Abstract:
In this article, we derive a semi-Lagrangian scheme for the solution of the Vlasov equation represented as a low-parametric tensor. Grid-based methods for the Vlasov equation have been shown to give accurate results but their use has mostly been limited to simulations in two dimensional phase space due to extensive memory requirements in higher dimensions. Compression of the solution via high-order singular value decomposition can help in reducing the storage requirements and the tensor train (TT) format provides efficient basic linear algebra routines for low-rank representations of tensors. In this paper, we develop interpolation formulas for a semi-Lagrangian solver in TT format. In order to efficiently implement the method, we propose a compression of the matrix representing the interpolation step and an efficient implementation of the Hadamard product. We show numerical simulations for standard test cases in two, four and six dimensional phase space. Depending on the test case, the memory requirements reduce by a factor $10^2-10^3$ in four and a factor $10^5-10^6$ in six dimensions compared to the full-grid method.

Abstract:
The semi-Lagrangian advection scheme is implemented on a new quasi-uniform overset (Yin-Yang) grid on the sphere. The Yin-Yang grid is a newly developed grid system in spherical geometry with two perpendicularly-oriented latitude-longitude grid components (called Yin and Yang respectively) that overlapp each other, and this effectively avoids the coordinate singularity and the grid convergence near the poles. In this overset grid, the way of transferring data between the Yin and Yang components is the key to maintaining the accuracy and robustness in numerical solutions. A numerical interpolation for boundary data exchange, which maintains the accuracy of the original advection scheme and is computationally efficient, is given in this paper. A standard test of the solid-body advection proposed by Williamson is carried out on the Yin-Yang grid. Numerical results show that the quasi-uniform Yin-Yang grid can get around the problems near the poles, and the numerical accuracy in the original semi-Lagrangian scheme is effectively maintained in the Yin-Yang grid.

Abstract:
Quasi-geostrophic theory forms the basis for much of our understanding of mid-latitude atmospheric dynamics. The theory is typically presented in either its -plane form or its β-plane form. However, for many applications, including diagnostic use in global climate modeling, a fully spherical version would be most useful. Such a global theory does in fact exist and has for many years, but few in the scientific community seem to have ever been aware of it. In the context of shallow water dynamics, it is shown that the spherical version of quasi-geostrophic theory is easily derived (re-derived) based on a partitioning of the flow between nondivergent and irrotational components, as opposed to a partitioning between geostrophic and ageostrophic components. In this way, the invertibility principle is expressed as a relation between the streamfunction and the potential vorticity, rather than between the geopotential and the potential vorticity. This global theory is then extended by showing that the invertibility principle can be solved analytically using spheroidal harmonic transforms, an advancement that greatly improves the usefulness of this “forgotten” theory. When the governing equation for the time evolution of the potential vorticity is linearized about a state of rest, a simple Rossby-Haurwitz wave dispersion relation is derived and examined. These waves have a horizontal structure described by spheroidal harmonics, and the Rossby-Haurwitz wave frequencies are given in terms of the eigenvalues of the spheroidal harmonic operator. Except for sectoral harmonics with low zonal wavenumber, the quasi-geostrophic Rossby-Haurwitz frequencies agree very well with those calculated from the primitive equations. One of the many possible applications of spherical quasi-geostrophic theory is to the study of quasi-geostrophic turbulence on the sphere. In this context, the theory is used to derive an anisotropic Rhines barrier in three-dimensional wavenumber space.

Abstract:
The fully compressible semi-geostrophic system is widely used in the modelling of large-scale atmospheric flows. In this paper, we prove rigorously the existence of weak Lagrangian solutions of this system, formulated in the original physical coordinates. In addition, we provide an alternative proof of the earlier result on the existence of weak solutions of this system expressed in the so-called geostrophic, or dual, coordinates. The proofs are based on the optimal transport formulation of the problem and on recent general results concerning transport problems posed in the Wasserstein space of probability measures.

Abstract:
Statistical mechanics provides an elegant explanation to the appearance of coherent structures in two-dimensional inviscid turbulence: while the fine-grained vorticity field, described by the Euler equation, becomes more and more filamented through time, its dynamical evolution is constrained by some global conservation laws (energy, Casimir invariants). As a consequence, the coarse-grained vorticity field can be predicted through standard statistical mechanics arguments (relying on the Hamiltonian structure of the two-dimensional Euler flow), for any given set of the integral constraints. It has been suggested that the theory applies equally well to geophysical turbulence; specifically in the case of the quasi-geostrophic equations, with potential vorticity playing the role of the advected quantity. In this study, we demonstrate analytically that the Miller-Robert-Sommeria theory leads to non-trivial statistical equilibria for quasi-geostrophic flows on a rotating sphere, with or without bottom topography. We first consider flows without bottom topography and with an infinite Rossby deformation radius, with and without conservation of angular momentum. When the conservation of angular momentum is taken into account, we report a case of second order phase transition associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking. In a second step, we treat the general case of a flow with an arbitrary bottom topography and a finite Rossby deformation radius. Previous studies were restricted to flows in a planar domain with fixed or periodic boundary conditions with a beta-effect. In these different cases, we are able to classify the statistical equilibria for the large-scale flow through their sole macroscopic features. We build the phase diagrams of the system and discuss the relations of the various statistical ensembles.

