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Gene and cell therapy based treatment strategies for inflammatory bowel diseases  [cached]
Sander van der Marel,Anna Majowicz,Sander van Deventer,Harald Petry
World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology , 2011, DOI: 10.4291/wjgp.v2.i6.114
Abstract: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are a group of chronic inflammatory disorders most commonly affecting young adults. Currently available therapies can result in induction and maintenance of remission, but are not curative and have sometimes important side effects. Advances in basic research in IBD have provided new therapeutic opportunities to target the inflammatory process involved. Gene and cell therapy approaches are suitable to prevent inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract and show therefore potential in the treatment of IBD. In this review, we present the current progress in the field of both gene and cell therapy and future prospects in the context of IBD. Regarding gene therapy, we focus on viral vectors and their applications in preclinical models. The focus for cell therapy is on regulatory T lymphocytes and mesenchymal stromal cells, their potential for the treatment of IBD and the progress made in both preclinical models and clinical trials.
New Aspects of Gene-Silencing for the Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases  [PDF]
Olivia Koenig,Tobias Walker,Nadja Perle,Almuth Zech,Bernd Neumann,Christian Schlensak,Hans-Peter Wendel,Andrea Nolte
Pharmaceuticals , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ph6070881
Abstract: Coronary heart disease (CHD), mainly caused by atherosclerosis, represents the single leading cause of death in industrialized countries. Besides the classical interventional therapies new applications for treatment of vascular wall pathologies are appearing on the horizon. RNA interference (RNAi) represents a novel therapeutic strategy due to sequence-specific gene-silencing through the use of small interfering RNA (siRNA). The modulation of gene expression by short RNAs provides a powerful tool to theoretically silence any disease-related or disease-promoting gene of interest. In this review we outline the RNAi mechanisms, the currently used delivery systems and their possible applications to the cardiovascular system. Especially, the optimization of the targeting and transfection procedures could enhance the efficiency of siRNA delivery drastically and might open the way to clinical applicability. The new findings of the last years may show the techniques to new innovative therapies and could probably play an important role in treating CHD in the future.
Traditional Medicinal Plant Extracts and Natural Products with Activity against Oral Bacteria: Potential Application in the Prevention and Treatment of Oral Diseases
Enzo A. Palombo
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nep067
Abstract: Oral diseases are major health problems with dental caries and periodontal diseases among the most important preventable global infectious diseases. Oral health influences the general quality of life and poor oral health is linked to chronic conditions and systemic diseases. The association between oral diseases and the oral microbiota is well established. Of the more than 750 species of bacteria that inhabit the oral cavity, a number are implicated in oral diseases. The development of dental caries involves acidogenic and aciduric Gram-positive bacteria (mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and actinomycetes). Periodontal diseases have been linked to anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus, Prevotella and Fusobacterium). Given the incidence of oral disease, increased resistance by bacteria to antibiotics, adverse affects of some antibacterial agents currently used in dentistry and financial considerations in developing countries, there is a need for alternative prevention and treatment options that are safe, effective and economical. While several agents are commercially available, these chemicals can alter oral microbiota and have undesirable side-effects such as vomiting, diarrhea and tooth staining. Hence, the search for alternative products continues and natural phytochemicals isolated from plants used as traditional medicines are considered as good alternatives. In this review, plant extracts or phytochemicals that inhibit the growth of oral pathogens, reduce the development of biofilms and dental plaque, influence the adhesion of bacteria to surfaces and reduce the symptoms of oral diseases will be discussed further. Clinical studies that have investigated the safety and efficacy of such plant-derived medicines will also be described.
ETHICAL QUESTIONING RELATED TO GENE THERAPHY FOR INHERITED DISEASES TREATMENT  [PDF]
JOSé HENRY OSORIO
Luna Azul , 2011,
Abstract: The introduction of exogenous genetic sequences named transgenes is known as gene therapy and has the purpose of correcting genotypic and phenotypic alterations in the human organism. This therapy can be carried out in somatic cells or in germinal cells. The ethical questioning related to somatic gene therapy has to do basically with the potential risks for health and the informed consent while germ-line gene therapy has the potential to affect permanently future generations. Since genic therapy involves much more than the simple alteration of genetic sequences, this revision presents the main ethical problems associated with gene therapy for inherited disease
Natural Carotenoids as Nanomaterial Precursors for Molecular Photovoltaics: A Computational DFT Study  [PDF]
Teresita Ruiz-Anchondo,Norma Flores-Holguín,Daniel Glossman-Mitnik
Molecules , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/molecules15074490
Abstract: In this work several natural carotenoids were studied as potential nanomaterial precursors for molecular photovoltaics. M05-2X/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory calculations were used to obtain their molecular structures, as well as to predict the infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV-Vis) spectra, the dipole moment and polarizability, the pKa, and the chemical reactivity parameters (electronegativity, hardness, electrophilicity and Fukui functions) that arise from Conceptual DFT. The calculated values were compared with the available experimental data for these molecules and discussed in terms of their usefulness in describing photovoltaic properties.
