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Detailed Mechanism and Engineering Applicability of Electrolytic Polymerization Aided by a Magnetic Field in Natural Rubber by Mechanical Approach for Sensing (Part 1): The Effect of Experimental Conditions on Electrolytic Polymerization  [PDF]
Kunio Shimada, Norihiko Saga
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2016.610026
Abstract: Ordinary electrolytic polymerization has involved plastic-type polymer solutions. Rubber, especially natural rubber, is one such polymer solution. Rubber has not been focused on until recently due to the fact that electrolytic polymerization has only a very small effect on rubber. However, when we focus on the C=C bonds of natural rubber, the same electrolytic polymerization is applicable to be enlarged on the natural rubber if a magnetic field and a filler are added. With the application of a magnetic field and a magnetic responsive fluid such as magnetic compound fluid (MCF), the effect of electrolytic polymerization on NR-latex such as plastic-type polymer solutions is enhanced, and the thickness of the vulcanized MCF rubber grows in a short time. The present new method of vulcanization of MCF rubber is effective enough that it is widely used in haptic sensors in various engineering applications. In the present report, as mechanical approach for the sensing, by measuring the temperature under electrolytic polymerization, by investigating the electric and dynamic characteristics, and by observing the magnified appearance of the MCF rubber, we clarified the extrinsic effects of many experimental conditions, including magnetic field strength, applied voltage, the electrodes gap, mass concentration, and the ingredients of the MCF. This report is Part 1, to be followed by another sequential report, Part 2, in which other intrinsic effects on the characteristics are dealt with. The experimental conditions used and the results obtained in the present report provide valuable data that will be useful in the making of MCF rubber.
Development of Magnetic Compound Fluid Rubber Sensor for Practical Usage on γ-Irradiation and Energy Harvesting for Broad-Band Electromagnetic Waves  [PDF]
Kunio Shimada, Ryo Ikeda, Hiroshige Kikura, Hideharu Takahashi
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2019.99014
Abstract: We have performed sequential studies on new types of soft rubber for their application as artificial skin in robots and haptic sensors. Based on a proposed electrolytic polymerization method and novel adhesion technique for rubber and a metal that utilizes a metal complex hydrate, we have developed an MCF rubber sensor. This sensor uses a magnetic compound fluid (MCF), natural rubber (NR-latex) or chloroprene rubber latex (CR-latex), and requires the application of a magnetic field. The potential application of the developed sensor in various engineering scenarios and our daily lives is significant. In this regard, we investigated the effects of γ-irradiation, infrared radiation, microwaves, and a thermal source on the MCF rubber sensor. We established that the MCF rubber is effective enough to be used for power generation of broadband electro-magnetic waves from γ-rays to microwaves, including the range of the solar spectrum, which is the typical characteristic obtained in the present investigation. The remarkable attribute is that the MCF rubber sensor dose is not degraded by γ-irradiation. We also demonstrated the effectiveness of the MCF rubber sensor in energy harvesting.
Theoretical Investigation by Quantum Mechanics on the Tunnel Diode Effect of Electric Conductive Characteristics and Haptic Sensing in MCF Rubber  [PDF]
Kunio Shimada
Journal of Sensors , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/731854
Abstract: By applying our developed intelligent fluid, magnetic compound fluid (MCF), to silicon oil rubber, we have made the MCF rubber highly sensitive to temperature and electric conduction. MCF is useful as the element material in haptic robot sensors and other related devices. In the present paper, we clarified the relationship between the electric current and the voltage under a tensile strain by utilizing the quantum mechanics theory on the multibarrier potential problem. The experimental results could be qualitatively explained by our proposed theory. The electrons can be moved between the solid materials by the tunnel effect. The relation between voltage and electric current is affected by the formation of the clusters, and it is changed by the application of heat. We also clarified experimentally the present MCF rubber useful in haptic sensors. Because the motions of humans and robots are different, the sensing of the rubber is different, depending on the placement. However, as for both motions of human and robot, there is no quantitative difference in the electric resistance among kinetic energy, momentum, and force. The sensing is also different based on the stiffness of the surface to which the sensor is adhered. 1. Introduction In the ongoing development of engineering technology, the development of new composite materials is needed in, for example, the fields of robotics, sensing, and related areas. In response to this need, Shimada has demonstrated experimentally the use of his intelligent fluid, magnetic compound fluid (MCF) [1–3]. MCF was created by compounding the nm-size magnetite particles (Fe3O4) of magnetic fluid (MF) and μm-size iron (Fe) particles into a single solvent, thereby essentially producing a mixture of MF and magneto-rheological fluid (MRF). The apparent viscosity of MF under a magnetic field is lower than that of MRF. Therefore, the engineering applications utilizing MRF are more advantageous than those using MF. However, the stability of particles distribution in an MF solvent is greater than that in MRF. The merit of MF is that it behaves as a fluid, because it does not have the problem of particle deposits like MRF does. In contrast to MF and MRF, MCF has the respective merits of both MF and MRF. The apparent viscosity of MCF is larger than that of MF, and the particles stability of MCF is better than that of MRF. In addition, the apparent viscosity of MCF can be changed by adjusting the composition of the magnetic particles of Fe3O4 and Fe and solvent as discussed by Shimada et al. [1–3] and by Fujita and Shimada [4].
