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Detailed Mechanism and Engineering Applicability of Electrolytic Polymerization Aided by a Magnetic Field in Natural Rubber by Mechanical Approach for Sensing (Part 2): Other and Intrinsic Effects on MCF Rubber Property  [PDF]
Kunio Shimada, Norihiko Saga
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2016.610027
Abstract: The same ordinary electrolytic polymerization of plastic-type polymer solution is applicable to natural rubber, with its C=C bonds, if a magnetic field and a filler are added. With the application of a magnetic field and the magnetic responsive fluid known as magnetic compound fluid (MCF), we have clarified the enhancement of the electrolytic polymerization of NR-latex and the growth of the thickness of vulcanized MCF rubber that results from the addition of a magnetic field. The present new method of MCF rubber vulcanization is effective for use in haptic sensors, which are used widely in various engineering applications. In the previous report, part 1 of this study, we investigated many experimental conditions under mechanical approach for sensing: magnetic field strength; applied voltage; electrodes gap; mass concentration, and the ingredients of the MCF. In the present sequential report, part 2, we investigate many other effects on electrolytic polymerization by the same mechanical approach for sensing as in part 1: the Mullins effect; the Piezo effect; vibration; kind of electrode; atmospheric gas. In particular, we clarify that the voltage generates spontaneously in the MCF rubber and that the MCF rubber becomes a Piezo element. These effects on the electrolytic polymerization as well as the effects of the experimental conditions will be useful in engineering applications. By taking the above-mentioned parameters and effects into account, MCF rubber that is electrolytically polymerized with the aid of a magnetic field, the use of MCF as a filler, and doping, can be useful in haptic sensor applications. In particular, the effectiveness of the Piezo element can be shown.
Limit of applicability of the monomer-enhanced mechanism for radical generation in persulfate initiated mechanism for radical generationin persulfate initiated polymerization of acrylamide
Rintoul,I.; Wandrey,C.;
Latin American applied research , 2010,
Abstract: the limit of applicability of the monomer-enhanced mechanism as dominant mechanism ruling the initiation process of the polymerization of acrylamide (am) initiated with potassium persulfate (k2s2o8) has been determined. the kinetics and mechanisms for radical generation were studied in solution at very low monomer and initiator concentrations. the transition of the initiation mechanism from dominant monomer-enhanced dissociation to dominant thermal decomposition of persulfate was observed. both mechanisms contribute equally to radical generation at [am] / [k2s2o8] ≈ 4.5. thermal decomposition dominates at lower [am] or higher [k2s2o8] and opposite variations promote the monomer-enhanced dissociation. this work also includes quantification of the rate coefficients, efficiencies and activation energies of the mentioned mechanisms, and the kinetics of am polymerization when photochemically initiated with phenylbis(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)-phosphine oxide.
Limit of applicability of the monomer-enhanced mechanism for radical generation in persulfate initiated mechanism for radical generationin persulfate initiated polymerization of acrylamide  [cached]
I. Rintoul,C. Wandrey
Latin American applied research , 2010,
Abstract: The limit of applicability of the monomer-enhanced mechanism as dominant mechanism ruling the initiation process of the polymerization of acrylamide (AM) initiated with potassium persulfate (K2S2O8) has been determined. The kinetics and mechanisms for radical generation were studied in solution at very low monomer and initiator concentrations. The transition of the initiation mechanism from dominant monomer-enhanced dissociation to dominant thermal decomposition of persulfate was observed. Both mechanisms contribute equally to radical generation at [AM] / [K2S2O8] ≈ 4.5. Thermal decomposition dominates at lower [AM] or higher [K2S2O8] and opposite variations promote the monomer-enhanced dissociation. This work also includes quantification of the rate coefficients, efficiencies and activation energies of the mentioned mechanisms, and the kinetics of AM polymerization when photochemically initiated with phenylbis(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)-phosphine oxide.
Physics of Electrolytic Gas Evolution  [PDF]
Cesar A. C. Sequeira,Diogo M. F. Santos,Biljana Sljukic,Luis Amaral
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1007/s13538-013-0131-4
Abstract: A brief analysis of the physics and effects of electrolytic gas evolution is presented. Aspects considered include bubble nucleation, growth, and detachment, enhancement of mass and heat transfer, and decrease of apparent electrical conductivity of bubble containing electrolytes. This analysis is mainly oriented to hydrogen/oxygen evolving electrodes.