Abstract:
The quasi-geostrophic equation or the Euler equation with dissipation studied in the present paper is a simplified form of the atmospheric circulation model introduced by Charney and DeVore [J. Atmos. Sci. 36(1979), 1205-1216] on the existence of multiple steady states to the understanding of the persistence of atmospheric blocking. The fluid motion defined by the equation is driven by a zonal thermal forcing and an Ekman friction forcing measured by $\kappa>0$. It is proved that the steady-state solution is unique for $\kappa >1$ while multiple steady-state solutions exist for $\kappa<\kappa_{crit}$ with respect to critical value $\kappa_{crit}<1$. Without involvement of viscosity, the equation has strong nonlinearity as its nonlinear part contains the highest order derivative term. Steady-state bifurcation analysis is essentially based on the compactness, which can be simply obtained for semi-linear equations such as the Navier-Stokes equations but is not available for the quasi-geostrophic equation in the Euler formulation. Therefore the Lagrangian formulation of the equation is employed to gain the required compactness.

Abstract:
We construct a family of Lagrangian submanifolds in the complex sphere with a SO(n)-invariance property. Among them we find those which are special Lagrangian with respect with the Calabi-Yau structure defined by the Stenzel metric.

Abstract:
Currently, Eulerian flow solvers are very efficient in accurately resolving flow structures near solid boundaries. On the other hand, they tend to be diffusive and to dampen high-intensity vortical structures after a short distance away from solid boundaries. The use of high order methods and fine grids, although alleviating this problem, gives rise to large systems of equations that are expensive to solve. Lagrangian solvers, as the regularized vortex particle method, have shown to eliminate (in practice) the diffusion in the wake. As a drawback, the modelling of solid boundaries is less accurate, more complex and costly than with Eulerian solvers (due to the isotropy of its computational elements). Given the drawbacks and advantages of both Eulerian and Lagrangian solvers the combination of both methods, giving rise to a hybrid solver, is advantageous. The main idea behind the hybrid solver presented is the following. In a region close to solid boundaries the flow is solved with an Eulerian solver, where the full Navier-Stokes equations are solved (possibly with an arbitrary turbulence model or DNS, the limitations being the computational power and the physical properties of the flow), outside of that region the flow is solved with a vortex particle method. In this work we present this hybrid scheme and verify it numerically on known 2D benchmark cases: dipole flow, flow around a cylinder and flow around a stalled airfoil. The success in modelling these flow conditions presents this hybrid approach as a promising alternative, bridging the gap between highly resolved and computationally intensive Eulerian CFD simulations and fast but less resolved Lagrangian simulations.

Abstract:
In this study we give a characterization of semi-geostrophic turbulence by performing freely decaying simulations of the semi-geostrophic equations for the case of constant uniform potential vorticity, a set of equations known as surface semi-geostrophic approximation. The equations are formulated as conservation laws for potential temperature and potential vorticity, with a nonlinear Monge-Amp\'{e}re type inversion equation for the streamfunction, expressed in a transformed coordinate system that follows the geostrophic flow. We perform model studies of turbulent surface semi-geostrophic flows in a doubly-periodic domain in the horizontal limited in the vertical by two rigid lids, allowing for variations of potential temperature at one of the boundaries, and we compare them with the corresponding surface quasi-geostrophic case. Results show that, while surface quasi-geostrophic dynamics is dominated by a symmetric population of cyclones-anticyclones, surface semi-geostrophic dynamics features a prominent role of fronts and filaments. The resulting distribution of potential temperature is strongly skewed and peaked at non-zero values at and close to the active boundary, while symmetry is restored in the interior of the domain, where small-scale frontal structures do not penetrate. In surface semi-geostrophic turbulence energy spectra are less steep than in the surface quasi-geostrophic case, with more energy concentrated at small scales for increasing Rossby number. Energy connected to frontal structures, lateral strain rate and vertical velocities are largest close to the active boundary. These results could be important for the lateral mixing of properties in geophysical flows.

Abstract:
We give an exponentially-accurate normal form for a Lagrangian particle moving in a rotating shallow-water system in the semi-geostrophic limit, which describes the motion in the region of an exponentially-accurate slow manifold (a region of phase space for which dynamics on the fast scale are exponentially small in the Rossby number). The result extends to numerical solutions of this problem via backward error analysis, and extends to the Hamiltonian Particle-Mesh (HPM) method for the shallow-water equations where the result shows that HPM stays close to balance for exponentially-long times in the semi-geostrophic limit. We show how this result is related to the variational asymptotics approach of [Oliver, 2005]; the difference being that on the Hamiltonian side it is possible to obtain strong bounds on the growth of fast motion away from (but near to) the slow manifold.