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Breastfeeding Perceptions and Attitudes: The Effect of Race/Ethnicity And Cultural Background  [cached]
Krystal Christopher
Sociation Today , 2012,
Abstract: Breastfeeding has been generating a lot of publicity in the past years largely due to new legislation promoting breastfeeding -friendly policies. However, the United States is far below many developed nations in regards to its populations’ breastfeeding prevalence and despite the unprecedented benefits of breastfeeding being documented, many are not breastfeeding. Breastfeeding in the U.S. varies dramatically by race, with individuals identifying as Black or African American breastfeeding much less at 6 months postpartum than Asian or Pacific Islander, White, or Hispanic. Overall, Individuals identifying as Asian or Pacific Islander have a higher breastfeeding rate 6 months postpartum with Hispanics coming in second. This study uses survey data to analyze the impact of race/ethnicity and cultural background on college students’ attitudes towards breastfeeding. This study found that respondents identifying as Hispanic had a more positive attitude towards breastfeeding than any other race or ethnicity. Also, respondents having at least one parent born outside of the United States had a more positive perception of breastfeeding than those who had parents born in the United States. These findings suggest that there are some cultural and racial influences on one’s perception and attitudes as it pertains to breastfeeding.
Examining the Incidence of Human Papillomavirus-Associated Head and Neck Cancers by Race and Ethnicity in the U.S., 1995–2005  [PDF]
Lauren Cole, Linda Polfus, Edward S. Peters
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032657
Abstract: Background Head and neck cancer (HNC) incidence, mortality and survival rates vary by sex and race, with men and African Americans disproportionately affected. Risk factors for HNC include tobacco and alcohol exposure, with a recent implication of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the pathogenesis of HNC. This study describes the epidemiology of HNC in the United States, examining variation of rates by age, sex, race/ethnicity and potential HPV-association. Methods We used the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) Cancer in North America (CINA) Deluxe Analytic Data to analyze HNC incidence for 1995–2005 from forty population-based cancer registries. We calculated age-adjusted incidence rates and incidence trends using annual percent change by age, sex, race/ethnicity and HPV-association. Results Males and Non-Hispanic Blacks experienced greater HNC incidence compared to women and other race/ethnicity groupings. A significant overall increase in HNC incidence was observed among HPV-associated sites during 1995–2005, while non HPV-associated sites experienced a significant decline in HNC incidence. Overall, younger age groups, Non-Hispanic Whites and Hispanics experienced greater increases in incidence for HPV-associated sites, while HNC incidence declined for Non-Hispanic Blacks independent of HPV-association. In particular, for HPV-associated sites, HNC incidence for Non-Hispanic White males aged 45–54 increased at the greatest rate, with an APC of 6.28% (p<0.05). Among non HPV-associated sites, Non-Hispanic Black males aged 0–44 years experienced the greatest reduction in incidence (APC, ?8.17%, p<0.05), while a greater decline among the older, 55–64 year age group (APC, ?5.44%, p<0.05) occurred in females. Conclusions This study provides evidence that HPV-associated tumors are disproportionately affecting certain age, sex and race/ethnicity groups, representing a different disease process for HPV-associated tumors compared to non HPV-associated tumors. Our study suggests that HPV tumor status should be incorporated into treatment decisions for HNC patients to improve prognosis and survival.
The Role of Race, Ethnicity, and Gender in the Congressional Cosponsorship Network  [PDF]
Alison Craig,Skyler J. Cranmer,Bruce A. Desmarais,Christopher J. Clark,Vincent G. Moscardelli
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Previous research indicates that race, ethnicity, and gender influence legislative behavior in important ways. The bulk of this research, however, focuses on the way these characteristics shape an individual legislator's behavior, making it less clear how they account for relationships between legislators. We study the cosponsorship process in order to understand the race and gender based dynamics underlying the relational component of representation. Using a temporal exponential random graph model, we examine the U.S. House cosponsorship network from 1981 through 2004. We find that Black and Latino members of Congress are at a comparative disadvantage as a result of race-based assortative mixing in the cosponsorship process, yet this disadvantage is mitigated by the electoral pressures that all members face. Members representing districts with significant racial and ethnic minority populations are more likely to support their minority colleagues. We also find that women members do not appear to face a similar disadvantage as a result of their minority status. We argue that these race and gender dynamics in the cosponsorship network are the result of both the inherent tendency towards intra-group homophily in social networks and the electoral connection, which is manifested here as members supporting minority colleagues to broaden their own electoral base of support among minority constituencies.
