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Protection of victims and goods in the criminal offences against road traffic safety from the aspect of the environment‘s protection
Obradovi? Dragan
Temida , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/tem1201165o
Abstract: The new Law on Traffic Safety contains many novelties related to the protection of traffic participants. Special attention is paid to improving safety - passive safety of different categories of traffic participants. In respect to that, the regulations of the new Law represent a significant improvement in the comparison to the previously existing regulations in the field of traffic in our country. This paper will analyze the most important regulations related to improving the safety of different categories of traffic participants - the victims - from the aspect of environment, what is rarely mentioned and known because the regulations of environmental protection are for the first time included in the new Law on Traffic Safety. In particular, the problem of proving the cause of traffic accidents (crimes) from the aspect of the environment will be emphasized in addition to numerous issues and problems faced by the police, public prosecutors and judges.
Strategy Improvement for Concurrent Safety Games  [PDF]
Krishnendu Chatterjee,Luca de Alfaro,Thomas A. Henzinger
Computer Science , 2008,
Abstract: We consider concurrent games played on graphs. At every round of the game, each player simultaneously and independently selects a move; the moves jointly determine the transition to a successor state. Two basic objectives are the safety objective: ``stay forever in a set F of states'', and its dual, the reachability objective, ``reach a set R of states''. We present in this paper a strategy improvement algorithm for computing the value of a concurrent safety game, that is, the maximal probability with which player 1 can enforce the safety objective. The algorithm yields a sequence of player-1 strategies which ensure probabilities of winning that converge monotonically to the value of the safety game. The significance of the result is twofold. First, while strategy improvement algorithms were known for Markov decision processes and turn-based games, as well as for concurrent reachability games, this is the first strategy improvement algorithm for concurrent safety games. Second, and most importantly, the improvement algorithm provides a way to approximate the value of a concurrent safety game from below (the known value-iteration algorithms approximate the value from above). Thus, when used together with value-iteration algorithms, or with strategy improvement algorithms for reachability games, our algorithm leads to the first practical algorithm for computing converging upper and lower bounds for the value of reachability and safety games.
Consumer Protection on Food and Environmental Safety Based on Statutory Implied Terms in Malaysian Sale of Goods Law: Focusing on Urban Sustainability
Muhammad Rizal Razman,Azrina Azlan,Jamaluddin Md. Jahi,Kadir Arifin,Kadaruddin Aiyub,Azahan Awang,Z.M. Lukman
International Business Management , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/ibm.2010.134.138
Abstract: Consumers take part in essential role in contributing to the development of the country s economy which include urban region as the result there are many conferences, symposiums and seminars which have been organised for the purpose to enhance the awareness on their rights. Therefore, this study will discuss on how the Malaysian statutory implied terms in the sale of goods law provide protection to consumer protection on food and environmental safety focusing on urban sustainability. The core reference of this study is based on Malaysian Sale of Goods Act, 1957.
Optimizing Combination Therapies with Existing and Future CML Drugs  [PDF]
Allen A. Katouli,Natalia L. Komarova
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012300
Abstract: Small-molecule inhibitors imatinib, dasatinib and nilotinib have been developed to treat Chromic Myeloid Leukemia (CML). The existence of a triple-cross-resistant mutation, T315I, has been a challenging problem, which can be overcome by finding new inhibitors. Many new compounds active against T315I mutants are now at different stages of development. In this paper we develop an algorithm which can weigh different combination treatment protocols according to their cross-resistance properties, and find the protocols with the highest probability of treatment success. This algorithm also takes into account drug toxicity by minimizing the number of drugs used, and their concentration. Although our methodology is based on a stochastic model of CML microevolution, the algorithm itself does not require measurements of any parameters (such as mutation rates, or division/death rates of cells), and can be used by medical professionals without a mathematical background. For illustration, we apply this algorithm to the mutation data obtained in [1], [2].