Treatment of Cr(VI)-containing nanowastes via the growth of nanomaterial
WeiZhen Liu,XinJiang Xu,YongJing Wang,Zhong He,Nan Zhuo,Feng Huang,Zhang Lin
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2010, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-009-0716-z
Abstract: The environmental behavior, biological and ecological effects of nanomaterial have attracted much attention, and nanomaterial is prevalently used in the process of industrial manufacturing. However, the investigation on how to resolve the environmental problems of nanowastes is scarcely reported. We have proposed a novel method in which the toxicity of the waste is reduced during the fast growth of nanoparticals. It is suggested that this method could be used in the treatment of the Cr(VI)-containing nanowastes from the chlorate plants. In this work, the efficiencies of the treatment at both room and high temperatures were further studied. The craft route is advanced for the treatment at the high temperature. The phase, morphology, size, and thermal behavior of the detoxified solid were analyzed by XRD, SEM, and DTA. The solid was also tried as the raw of glaze. The disposal provided here will be a good example for the recycling of the hazardous nanowastes.
Extending Electromagnetic Treatment to Infectious Diseases including the Ebola Virus  [PDF]
Edgar E. Escultura
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2015.62010
Abstract: A blueprint for research and development for design and development of suitable electromagnetic treatment of genetic diseases (Escultura, Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology, 3(2), 2012) known as genetic sterilization is applied to infectious diseases including viruses. It is based on the Grand Unified Theory (Escultura, Nonlinear Analysis, A-Series, 69(3), 2008) and the Unified Theory of Evolution (Escultura, The Journal of the Science of Healing Outcomes, 2015). Since every physical characteristic of living thing is determined by a gene, so is the undesirable symptom of a disease. For virus, its undesirable symptom is determined principally by the wavelength of the natural vibration of its gene as sequence of base materials which is equal to its measure as a segment of a double helix. Radiation with wavelength equal to this measure will resonate with it. Raising its intensity suitably will sterilize the gene, stop its spread and render it harmless to the host; then the disease is treated without harm to normal cells. Another treatment is establishing resonance with radiation of wavelength equal to the measure of the virus (protein strand with the gene) across; raising its intensity suitably will burn the virus without side effect (since it is much smaller than normal cells).
Effect of Nanomaterial Treatment on Geotechnical Properties of A Penang Soft Soil  [cached]
Zaid Hameed Majeed,Mohd Raihan Taha
Journal of Asian Scientific Research , 2012,
Abstract: This study aims to investigate the effect of addition of different nanomaterials, including nano Cu, nano MgO, and nano clay, on the geotechnical properties of soft soil samples from Penang State. Various amounts of nanomaterials (0.05% to 1%) were added to the soil to study their effect on the soil’s compaction characteristics, consistency limits, and compressive strength. Improvements in these geotechnical properties depended on the type of nanomaterials added, and increasing the percentage of each of the added nanomaterials increased the maximum dry density of the soil. The linear shrinkage and plasticity index decreased with increasing nanomaterial content. The unconfined compressive strength increased as the nanomaterial content increased up to a certain percentage in the soil and then decreased afterwards.
Tiny Medicine: Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors  [PDF]
Yeo-Heung Yun,Edward Eteshola,Amit Bhattacharya,Zhongyun Dong,Joon-Sub Shim,Laura Conforti,Dogyoon Kim,Mark J. Schulz,Chong H. Ahn,Nelson Watts
Sensors , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/s91109275
Abstract: Tiny medicine refers to the development of small easy to use devices that can help in the early diagnosis and treatment of disease. Early diagnosis is the key to successfully treating many diseases. Nanomaterial-based biosensors utilize the unique properties of biological and physical nanomaterials to recognize a target molecule and effect transduction of an electronic signal. In general, the advantages of nanomaterial-based biosensors are fast response, small size, high sensitivity, and portability compared to existing large electrodes and sensors. Systems integration is the core technology that enables tiny medicine. Integration of nanomaterials, microfluidics, automatic samplers, and transduction devices on a single chip provides many advantages for point of care devices such as biosensors. Biosensors are also being used as new analytical tools to study medicine. Thus this paper reviews how nanomaterials can be used to build biosensors and how these biosensors can help now and in the future to detect disease and monitor therapies.
The Impact of Interferon Lambda 3 Gene Polymorphism on Natural Course and Treatment of Hepatitis C
F. Bellanti,G. Vendemiale,E. Altomare,G. Serviddio
Clinical and Developmental Immunology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/849373
Abstract: Host genetic factors may predict the outcome and treatment response in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Very recently, three landmark genome-wide association studies identified single nucleotide polymorphisms near the interleukin 28B (IL28B) region which were more frequent in responders to treatment. IL28B encodes interferon (IFN)λ3, a type III IFN involved in host antiviral immunity. Favourable variants of the two most widely studied IL28B polymorphisms, rs12979860 and rs8099917, are strong pretreatment predictors of early viral clearance and sustained viral response in patients with genotype 1 HCV infection. Further investigations have implicated IL28B in the development of chronic HCV infection versus spontaneous resolution of acute infection and suggest that IL28B may be a key factor involved in host immunity against HCV. This paper presents an overview about the biological activity and clinical applications of IL28B, summarizing the available data on its impact on HCV infection. Moreover, the potential usefulness of IFNλ in the treatment and natural history of this disease is also discussed.
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