Quit Attempt Correlates among Smokers by Race/Ethnicity  [PDF]
Jennifer W. Kahende,Ann M. Malarcher,Anna Teplinskaya,Kat J. Asman
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph8103871
Abstract: Introduction: Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of premature deaths in the U.S., accounting for approximately 443,000 deaths annually. Although smoking prevalence in recent decades has declined substantially among all racial/ethnic groups, disparities in smoking-related behaviors among racial/ethnic groups continue to exist. Two of the goals of Healthy People 2020 are to reduce smoking prevalence among adults to 12% or less and to increase smoking cessation attempts by adult smokers from 41% to 80%. Our study assesses whether correlates of quit attempts vary by race/ethnicity among adult (≥18 years) smokers in the U.S. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in how both internal and external factors affect quit attempts is important for targeting smoking-cessation interventions to decrease tobacco-use disparities. Methods: We used 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS) data from 16,213 adults to examine whether the relationship between demographic characteristics, smoking behaviors, smoking policies and having made a quit attempt in the past year varied by race/ethnicity. Results: Hispanics and persons of multiple races were more likely to have made a quit attempt than whites. Overall, younger individuals and those with >high school education, who smoked fewer cigarettes per day and had smoked for fewer years were more likely to have made a quit attempt. Having a smoke-free home, receiving a doctor’s advice to quit, smoking menthol cigarettes and having a greater time to when you smoked your first cigarette of the day were also associated with having made a quit attempt. The relationship between these four variables and quit attempts varied by race/ethnicity; most notably receiving a doctor’s advice was not related to quit attempts among Asian American/Pacific Islanders and menthol use among whites was associated with a lower prevalence of quit attempts while black menthol users were more likely to have made a quit attempt than white non-menthol users. Conclusions: Most correlates of quit attempts were similar across all racial/ethnic groups. Therefore population-based comprehensive tobacco control programs that increase quit attempts and successful cessation among all racial/ethnic groups should be continued and expanded. Additional strategies may be needed to encourage quit attempts among less educated, older, and more addicted smokers.
Scientific Productivity, Research Funding, Race and Ethnicity  [PDF]
J. S. Yang,M. W. Vannier,F. Wang,Y. Deng,F. R. Ou,J. R. Bennett,Y. Liu,G. Wang
Statistics , 2011,
Abstract: In a recent study by Ginther et al., the probability of receiving a U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) RO1 award was related to the applicant's race/ethnicity. The results indicate black/African-American applicants were 10% less likely than white peers to receive an award, after controlling for background and qualifications. It has generated a widespread debate regarding the unfairness of the NIH grant review process and its correction. In this paper, the work by Ginther et al. was augmented by pairing analysis, axiomatically-individualized productivity and normalized funding success measurement. Although there are racial differences in R01 grant success rates, normalized figures of merit for funding success explain the discrepancy. The suggested "leverage points for policy intervention" are in question and require deeper and more thorough investigations. Further adjustments in policies to remove racial disparity should be made more systematically for equal opportunity, rather than being limited to the NIH review process.
Race, Ethnicity, and Linguistic Isolation as Determinants of Participation in Public Health Surveillance Surveys  [cached]
Michael W. Link, PhD,Ali H. Mokdad, PhD,Herbert F. Stackhouse, MA,Nicole T. Flowers, MD
Preventing Chronic Disease , 2005,
Abstract: IntroductionTo plan, implement, and evaluate programs designed to improve health conditions among racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States, public health officials and researchers require valid and reliable health surveillance data. Monitoring chronic disease and behavioral risk factors among such populations, however, is challenging. This study assesses the effects of race, ethnicity, and linguistic isolation on rates of participation in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).MethodsCounty-level data from the 2003 BRFSS survey and 2000 U.S. census were used to examine the effects of race, ethnicity, and linguistic isolation on six measures of survey participation (i.e., rates of resolution, screening, cooperation, response, language barriers, and refusal). ResultsParticipation rates were significantly lower in counties with higher percentages of black people and people who did not speak English. Response rates decreased by 4.6% in counties with the highest concentration of black residents compared with counties with few black residents. Likewise, response rates decreased by approximately 7% in counties in which a larger percentage of the population spoke only Spanish or another Indo-European language compared with counties in which all residents spoke English.ConclusionThe negative relationship between the percentage of Spanish-only–speaking households and participation rates is troubling given that the BRFSS is conducted in both Spanish and English. The findings also indicate that more needs to be done to improve participation among other minorities. Researchers are investigating several ways of addressing disparities in participation rates, such as using postsurvey adjustments, developing more culturally appropriate data-collection procedures, and offering surveys in multiple languages.