Safety and protection for hospitalized children: literature review
Schatkoski, Aline Modelski;Wegner, Wiliam;Algeri, Simone;Pedro, Eva Neri Rubim;
Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-11692009000300020
Abstract: this narrative-descriptive review is about the safety/protection of hospitalized children who, due to their fragility, vulnerability and peculiar growth and development conditions need special attention from health professionals. this study aimed to identify knowledge production on safety, protection and violence to hospitalized children between 1997 and 2007. in total, 15 national and international articles were analyzed, using the key words: hospitalized child, safety, violence and nursing. this qualitative approach enabled the development of four categories: adverse occurrences; medication errors; notification of adverse occurrences; and safety of pediatric patients. results indicate the need to develop strategies to reduce the probability of these events occurring during children's hospitalization, so that they do not suffer any problem neither violation of their fundamental rights.
Gap Analysis Approach for Construction Safety Program Improvement
Thanet Aksorn,B.H.W. Hadikusumo
Journal of Construction in Developing Countries , 2007,
Abstract: To improve construction site safety, emphasis has been placed on the implementation of safety programs. In order to successfully gain from safety programs, factors that affect their improvement need to be studied. Sixteen critical success factors of safety programs were identified from safety literature, and these were validated by safety experts. This study was undertaken by surveying 70 respondents from medium- and large-scale construction projects. It explored the importance and the actual status of critical success factors (CSFs). Gap analysis was used to examine the differences between the importance of these CSFs and their actual status. This study found that the most critical problems characterized by the largest gaps were management support, appropriate supervision, sufficient resource allocation, teamwork, and effective enforcement. Raising these priority factors to satisfactory levels would lead to successful safety programs, thereby minimizing accidents.
Improvement of safety by analysis of costs and benefits of the system  [PDF]
T. Karkoszka,M. Andraczke
Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering , 2011,
Abstract: Purpose: of the paper has been the assessment of the dependence between improvement of the implemented occupational health and safety management system and both minimization of costs connected with occupational health and safety assurance and optimization of real work conditions.Design/methodology/approach: used for the analysis has included definition of the occupational health and safety system with regard to the rules and tool allowing for occupational safety assurance in the organisational and technical way, analyses of costs and benefits of the system maintenance as well as study on the tools for potential improvement of processes.Findings: of analysis are as follows: continuously improving occupational safety management system guarantees the advancement of work conditions, the decrease of the rate of occupational illnesses as well as the lowering of the amount of occupational accidents.Research limitations/implications: can apply in case of any organisation, which uses both organizational and technical rules, methods and tools to assure the optimal level of occupational health and safety conditions.Originality/value: of the presented paper has been constituted by the specification of the continuous improvement tools and methods in the system implemented on the basis on quality criterion.
The Safety and Tolerability of Newer Antiepileptic Drugs in Children and Adolescents
Saima Kayani and Deepa Sirsi
Journal of Central Nervous System Disease , 2012, DOI: 10.4137/JCNSD.S5097
Abstract: Childhood epilepsy continues to be intractable in more than 25% of patients diagnosed with epilepsy. The introduction of new anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) provides more options for treatment of children with epilepsy. We review the safety and tolerability of seven new AEDs (levetiracetam, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, rufinamide, topiramate, vigabatrin and zonisamide) focusing on their side effect profiles and safety in children and adolescents. Many considerations that are specific for children such as the impact of AEDs on the developing brain are not addressed during the development of new AEDs. They are usually approved as adjunctive therapies based upon clinical trials involving adult patients with partial epilepsy. However, 2 of the AEDs reviewed here (rufinamide and vigabatrin) have FDA approval in the U.S. for specific Pediatric epilepsy syndromes, which are discussed below. The Pediatrician or Neurologists decision on the use of a new AED is an evolutionary process largely dependent on the patient characteristics, personal/peer experiences and literature about efficacy and safety profiles of these medications. Evidence based guidelines are limited due to a lack of randomized controlled trials involving pediatric patients for many of these new AEDs.
