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Exploring spatial patterns and hotspots of diarrhea in Chiang Mai, Thailand
Nakarin Chaikaew, Nitin K Tripathi, Marc Souris
International Journal of Health Geographics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1476-072x-8-36
Abstract: The objective of this study was to analyse the epidemic outbreak patterns of diarrhea in Chiang Mai province, Northern Thailand, in terms of their geographical distributions and hotspot identification. The data of patients with diarrhea at village level and the 2001–2006 population censuses were collected to achieve the objective. Spatial analysis, using geographic information systems (GIS) and other methods, was used to uncover the hidden phenomena from the data. In the data analysis section, spatial statistics such as quadrant analysis (QA), nearest neighbour analysis (NNA), and spatial autocorrelation analysis (SAA), were used to identify the spatial patterns of diarrhea in Chiang Mai province. In addition, local indicators of spatial association (LISA) and kernel density (KD) estimation were used to detect diarrhea hotspots using data at village level.The hotspot maps produced by the LISA and KD techniques showed spatial trend patterns of diarrhea diffusion. Villages in the middle and northern regions revealed higher incidences. Also, the spatial patterns of diarrhea during the years 2001 and 2006 were found to represent spatially clustered patterns, both at global and local scales.Spatial analysis methods in GIS revealed the spatial patterns and hotspots of diarrhea in Chiang Mai province from the year 2001 to 2006. To implement specific and geographically appropriate public health risk-reduction programs, the use of such spatial analysis tools may become an integral component in the epidemiologic description, analysis, and risk assessment of diarrhea.Diarrhea is a major public health problem in Thailand. The Ministry of Public Health, Thailand, has been trying to monitor and control this disease for many years. The objective of this study was to analyse the epidemic outbreak patterns of diarrhea in Chiang Mai province, Northern Thailand, in terms of their geographical distributions and hotspot identification. The methodology and the results could be useful for
Risk Factors of Malnutrition among Karen Children in Chiang Mai, Thailand  [PDF]
Sukon Prasitwattanaseree, Chatpat Kongpun, Sakorn Pornprasert, Preeyanoot Intapat, Suttipong Kawilapat, Patrinee Traisathit
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2016.65062
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors of malnutrition and its association with iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) among Karen hill tribe children. We conducted a study on blood samples from children from Baan Yang Poa School, Chiang Mai, Thailand aged between 9 and 15 years old. Of 193 children, 31 (16.1%) had malnutrition and 12 (6.2%) had IDA. Children who had at least five family members were found to have a significantly higher risk of malnutrition (P = 0.005), a reflection of the importance of socioeconomic factors in the problem of malnutrition. We also found that malnutrition was not associated with IDA although the assessment of the association of malnutrition and other types of anaemia is still of interest.
Visit to Bangkok and Chiang Mai, Thailand, 2001
K Jooste,E Potgieter
Health SA Gesondheid , 2001, DOI: 10.4102/hsag.v6i3.77
Abstract: The Faculty of Nursing at the university was the pioneer of post-basic nursing education in Thailand in 1973. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.
Testing the Framework Species Method for Forest Restoration in Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand  [cached]
Walailak Journal of Science and Technology , 2008, DOI: 10.2004/vol5iss1pp1-15
Abstract: The framework species method of reforestation, developed by FORRU (Forest Restoration Research Unit) has been used successfully to restore evergreen forest on degraded former agricultural sites in Doi Suthep-Pui National Park, Chiang Mai province, Thailand. This paper reports 3 year results of an attempt to duplicate the FORRU reforestation techniques at Ban Toong Yah, Mae Chaem district, at a similar elevation as FORRU’s original plots at Ban Mae Sa Mai, Mae Rim district. Twenty species of framework tree seedlings were planted in June 2002. The 2 year results indicate that the seedlings achieved lower survival rates than at the FORRU’s original site. Height growth, root collar diameter, and crown width were also lower. Some seedlings died because they were trampled by cows, which also ate some of the seedlings. However, several sapling species, such as Ficus fistulosa and Phyllanthus emblica, were able to produce new shoots from their axillary buds, after having been browsed by cows. In 2004, 5 well-performed species: Castanopsis tribuloides, Ficus fistulosa, Hovenia dulcis, Ostodes paniculata and Prunus cerasoides, were selected along with 12 never-planted species to be planted in June. The results indicate that the seedlings achieved lower survival rates than at the FORRU’s original site. The seedlings achieved an average survival rate of about 50 % after the first growing season. The exposed, windy environment of the planting site might also account for lower than expected growth and survival rates. The FORRU’s recommended methods of site preparation using herbicide and weed suppression using cardboard mulch may be employed to improve seedling survival and growth on this site.
Spatial Diffusion of Influenza Outbreak-Related Climate Factors in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand  [PDF]
Supachai Nakapan,Nitin Kumar Tripathi,Taravudh Tipdecho,Marc Souris
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph9113824
Abstract: Influenza is one of the most important leading causes of respiratory illness in the countries located in the tropical areas of South East Asia and Thailand. In this study the climate factors associated with influenza incidence in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand, were investigated. Identification of factors responsible for influenza outbreaks and the mapping of potential risk areas in Chiang Mai are long overdue. This work examines the association between yearly climate patterns between 2001 and 2008 and influenza outbreaks in the Chiang Mai Province. The climatic factors included the amount of rainfall, percent of rainy days, relative humidity, maximum, minimum temperatures and temperature difference. The study develops a statistical analysis to quantitatively assess the relationship between climate and influenza outbreaks and then evaluate its suitability for predicting influenza outbreaks. A multiple linear regression technique was used to fit the statistical model. The Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques were used in mapping the spatial diffusion of influenza risk zones. The results show that there is a significance correlation between influenza outbreaks and climate factors for the majority of the studied area. A statistical analysis was conducted to assess the validity of the model comparing model outputs and actual outbreaks.
