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A Study on Availability of Basic Civic Facilities in Urban Slum Area of Bhuj, Gujarat, India
Bipin Prajapati, Kavita Benker, K N Sonalia, Nitiben Talsania, Siddharth Mukherjee, K N Trivedi
National Journal of Community Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Background: In cites of India, There is around 50-60% of the population of the urban areas that lives in urban slums where basic facilities such as water, sanitation, health, electricity etc are poor. Disease morbidity and mortality is high due to poverty, poor nutrition and poor education and children living on payments slum are more exposed to drug abuse, child labour and sexual exploitation. Objective: To study the availability of basic civic facilities in urban slums in bhuj city. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out between january 2011 to june 2011 on randomly selected 109 households at ramdevnagar (urban slum) area located in the western part of bhuj. House to house survey was carried out and information was obtained on predesigned and pretested proforma by interviewing the head and or other members of family. Family details, ration card, election card, water,gutterline, waste disposal, electric connection, education, availability of basic health facility were included in the proforma. The data were analyzed in microsoft excel. Results: 50.4% houses are permanent, 73% are having BPL ration card, 5.5 % houses is having municipality water line connection, no house is having gutter connection and 58.7% houses are having electricity connection, 60% houses dona€ t have toilet facility, No houses have the facility of dumping solid waste. lack of basic infrastructure and primary health facilities in this area. Conclusion: There are infrastructural issues like lack of permanent road, street light, dumping of solid waste, drinking water facility and drainage of waste water facility. Proper implementation of stretegy of town planning. Improve the efficiency of public health system in the cities by strenghthing , revamping and rationalizing urban primary health structure.
The disparity of health facilities in an urban area discourages proposed treatment application in inoperable lung cancer patients
Georgios Hillas, Petros Bakakos, Miltiadis Trichas, et al
Cancer Management and Research , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S14624
Abstract: isparity of health facilities in an urban area discourages proposed treatment application in inoperable lung cancer patients Original Research (3245) Total Article Views Authors: Georgios Hillas, Petros Bakakos, Miltiadis Trichas, et al Published Date November 2010 Volume 2010:2 Pages 287 - 291 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S14624 Georgios Hillas1, Petros Bakakos2, Miltiadis Trichas3, Fotis Vlastos1 1Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, “Sotiria” Chest Diseases Hospital, Athens, Greece; 21st Respiratory Medicine Department, University of Athens Medical School, “Sotiria” Chest Diseases Hospital, Athens, Greece; 3Radiotherapy Department, Metropolitan Hospital, Neo Faliro, Greece Objectives: Patients with a newly diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) stage IIIB are offered chemoradiotherapy, as proposed by the current guidelines. This combination treatment is facilitated by the coexistence of corresponding departments in the same establishment. The geographical disparity of these health facilities influences patients’ willingness to be treated and may influence their survival. This is an observational study that compares the survival of two groups of patients with NSCLC stage IIIB: those treated with chemoradiotherapy versus those treated only with chemotherapy. These two comparable groups were formed exclusively by patients’ and/or their families’ decisions. Methods: One hundred fifteen consecutive NSCLC stage IIIB patients were included in the study. All were hospitalized in the biggest Chest Disease Hospital in Athens and were offered sequential chemoradiotherapy. Only 54 patients opted for the proposed treatment, while 61 decided to be treated with chemotherapy only, denying continuing their treatment in another health care unit (radiotherapy). Their survival and related factors were analyzed. Results: Mean overall survival was estimated 10 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.96–12.04). Patients treated with chemoradiotherapy had almost double overall survival compared to those under chemotherapy (P = 0.001): 13.6 months (95% CI: 12.3–14.9) versus 7.5 (95% CI: 6.1–8.9). Patients aged ≤ 65 years (P < 0.001), smokers (P < 0.001), and those without a cancer history (P < 0.001) survived longer. Conclusions: The lack of a radiotherapy department in a hospital providing chemotherapy impedes the application of current guidelines advocating combined radiochemotherapy. When recommended radiotherapy after six chemo cycles, half of the patients are unwilling to be displaced and do not follow the recommendations. This has an impact on patient survival.