The Effect of Safety Culture Education on Improvement of Managers’ Attitudes towards Patients' Safety
Leila Azimi,Mohammadkarim Bahadori
International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health , 2012,
Abstract: Background & Objectives: Medical errors have turned into a major problem in health sector. The goal of this study was to measure attitudes of managers towards patients' safety before and after the Safety Culture educational course in an educational hospital of Tehran.Methods: This research is of semi-empirical type and some data have been accumulated using retrospective approach in 2011. Safety attitude questionnaire (SAQ) was applied for data collection. Sampling in this study was done using census method and included all managers of the educational hospital.Results: This study provided strong evidence to some improvement in the managers' positive attitudes to patient safety before and after safety culture education in the dimensions, as follows: teamwork climate (from 76.4% to 97.3%), safety climate (from 60% to 96.4%), job satisfaction (from 69.1% to 99.1%), stress recognition (from 20.9% to 27.3%), management perception (from 44.5% to 88.2%), and work conditions (from 59.1% to 84.5%). Some statistically significant differences were seen in the positive attitudes to safety culture before and after education in all of dimensions.Conclusion: Education has positive effect on improvement of managers' attitudes towards safety culture. The finding of this study can act as a motivating proof to the health centers to provide safety culture courses in their respective hospitals.
Efficacy and Safety of Duloxetine in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain Who Used versus Did Not Use Concomitant Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs or Acetaminophen: A Post Hoc Pooled Analysis of 2 Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trials  [PDF]
Vladimir Skljarevski,Peng Liu,Shuyu Zhang,Jonna Ahl,James M. Martinez
Pain Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/296710
Abstract: This subgroup analysis assessed the efficacy of duloxetine in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) who did or did not use concomitant nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or acetaminophen (APAP). Data were pooled from two 13-week randomized trials in patients with CLBP who were stratified according to NSAID/APAP use at baseline: duloxetine NSAID/APAP user ( ), placebo NSAID/APAP user ( ), duloxetine NSAID/APAP nonuser ( ), and placebo NSAID/APAP nonuser ( ). NSAID/APAP users were those patients who took NSAID/APAP for at least 14 days per month during 3 months prior to study entry. An analysis of covariance model that included therapy, study, baseline NSAID/APAP use (yes/no), and therapy-by-NSAID/APAP subgroup interaction was used to assess the efficacy. The treatment-by-NSAID/APAP use interaction was not statistically significant ( ) suggesting no substantial evidence of differential efficacy for duloxetine over placebo on pain reduction or improvement in physical function between concomitant NSAID/APAP users and non-users. 1. Introduction Low back pain has a lifetime prevalence rate of 80% in the United States and is one of the primary causes of disability in individuals younger than 45 years of age [1, 2]. Low back pain usually resolves spontaneously within a few days or weeks, but for some individuals, this pain becomes chronic [1]. Commonly prescribed medications for chronic low back pain (CLBP) include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), opioids, muscle relaxants, anticonvulsants, and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) [3]. Over-the-counter medications that are frequently used include acetaminophen (APAP), aspirin, and certain NSAIDs [4]. However, there is no clinical evidence to support the efficacy of any of these agents in CLBP [4, 5]. Furthermore, a number of these treatments pose safety risks that include sedation, respiratory depression and addiction (opioids), gastrointestinal bleeding and ulcers, and cardiovascular events (NSAIDs) [6]. In addition, antidepressants with serotonin reuptake inhibition properties may increase the risk of bleeding events [7, 8], either when taken alone or in combination with other drugs that affect coagulation, such as NSAIDs [9]. Duloxetine hydrochloride (hereafter referred to as duloxetine) is a potent serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) that has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the management of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, and chronic musculoskeletal pain (as established in studies in CLBP and chronic pain
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