism, etc., overwhelms the ordinary human adaptations to life and involves the threats to life and bodily integrity, and confronts human being with the extremities of helplessness and terror, and evokes response of catastrophe. As the complex trauma is a specific traumatic experience, it requires specifically designed trauma-focused therapeutic approach which should deal with: a) the nature of the predisposing factors in complex trauma, b) the manner in which trauma experience and conditioning produce distortions in trauma victim’s personality, c) the relationship between the personality structure and trauma, d) the constituents of inner conflicts, e) meaning function and manifestations of trauma syndrome, f) the structure of the psychic apparatus, and g) the mechanisms of defences. The Dynamic Therapy model has been developed as a three-phase treatment while providing therapy for over decade to the complex PTSD patients whose condition has been an aftermath of human-designed disasters (wars, brutal rapes, assaults and serious violence). The Dynamic Therapy model emphasises that there is a complex process in interactions between different phenomenological components of the complex trauma and that there is a variety of the ways in which etiological factors can contribute to the onset of the trauma syndrome. With the patient’s complicated clinical presentations, the therapy accentuates the main principles and targets in treating complex trauma syndrome: 1) trauma symptoms reduction and stabilisation, 2) processing of traumatic memories, dissociation, and emotions, and 3) life integration after trauma processing. The model is a goal-directed phased treatment towards the restoration of a disrupted sense of self that affects the inner and the outer world of a traumatised individual.
An Investigation of Adolescents’ Psychological Health in Terms of Demographic Variables
Orhan Gürsu
Journal of Theoretical Educational Science , 2012,
Abstract: Adolescence is a problematic stage due to its nature. There are several factors that affect adolescents’ psychological health so do demographic variables. In this study, relationships between adolescents’ psychological health and demographic variables were explored. The sample of the study consisted of 1009 students being taught in 8 different high schools in Konya, Turkey. The Socio-demographic Information Form and the Short Symptom Scale were used to collect the data. Statistical analyses showed that females had more negative psychological health indicators than males, students being taught in a science high school had the most positive ones while those being taught in a girls’ vocational school had the most negative psychological health indicators than the others, and that psychological health became worse depending on age and grade level, but better depending on parents’ level of education and religiousness.
Perceived Family and School Rejection and Adolescents’ Psychological States  [PDF]
Marwan Dwairy
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.26083
Abstract: This study deals with the perceived acceptance-rejection of male and female adolescents at home and at school and their association with the psychological states experienced by them. A sample of 350 female and 220 male 10th grade students filled out two questionnaires: Dwairy’s Rejection Scale, measuring acceptance-rejection by fathers, mothers, brothers, sisters, male teachers, female teachers, male classmates and female classmates, and the Psychological State Scale, measuring anxiety, depression, psychosomatic symptoms and conduct disorders. The results show that all perceived acceptance-rejection circuits are associated with and merged in three major factors of rejection: family, teachers, and classmates. All the factors were associated with psychological states experienced by the adolescents with a cross-gender effect. Experienced psychological states of male adolescents were associated with perceived acceptance-rejection circuits at home and at school, in particular when related to female figures, while psychological states of female adolescents were associated with male and female figures at home. The results highlight the need for a systemic approach in research.
Parental support and psychological health of children and adolescents
Lifintseva A.A.
Vestnik Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University , 2013,
Abstract: This article describes the features of parental support as a socio-psychological phenomenon and its relation to psychosomatic health (depression, anxiety, and somatization) in children and adolescents. The author presents a probability structural- functional model of parental support covering its content, components, and functions. Congruity, accessibility, and complementarity are suggested as efficiency criteria.
Adult mood disorders and childhood psychological trauma
Zavaschi, Maria Lucrécia Scherer;Graeff, Maria Elisa;Menegassi, Marcos Tatit;Mardini, Victor;Pires, Denise Winkler Sim?es;Carvalho, Rafael Homem de;Rohde, Luis Augusto;Eizirik, Cláudio Laks;
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-44462006000300008
Abstract: objective: to evaluate the association between adult mood disorders and childhood psychological trauma in a developing country. method: adults with and without mood disorders were assessed in a case-control study using the mini international neuropsychiatric interview. assessment of childhood trauma included physical and sexual abuse, frequent exposure to violence, and parental loss. results: in two independent multivariate analyses, after adjusting for potential confounding factors, we found a higher odds ratio for frequent exposure to violence in the community (p = .037) and for physical abuse by parents or caregivers during childhood/adolescence (p = .012) in the group with mood disorders than in the control group. in secondary analyses splitting the mood disorder group in two subgroups (manic episode, and major depressive episodes/ dysthymia), only manic patients showed significantly higher rates of frequent exposure to violence in the community (p = 0.01) and physical abuse during childhood (p = 0.02) than did patients in the control group. in addition, maniac patients had significantly higher rates of sexual abuse than did controls (p = .03). conclusions: our findings document an association between violence during childhood and adult mood disorders, especially for manic patients, in a developing country.
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