The disparity of health facilities in an urban area discourages proposed treatment application in inoperable lung cancer patients  [cached]
Georgios Hillas,Petros Bakakos,Miltiadis Trichas,et al
Cancer Management and Research , 2010,
Abstract: Georgios Hillas1, Petros Bakakos2, Miltiadis Trichas3, Fotis Vlastos11Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, “Sotiria” Chest Diseases Hospital, Athens, Greece; 21st Respiratory Medicine Department, University of Athens Medical School, “Sotiria” Chest Diseases Hospital, Athens, Greece; 3Radiotherapy Department, Metropolitan Hospital, Neo Faliro, GreeceObjectives: Patients with a newly diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) stage IIIB are offered chemoradiotherapy, as proposed by the current guidelines. This combination treatment is facilitated by the coexistence of corresponding departments in the same establishment. The geographical disparity of these health facilities influences patients’ willingness to be treated and may influence their survival. This is an observational study that compares the survival of two groups of patients with NSCLC stage IIIB: those treated with chemoradiotherapy versus those treated only with chemotherapy. These two comparable groups were formed exclusively by patients’ and/or their families’ decisions.Methods: One hundred fifteen consecutive NSCLC stage IIIB patients were included in the study. All were hospitalized in the biggest Chest Disease Hospital in Athens and were offered sequential chemoradiotherapy. Only 54 patients opted for the proposed treatment, while 61 decided to be treated with chemotherapy only, denying continuing their treatment in another health care unit (radiotherapy). Their survival and related factors were analyzed.Results: Mean overall survival was estimated 10 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.96–12.04). Patients treated with chemoradiotherapy had almost double overall survival compared to those under chemotherapy (P = 0.001): 13.6 months (95% CI: 12.3–14.9) versus 7.5 (95% CI: 6.1–8.9). Patients aged ≤ 65 years (P < 0.001), smokers (P < 0.001), and those without a cancer history (P < 0.001) survived longer.Conclusions: The lack of a radiotherapy department in a hospital providing chemotherapy impedes the application of current guidelines advocating combined radiochemotherapy. When recommended radiotherapy after six chemo cycles, half of the patients are unwilling to be displaced and do not follow the recommendations. This has an impact on patient survival.Keywords: non-small cell lung cancer, survival, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, health facilities
Socio-Spatial Inequality in Education Facilities in the Concepción Metropolitan Area (Chile)  [PDF]
Helen De la Fuente, Carolina Rojas, María Jesús Salado, Juan Antonio Carrasco, Tijs Neutens
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2013.14013
Abstract: In Concepción Metropolitan Area (CMA), the uneven geographical distribution of population, exacerbated by the recent spread of urban growth, has promoted a clear spatial inequity in the provision of quality educational facilities. The objective of this research is to systematically compare the 493 schools of existing educational opportunities in the CMA with the aim to evaluate the spatial equity in order to improve a most inclusive urban planning. Statistical and graphical analysis revealed that nearest units to the center of the metropolitan area (Concepción) had better conditions than the farthest with respect to students-teacher ratio, teaching quality and academic outcomes assessment. This center-periphery pattern shows clearly the challenges to be faced in the CMA with respect to equitable access to quality educational resources.
Comparative assessment of ambient air quality in two urban areas adjacent to petroleum downstream/upstream facilities in Kuwait
Al-Salem, S. M.;Khan, A R.;
Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-66322008000400006
Abstract: air quality data (ground level ozone (o3), no, nox, so2, co, h2s and nh3) of two kuwaiti urban areas adjacent to petroleum processing facilities, fahaheel and al-riqa, were analyzed and compared to evaluate: (1) the exceedances of the kuwait environment public authority (kuepa) air quality limits, (2) primary air pollution sources and their contribution to the ambient load, (3) diurnal patterns of air pollutants and (4) the "weekend effect"on o3 levels. high o3 levels, above the threshold limit for human health, were observed in both urban areas. co, nox and no levels in fahaheel were higher than in al-riqa. combustion sources (which exist close to fahaheel) drive both nox and no diurnal patterns in both areas. emissions from downstream facilities and the activity of fahaheel highway affect the co levels in the areas. concentration roses were plotted for annual durations to examine the primary dominant sources of air pollution in both study areas. by establishing a chemical mass balance (cmb) model around the two receptor points in both areas, it was revealed that the downstream facilities sector was the main contributor of air pollutants in fahaheel. cmb model gave a 70% average contribution of the sector to the fahaheel receptor point. however, 70% of the total contribution of the studied sources in al-riqa urban area was from the traffic and line sources side. the examination of the rate of o3 accumulation, during the high o3 period in kuwait (april-october), revealed the occurrence of two phases, a fast and a slow one, with different durations in each urban area. regression equations were used to study the midweek effect of o3 levels. this study supports the hypothesis that o3 weekend variation is due to an nox emission difference between weekends and weekdays and vocs sensitivity.
Scaling Properties of Urban Facilities  [PDF]
Liang Wu
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.062808
Abstract: Two measurements are employed to quantitatively investigate the scaling properties of the spatial distribution of urban facilities, the K function by number counting and the variance-mean relationship with the method of expanding bins. The K function and the variance-mean relationship are both power functions. It means that the spatial distribution of urban facilities are scaling invariant. Further analysis of more data (which includes 8 types of facilities in 37 major Chinese cities) shows that the exponents of the power function do not have systematic variations across facilities and cities, which suggests the possibility that the scaling rule is universal. A double stochastic process (DSP) model is proposed such that the two empirical results can both be embedded. Simulation of DSP yields better agreement with the urban data than of the correlated percolation model.