Electrolytic treatment applied to the industrial effluent containing persistent wastes monitored by Bartha respirometric assays
Régis, Gisela;Bidoia, Ederio Dino;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132005000200020
Abstract: the effluent of a rubber chemical antioxidant and antiozonant producer industry, with high content of organic material was subjected to electrolytic process. to evaluate the speed of stabilization of the eletroctrolyzed effluents, and to evaluate the biodegradation the respirometric test of bartha and pramer was used. the monitoring of the biodegradation of the effluent, after different periods of electrolysis show that the ideal time of electrolysis was 10 and 25 min. it was concluded that the eletrolytic process was viable to diminish the adaptation time of the microorganism to the effluent and consequently increased the biodegradation of effluent.
Plasma electrolytic oxidation of tantalum  [PDF]
Petkovi? Marija,Stojadinovi? Stevan,Vasili? Rastko,Bel?a Ivan
Serbian Journal of Electrical Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/sjee1201081p
Abstract: This paper is a review of our research on the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process of tantalum in 12-tungstosilicic acid. For the characterization of microdischarges during PEO, real-time imaging and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) were used. The surface morphology, chemical and phase composition of oxide coatings were investigated by AFM, SEM-EDS and XRD. Oxide coating morphology is strongly dependent on PEO time. The elemental components of PEO coatings are Ta, O, Si and W. The oxide coatings are partly crystallized and mainly composed of WO3, Ta2O5 and SiO2.
Effects of the electrolytic treatment on Bacillus subtilis
Tolentino-Bisneto, Rodolfo;Bidoia, Ederio D.;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822003000500016
Abstract: conventional processes of water disinfection can generate toxic composites. it is the case of the trihalomethanes (carcinogenic) formed in the contact of chlorine with organic substances present in the water. the electrolytic treatment can be a substitute for the chlorination process without the need for addition of chemical substances to the process. the effect of the electrolytic treatment using carbon cathode on the viability of the microorganism bacillus subtilis was tested to determine the death process. by means of electronic microscopy, it was observed that the main cause of the microorganism's death was the cellular lysis due to the electroporation in the cell membrane.
A Rubber-Modified Thermoplastic where the Morphology Produced by Phase-Separation Induced by Polymerization Disappears at High Conversions  [PDF]
E. R. Soule,G. E. Elicabe,R. J. J. Williams
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1007/s00289-007-0882-6
Abstract: An unexpected experimental finding is reported where the primary morphology developed during polymerization-induced phase separation in a rubber-modified thermoplastic disappears at high conversions. This process was evidenced by light scattering (LS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for a particular composition of solutions of polyisobutylene oligomers (PIB) in isobornylmethacrylate (IBoMA), during the free-radical polymerization of the monomer. The primary phase separation produced a dispersion of domains rich in PIB containing significant amounts of the monomer (IBoMA). Polymerization of the monomer in these domains occurred at high overall conversions producing the filling of dispersed domains with a PIBoMA-PIB blend. Under these conditions the final material had the appearance of a homogeneous blend. The process might be adapted to produce new types of rubber-modified thermoplastics where rubber particles are replaced by rubber-rich domains that do not exhibit definite boundaries. Keywords:
General Relation Valid for Electrolytic Systems  [PDF]
Anna Maria Micha?owska-Kaczmarczyk, Tadeusz Micha?owski
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation (JASMI) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jasmi.2015.54009
Abstract: A simple general relation P = Q + R + 1 between the number P of kinds of species, the number Q of charge and elemental/core balances and the number R of independent equilibrium constants is deduced, and its validity is confirmed for non-redox and redox electrolytic systems, of different degree of complexity.
A new technique of arsenic determination based on electrolytic arsine generation and atomic absorption spectroscopy
MIRJANA M. SEVALJEVIC,SLAVKO V. MENTUS,STEVAN DJURIC,NIKOLA J. MARJANOVIC
Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society , 2001,
Abstract: A method for the determination of traces of arsenic in food has been developed based on electrolytic arsine generation and atomic absorption spectroscopy detection. The essence of the method is the addition of copper and tin salts to the electrolyte solution, enabling a fast and effective arsine evolution. The advantage of this method lies in the fact that it enables the simultaneous concentration of heavymetals, such as cadmium and lead, on cathode. The applicability of themethod was illustrated by determining the arsenic content in some food samples based on vegetable oils and by comparing the results with those obtained by the classical technique of chemical hydriding with sodium tetrahydroborate.
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