Examination of the Association between Insufficient Sleep and Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes by Race/Ethnicity  [PDF]
Abhishek Vishnu,Anoop Shankar,Sita Kalidindi
International Journal of Endocrinology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/789358
Abstract: Background. We examined the association between insufficient rest/sleep and cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus separately among non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanic Americans, and other races in a contemporary sample of US adults. Methods. Multiethnic, nationally representative, cross-sectional survey (2008 BRFSS) participants who were >20 years of age ( , 217; 50% women). Self-reported insufficient rest/sleep in the previous month was categorized into: zero, 1–13, 14–29, and all 30 days. Outcomes were: (1) any CVD, (2) coronary artery disease (CHD), (3) stroke, and (4) diabetes mellitus. Results. Insufficient rest/sleep was found to be positively associated with (1) any CVD, (2) CHD, and (3) stroke among all race-ethnicities. In contrast, insufficient rest/sleep was positively associated with diabetes mellitus in all race-ethnicities except non-Hispanic blacks. The odds ratio of diabetes association with insufficient rest/sleep for all 30 days was 1.37 (1.26–1.48) among non-Hispanic whites, 1.11 (0.90–1.36) among non-Hispanic blacks, 1.88 (1.46–2.42) among Hispanic Americans, and 1.48 (1.10–2.00) among other race/ethnicities. Conclusion. In a multiethnic sample of US adults, perceived insufficient rest/sleep was associated with CVD, among all race-ethnicities. However, the association between insufficient rest/sleep and diabetes mellitus was present among all race-ethnicities except non-Hispanic blacks. 1. Introduction Sleep loss, long-term sleep deprivation, and perceived insufficient rest/sleep are common in modern society [1]. To study the sleep pattern of the U.S. population, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention included a new survey question on insufficient rest/sleep in the 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) core questionnaire. A recent report based on this survey estimated that 70% of US population has at least some degree of insufficient rest/sleep and that there were variations in perceived insufficient rest/sleep by race/ethnicity [2]. Insufficient rest/sleep may be related to various social and economic factors such as low education, unemployment, job stress, urban environment, late-night socializing, noisy neighborhoods, and a disturbed home environment [3]. Earlier studies have reported variations in the presence of such stressors among different race-ethnicities [3–7]. Recent studies have reported an association between insufficient sleep and cardiovascular disease [8–10]. However, few studies have examined the association between insufficient rest/sleep and outcomes such as coronary
Race/ethnicity and disease severity in IgA nephropathy
Yoshio N Hall, Eloisa F Fuentes, Glenn M Chertow, Jean L Olson
BMC Nephrology , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2369-5-10
Abstract: To explore whether these observations are borne out in a multi-ethnic, tertiary care renal pathology practice, we examined clinical and pathologic data on 298 patients with primary glomerular lesions (IgAN, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, membranous nephropathy and minimal change disease) at the University of California San Francisco Medical Center from November 1994 through May 2001. Pathologic assessment of native kidney biopsies with IgAN was conducted using Haas' classification system.Among individuals with IgAN (N = 149), 89 (60%) were male, 57 (38%) white, 53 (36%) Asian/Pacific Islander, 29 (19%) Hispanic, 4 (3%) African American and 6 (4%) were of other or unknown ethnicity. The mean age was 37 ± 14 years and median serum creatinine 1.7 mg/dL. Sixty-six patients (44%) exhibited nephrotic range proteinuria at the time of kidney biopsy. The distributions of age, gender, mean serum creatinine, and presence or absence of nephrotic proteinuria and/or hypertension at the time of kidney biopsy were not significantly different among white, Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islander groups. Of the 124 native kidney biopsies with IgAN, 10 (8%) cases were classified into Haas subclass I, 12 (10%) subclass II, 23 (18%) subclass III, 30 (25%) subclass IV, and 49 (40%) subclass V. The distribution of Haas subclass did not differ significantly by race/ethnicity. In comparison, among the random sample of patients with non-IgAN glomerular lesions (N = 149), 77 (52%) patients were male, 51 (34%) white, 42 (28%) Asian/Pacific Islander, 25 (17%) Hispanic, and 30 (20%) were African American.With the caveats of referral and biopsy biases, the race/ethnicity distribution of IgAN differs significantly from that of other major glomerulonephridities. However, among individuals undergoing native kidney biopsy, we see no evidence of a race/ethnicity association with severity of disease in IgAN by clinical and IgAN-specific histopathologic criteria. Further studies are needed to identify
Socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity independently predict health decline among older diabetics
Emily J Nicklett
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-684
Abstract: The study population was a subset of diabetic adults aged 65 and older from the Health and Retirement Study. Respondents were followed up to 16 years. Multilevel cumulative logit regression models were used to examine the contributions of socioeconomic indicators, race/ethnicity, and covariates over time. Health decline was measured as a change in self-reported health status over the follow-up period.Relative to whites, blacks had a significantly lower cumulative odds of better health status over time (OR: 0.61, p < .0001). Hispanics reported significantly lower cumulative odds better health over time relative to whites (OR: 0.59, p < .05). Although these disparities narrowed when socioeconomic characteristics were added to the model, significant differences remained. Including socioeconomic status did not remove the health effects of race/ethnicity among blacks and Hispanics.The author found that race/ethnicity and some socioeconomic indicators were independent predictors of health decline among older adults with diabetes.Diabetes is projected to increase in age-adjusted prevalence 2.2 times among those aged 65-74 years and 4.5 times among those 75 years and above from 2005-2050 [1]. Among older adults, diabetes accelerates cognitive decline, physical disability, and other limitations [2,3]. The burden of diabetes, however, is not evenly spread in the U.S. population. Diabetes is more prevalent among disadvantaged groups and communities, predicted by race and socioeconomic position [4,5]. Disadvantaged groups also suffer more from complications associated with the disease; disparities have been found in excess mortality, functional status, and cognitive functioning [6-8]. Diabetes could operate as a mechanism through which health disparities between socially advantaged and the socially disadvantaged populations are exacerbated.Racial and ethnic disparities in health have long been documented in public health literature. The underlying mechanisms include differing h
Transition to the new race/ethnicity data collection standards in the Department of Veterans Affairs
Min-Woong Sohn, Huiyuan Zhang, Noreen Arnold, Kevin Stroupe, Brent C Taylor, Timothy J Wilt, Denise M Hynes
Population Health Metrics , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1478-7954-4-7
Abstract: All unique users of VA healthcare services with self-reported race/ethnicity data in 2004 were compared with their prior observer-recorded race/ethnicity data from 1997 – 2002 (N = 988,277).In 2004, only about 39% of all VA healthcare users reported race/ethnicity values other than "unknown" or "declined." Females reported race/ethnicity at a lower rate than males (27% vs. 40%; p < 0.001). Over 95% of observer-recorded data agreed with self-reported data. Compared with the patient self-reported data, the observer-recorded White and African American races were accurate for 98% (kappa = 0.89) and 94% (kappa = 0.93) individuals, respectively. Accuracy of observer-recorded races was much worse for other minority groups with kappa coefficients ranging between 0.38 for American Indian or Alaskan Natives and 0.79 for Hispanic Whites. When observer-recorded race/ethnicity values were reclassified into non-African American groups, they agreed with the self-reported data for 98% of all individuals (kappa = 0.93).For overall VA healthcare users, the agreement between observer-recorded and self-reported race/ethnicity was excellent and observer-recorded and self-reported data can be used together for multi-year trends without creating serious bias. However, this study also showed that observation was not a reliable method of race/ethnicity data collection for non-African American minorities and racial disparity might be underestimated if observer-recorded data are used due to systematic patterns of inaccurate race/ethnicity assignments.In 1997, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) released the revised standards for the collection of race and ethnicity known as Statistical Directive 15 that federal agencies were mandated to comply by January, 2003 [1-3]. The most significant changes in the new standards included self-identification as the preferred data collection method and the ability to report multiple races for an individual. For researchers who use data from multiple y
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