Taylor's Law and the Spatial Distribution of Urban Facilities  [PDF]
Liang Wu,Xuezhen Chen,Chunyan Zhao
Statistics , 2014,
Abstract: Taylor's law is the footprint of ecosystems, which admits a power function relationship $S^{2}=am^{b}$ between the variance $S^{2}$ and mean number $m$ of organisms in an area. We examine the distribution of spatial coordinate data of seven urban facilities (beauty salons, banks, stadiums, schools, pharmacy, convenient stores and restaurants) in 37 major cities in China, and find that Taylor's law is validated among all 7 considered facilities, in the fashion that either all cities are combined together or each city is considered separately. Moreover, we find that the exponent $b$ falls between 1 and 2, which reveals that the distribution of urban facilities resembles that of the organisms in ecosystems. Furthermore, through decomposing the inverse of exponent $b$, we examine two different factors affecting\emph{ }the numbers of facilities in an area of a city respectively, which are the city-specific factor and the facility-specific factor. The city-specific factor reflects the overall density of all the facilities in a city, while the facility-specific factor indicates the overall aggregation level of each type of facility in all the cities. For example, Beijing ranks the first in the overall density, while restaurant tops the overall aggregation level.
Integrated Urban Micro Farming Strategy Mitigation against Food Crises in Odeda Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria
P.B Abdulsalam-Saghir, A.O Oshijo
Journal of Agricultural Extension , 2009,
Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate integrated urban micro farming as complementary strategy for mitigating against food crises in Odeda Local Government Area in Ogun State Nigeria by describing the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents, examine their incidence of food crises, identify factors responsible for food insecurity and identify and describe integrated urban micro farming activities in the study area. Out of about 120 urban and peri-urban farmers who were involved in urban farming activities eighty (80) respondents were randomly selected Primary data were collected from the respondents with the aid of semi-structured questionnaire and interview- guide. The data were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics such as percentages, frequencies and tables were used to achieve the stated objectives. The result shows that about 62% engage in integrated farming while majority (41%) of the respondents’ level of income is between N60,000 and N100,000 and 69% respondents indicated that their households’ size was between 6-10 persons. About 60% of the respondents experiences food crises. Also about 11% of the food crises in the study area were as a result of high rate of land lease for city development and 26% was as a result of inadequate credit facilities while the major (37%) cause resulted from rapid rural/urban migration. The study concluded that urban micro farming serves as buffer for provision of food to the ever growing teeming population in the cities It was therefore recommended that If micro integrated farming potential is to be exploited to the full, government, the municipalities and the private sector should be involved by making land available both within the city centres and the fringes. There should also be injection of micro loans for urban farmers and favourable policies about urban and peri-urban agriculture should evolve to aid food production.
Location Evaluation of Childcare Facilities Focusing on Transportation in Japanese Urban Areas  [PDF]
Keisho Satoh, Koya Tsukahara, Kayoko Yamamoto
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2018.105028
Abstract: In recent Japan, as there has been an increase of dual-income households and the demand for childcare facilities has especially increased especially in urban areas, childcare facilities and workers are lacking and it leads to the serious issue of children on waiting lists. Based on the background mentioned above, using statistical method, geographical information system (GIS) and public open data, scenario analysis to select transportation, the present study aimed to propose a method to quantitatively evaluate the current location of childcare facilities in Japanese urban areas. In the present study, the model of the p-median problem used to obtain the optimal location of facilities was modified, and a method to evaluate the current situation concerning the shortage or overage of childcare facilities by district was proposed. As evaluations are conducted using quantitative data such as the specialization coefficient of person trip for transportation and the distance between childcare facilities and districts, the evaluation results are also quantitative, making it an effective indicator for evaluating the locations of childcare facilities. Additionally, the specialization coefficient of person trip for transportation and the distance between childcare facilities and districts were calculated based on public open data. Therefore, the evaluation method in the present study has a high temporal reproducibility as well as spatial reproducibility.
COORDINATES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN URBAN AREA
Carmen-Maria IORDACHE
Management Strategies Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Internationally, urban tourism began to develop gradually from the '80s, nowadays being a distinct form of tourism whose importance is increasing. Thus, there were concerns about specific facilities for different categories of visitors and their harmonization with the demands of caring for the smooth functioning of urban settlements. By adding tourism to the local economy inventory activities of an urban area, it can be considered a catalyst and a reviving factor for strengthening urban cities especially because it represents an important source of income and it is responsible for creating thousands of jobs. Given the need to adapt to the demands of tourists, this paper attempts to clarify some issues related to content, characteristics and influencing factors of urban tourism, but also the adoption of policies for exploitation through tourism of the specific elements of urban space and urban tourism prospects.
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