A new species of Simulium (Nevermannia) (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Chiang Mai, Thailand  [cached]
Hiroyuki Takaoka,Wichai Srisuka
ZooKeys , 2011, DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.89.761
Abstract: Simulium (Nevermannia) maeaiense sp. n. is described on the basis of female, male, pupal and larval specimens collected from Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. This species is assigned to the feuerborni species-group of the subgenus Simulium (Nevermannia), and is distinctive among this species-group inthe female cibarium furnished with numerous dark minute conical processes on the lower part, the female genital fork with a strongly sclerotized horizontal bar on each arm, and six long pupal gill filaments arising nearly at the same level from the common basal stalk and lying in a horizontal plane. These characteristics separate this new species from all the known species of the feuerborni species-group. Identification keys to seven species (six known plus one new) of the feuerborni species-group reported from Thailand are provided for females, males, pupae and mature larvae.
Discourse Coalitions and Consumer Understanding of Organic and Pesticide Free Vegetables in Chiang Mai, Thailand  [cached]
Brett Wyatt
Asian Social Science , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v6n3p92
Abstract: This paper will demonstrate how discourse coalitions promote and institutionalize regulations, communicating the meanings of certified, alternative agricultural production processes through the labeling of vegetable produce. This analysis introduces the concepts of discourse coalitions as a way to evaluate the power and linkages constituting an alternative agricultural commodity network. The actors constituting these networks will be shown to work as coalitions of actors promoting complementary and competing discursive strategies explains the role of consumer understanding in completing the commodity network. Data for this analysis was derived from a survey instrument used to determine the attitudes and propensities toward the purchase of conventional and alternative vegetables of 324 consumers in the city of Chiang Mai, Thailand Discourse coalitions are responsible for enacting the relationship between regulatory practice, method of certification, and labeling practices. Effective communication of regulatory practices used in certification can be seen by the level of trust consumers have in the marketplaces and labeling.
Ecological and Genetic Relationship of Chironomus circumdatus (Diptera, Chironomidae) From Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand  [cached]
W. Roongruangwongse,C. Suwannapoom,N. Kamrin,S. Chomdej
Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: This study provides means for more accurate identification of Chironomus circumdatus species for environmental and ecological management by Population of C. circumdatus (86 individuals) and water samples were collected from three different sites of Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. Specimens of Einfeldia sp. were used as an initial out group. The genetic relationship of C. circumdatus specimens from these sources was determined by using DNA sequence analysis of partial mtDNA gene’s Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I (COI). Analysis of genetic distance on the basis of sequence difference for COI mitochondrial gene showed very little genetic difference and the data from phylogenetic analysis revealed a very large genetic difference among all populations of this species for the COI gene sequences. In addition, NJ tree was related to with physicochemical parameters of the water samples.
Ecological status of the lowland deciduous forest in Chang Kian Valley, Chiang Mai, northern Thailand
Chawapich Vaidhayakarn
Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: An ecological assessment of lowland deciduous dipterocarp-oak, seasonal, hardwood forest on the base of the east side of Doi Sutep-Pui, Chiang Mai province, was conducted. Seven selected sites representing the most intact condition to the worst one were surveyed. Plant species diversity and abundance declined as fire damage increased. Details on the number of species, their habits, size classes of trees, pioneer vs climax species, woody seedlings, coppices, and herbaceous ground flora are presented. Species lists for all these categories and their abundance are also included. Profile diagrams and photographs of some sites are shown. The conservation value of lowland forests has been largely neglected and now many places require reforestation. The degree of degradation is serious and will continue to deteriorate unless effective protective and remedial action is done
Iron Status of Hill Tribe Children and Adolescent Boys: A Cross Sectional Study at a Welfare Center in Chiang Mai, Thailand
Orraya Porniammongkol,Uruwan Yamborisut,Tipakorn Intajak,Prapaisri P. Sirichakwal
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2011,
Abstract: Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) is one of the major public health problems worldwide. High prevalence of anemia has been found in the developing countries, including Thailand. The purpose of this study was to investigate the iron status of 181 hill-tribe school boys who lived in Wat Donchan Welfare Center (DWC), Chiang Mai, Thailand. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2 groups of children which were divided by age (7-11 years and >11-15 years). Body weight and height of each child were measured. Anthropometric status was classified using CDC 2000 Growth chart reference by Weight for Age (W/A) and Height for Age (H/A). Hemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin (Ft) were analyzed as indicators for iron status. Students t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the significant differences and the relationship between the 2 groups or parameters at p<0.05. Results showed that 32% and 60% of children and adolescents were under weight and stunted, respectively. Mean Hb in young children was 11.90.8 g/dL while in older children was 12.51.1 g/dL. The prevalence of anemia was 31% using only Hb as an indicator, while the prevalence of IDA was 12% and Iron Deficiency (ID) was 23% when using Hb and Ft as the indicators. Iron deficiency was a major cause of anemia in this group; 25% and 41% of anemic children in younger and older group, respectively. The study found that 8% of children had the thalassemia trait and 93% of them were anemic. It was suggested that anemia in these hill-tribe children might be associated with insufficient iron food sources, poor sanitation, poor hygienic practice and hemoglobinopathies.
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