Rolling motion of a rigid sphere on a structured rubber substrate aided by a random noise and an external bias  [PDF]
Partho S. Goohpattader,Srinivas Mettu,Manoj K. Chaudhury
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: We study the rolling motion of a small solid sphere on a surface patterned rubber substrate in an external field with and without a noise. In the absence of the noise, the ball does not move below a threshold force above which it accelerates sub-linearly with the applied field. In the presence of a random noise, the ball exhibits a stochastic rolling with a net drift, the velocity of which increases non-linearly with the strength of the noise (K). From the evolution of the displacement distribution, it is evident that the rolling is controlled by a Coulomb like friction at a very low velocity, a super-linear friction at an intermediate velocity and a linear kinematic friction at a large velocity. This transition from a non-linear to a linear friction control of motion can be discerned from another experiment in which the ball is subjected to a small amplitude periodic asymmetric vibration in conjunction with a random noise. Here, as opposed to that of a fixed external force, the rolling velocity decreases with the increase of the strength of the noise suggesting a progressive fluidization of the interface. Furthermore, the ball exhibits a flow reversal with the increase of the amplitude of the asymmetric vibration, which is indicative of a profile of friction that first descends and then ascends with velocity. An approximate non-linear friction model with the non-linearity decreasing with K is somewhat consistent with the evolution of the displacement fluctuation that also explains the sigmoidal variation of the drift velocity with the strength of the noise. This research sets the stage for studying friction in a new way, in which it is submitted to a noise and then its dynamic response is studied using the tools of statistical mechanics.
Physics of Electrolytic Gas Evolution  [PDF]
Cesar A. C. Sequeira,Diogo M. F. Santos,Biljana Sljukic,Luis Amaral
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1007/s13538-013-0131-4
Abstract: A brief analysis of the physics and effects of electrolytic gas evolution is presented. Aspects considered include bubble nucleation, growth, and detachment, enhancement of mass and heat transfer, and decrease of apparent electrical conductivity of bubble containing electrolytes. This analysis is mainly oriented to hydrogen/oxygen evolving electrodes.
Applicability study of high damping rubber bearing in curved box girder

HE Zeng

- , 2016,
Abstract: 城市高架桥中大跨度钢箱梁桥往往与小跨度混凝土梁桥相接,两者间存在较大的刚度和质量差异,将表现出不同的静力和动力特性。以某立交桥为工程背景,用MIDAS/CIVIL建立采用高阻尼隔震橡胶支座(HDR)的不同上部结构形式曲线箱梁桥的有限元模型,通过计算结构在静载及动载下的受力性能,探讨HDR在曲线箱梁桥中的适用性。研究结果表明:由于HDR约束刚度相对盆式支座较小,间接荷载作用下桥墩横桥向弯矩也较小;直接荷载作用下,盆式支座有利于荷载在桥墩之间的分配和传递,使单个桥墩内力减小。HDR对结构变形的控制相对较弱,当两联结构差异较大时,应注意联间径向位移差的控制。采用HDR后,本桥纵向减震率在20%-60%之间,横向减震率在60%-80%之间,达到良好的减隔震效果。
Long span steel box girder is usually connected with small span concrete box girder in urban viaduct, but there are large differences in static and dynamic characteristics between them because of the difference in rigidity and mass. Based on an overpass bridge, finite element models of curved girder bridge with different parameters of High Damping Rubber (HDR) bearing were established by Midas/civil. The applicability of High Damping Rubber bearing in curved box girder was discussed by calculating the structural mechanical behavior under static and dynamic loads. The calculation results show that the transverse moment in pier bottom is smaller under indirect loads because the restraint stiffness of HDR bearing is smaller than pot-type elastomeric pad bearing, but the internal force of piers under direct loads is smaller because the pot-type elastomeric pad bearing is suitable for transferring load. The radial displacement between different bridges should be checked if the structures are very different, because HDR bearing can''''t control the transverse displacement effectively relative to pot-type elastomeric pad bearing. With HDR bearing, isolation efficiency of this bridge is from 20% to 60% in longitudinal direction, from 60% to 80% in transverse direction
Electrolytic treatment applied to the industrial effluent containing persistent wastes monitored by Bartha respirometric assays
Régis, Gisela;Bidoia, Ederio Dino;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132005000200020
Abstract: the effluent of a rubber chemical antioxidant and antiozonant producer industry, with high content of organic material was subjected to electrolytic process. to evaluate the speed of stabilization of the eletroctrolyzed effluents, and to evaluate the biodegradation the respirometric test of bartha and pramer was used. the monitoring of the biodegradation of the effluent, after different periods of electrolysis show that the ideal time of electrolysis was 10 and 25 min. it was concluded that the eletrolytic process was viable to diminish the adaptation time of the microorganism to the effluent and consequently increased the biodegradation of effluent.
Plasma electrolytic oxidation of tantalum  [PDF]
Petkovi? Marija,Stojadinovi? Stevan,Vasili? Rastko,Bel?a Ivan
Serbian Journal of Electrical Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/sjee1201081p
Abstract: This paper is a review of our research on the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process of tantalum in 12-tungstosilicic acid. For the characterization of microdischarges during PEO, real-time imaging and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) were used. The surface morphology, chemical and phase composition of oxide coatings were investigated by AFM, SEM-EDS and XRD. Oxide coating morphology is strongly dependent on PEO time. The elemental components of PEO coatings are Ta, O, Si and W. The oxide coatings are partly crystallized and mainly composed of WO3, Ta2O5 and SiO2.
Effects of the electrolytic treatment on Bacillus subtilis
Tolentino-Bisneto, Rodolfo;Bidoia, Ederio D.;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822003000500016
Abstract: conventional processes of water disinfection can generate toxic composites. it is the case of the trihalomethanes (carcinogenic) formed in the contact of chlorine with organic substances present in the water. the electrolytic treatment can be a substitute for the chlorination process without the need for addition of chemical substances to the process. the effect of the electrolytic treatment using carbon cathode on the viability of the microorganism bacillus subtilis was tested to determine the death process. by means of electronic microscopy, it was observed that the main cause of the microorganism's death was the cellular lysis due to the electroporation in the cell membrane.
A Rubber-Modified Thermoplastic where the Morphology Produced by Phase-Separation Induced by Polymerization Disappears at High Conversions  [PDF]
E. R. Soule,G. E. Elicabe,R. J. J. Williams
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1007/s00289-007-0882-6
Abstract: An unexpected experimental finding is reported where the primary morphology developed during polymerization-induced phase separation in a rubber-modified thermoplastic disappears at high conversions. This process was evidenced by light scattering (LS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for a particular composition of solutions of polyisobutylene oligomers (PIB) in isobornylmethacrylate (IBoMA), during the free-radical polymerization of the monomer. The primary phase separation produced a dispersion of domains rich in PIB containing significant amounts of the monomer (IBoMA). Polymerization of the monomer in these domains occurred at high overall conversions producing the filling of dispersed domains with a PIBoMA-PIB blend. Under these conditions the final material had the appearance of a homogeneous blend. The process might be adapted to produce new types of rubber-modified thermoplastics where rubber particles are replaced by rubber-rich domains that do not exhibit definite boundaries. Keywords:
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