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Ellipsis and Economy
省略与省力

CHEN Wei-ying,
陈伟英

浙江大学学报(人文社会科学版) , 2005,
Abstract: Ellipsis is a complex and complicated phenomenon in language.It has a huge number of forms of manifestations and a large variety of circumstances associated with them.It not only involves every aspect of grammar,but also has close links with rhetoric,psychology,sociology and so on.The research on ellipsis has a long tradition both in China and abroad.But previous studies on ellipsis have largely been restricted to syntactic,semantic or textual analysis and have had a static nature.Actually,the understanding of elliptical structures depends on the cognitive and mental mechanisms which form the linguistic consciousness.This article first introduces a systematic and diachronic research about ellipsis,then analyses it from the dynamic,cognitive and pragmatic perspectives,with the view to exploring the psychological motive and value orientation in the construction of ellipsis,thereby demonstrating the dialectic relationship between ellipsis and economy.Ellipsis,a dynamic pragmatic element,exists widely in daily conversations and various registers and discursive genres.It is context-dependent,recoverable and flexible.It can serve the purposes of cohesion,coherence and conciseness.The principle of economy or the principle of the least effort is the fundamental principle to guide the human behavior.In the case of human communication and social interaction,it is also essential to understand the deep cause of elliptical occurrences.Based on a profound review of the psychological motives behind ellipsis,conclusion has been drawn that the generative mechanism of widespread ellipsis is the tendency of the least effort in the human mentality.Verbal communication follows the principle of economy.Given and old information is more likely to be omitted whereas the new one is highlighted and emphasized in explicit expressions.Therefore,the expression and reception of the communicative intention have more efficiency.Encoding and decoding of language symbols are neither time-consuming nor laborious.Generally speaking,the omitted information will be recovered within the cognitive context.If a dynamic viewpoint is adopted in the interpretation of the elliptical phenomenon,the elliptical components are represented as ellipsis to the speakers.The listeners are not obstacles to a complete and correct comprehension.Because of the listeners' adequate knowledge in the brains to recognize and cognize ellipsis,they can understand the omitted messages perfectly.This process is in fact the retracing and refilling of all the elliptical components.In other words,economy is the deep motive for ellipsis while the latter is the surface reflection of the former.On the other hand,the principle of economy should not be exaggerated to the extreme.It doesn't mean that there is no more redundancy in language use.What it really implies is that relatively economical and simpler expressions are preferred to achieve more and optimal communicative effects.The present study takes a broader histo
The Preposition (fii) in the Horizontal and Vertical Axes as Used in the Taizzi Dialect: A Cognitive Approach  [cached]
Turki Mahyoub Qaid Mohammed,Imran Ho-Abdullah,Tan Kim Hua
Asian Social Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v8n4p99
Abstract: In this paper the framework of Cognitive Grammar (CG) developed by Langacker is adopted to attain a cognitive semantic analysis of the use of the Arabic prepositions (fii) in the horizontal and vertical axes, as used in the Taizzi dialect. Although, encoding the sense of CONTAINMENT, the preposition (fii) is assumed not to play any role in the horizontal and vertical axes; the use of the preposition (fii) in the TD proves things differently. The problem with (fii) is that it is very tempting to be used in the locative sense in which one physical entity is CONTAINED WITHIN another physical entity. However, the cognitive analysis of (fii) justifies the use of this preposition in many instances of the Taizzi dialect where this preposition is seemingly exploited to encode non-containment-related spatial relations. This unfolds some of the unsolved issues concerning prepositions in general and the Arabic prepositions in particular taking the use of (fii) in the Taizzi dialect as a sample. The data presented in this paper show that speakers of the Taizzi dialect extend the use of (fii) to depict spatial relations other than the ones where the Trajector (TR) is actually contained within the boundaries of the Landmark (LM). The instances analyzed in this paper show that (fii) encodes spatial relations in which the TR and the LM are horizontally or vertically related to each other. However, the use of the preposition (fii) by speakers of the Taizzi dialect to encode these spatial relations proves they cognitively characterized the LMs as containers that contain the TRs.
THE AB INITIUAL AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS CABABILITY FOR MAINTAINING RADIOTELEPHONY USING THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE ФОРМУВАННЯ ГОТОВНОСТ МАЙБУТН Х АВ АЦ ЙНИХ ДИСПЕТЧЕР В ДО ВЕДЕННЯ РАД ООБМ НУ АНГЛ ЙСЬКОЮ МОВОЮ ФОРМУВАННЯ ГОТОВНОСТ МАЙБУТН Х АВ АЦ ЙНИХ ДИСПЕТЧЕР В ДО ВЕДЕННЯ РАД ООБМ НУ АНГЛ ЙСЬКОЮ МОВОЮ  [cached]
О. Питель
Proceedings of National Aviation University , 2011,
Abstract: The radiotelephony as the obligatory condition of ab initiual specialists training is outlined. As a result, its aim, object, subject, spheres of application and components have been determined. It is well- proven that for successful realization of professional activity it`s necessary to maintain effective communication in different aviation modes.The role of radiotelephony as a key component in ab initiual air traffic controllers work is determined Розглянуто питання рад ообм ну англ йською мовою майбутн ми ав ац йнимидиспетчерами. Досл джено рад ообм н як обов’язкову умову п дготовки майбутньогоспец ал ста.The problem of the ab initiual air traffic controllers cabability for maintaining radiotelephonyusing the English language is considered in the article. The radiotelephony as the obligatorycondition of ab initiual specialists training is outlined.Рассмотрена проблема радиообмена на английском языке будущими авиационнымидиспетчерами. Исследован радиообмен как обязательное условие подготовки будущегоспециалиста. Розглянуто мету, об’ кт, предмет, сфери застосування та складов п дго-товки ав ац йнихдиспетчер в. Показано, що для усп шно реал зац профес йно д яльност ав ац йним дис-петчерам потр бно зд йснювати ефективну комун кац ю в р зноман тних ав ац йних режи-мах. Визначено роль рад ообм ну як ключового компонента в робот майбутн х ав ац йнихдиспетчер в
Cognitive approach to information retrieval and communication
Sa?a Zupani?
Knji?nica : Revija za Podro?je Bibliotekarstva in Informacijske Znanosti , 1997,
Abstract: Cognitive approach (viewpoint/standpoirit) in the retrieval and communication of information, as well as in librarianship and information science has started gaining importance in the 70's. Today, it is present in literary and objective knowledge studies, as well as in studies of users,information brokers and systems of information retrieval.Cognitive approach exercises strong impact on several scientific disciplines which are grouped under the roof of cognitive science. The cognitive approach has caused split and the formation of a new paradigm, i.e. the cognitive paradigm, in many scientific disciplines.In the frames of the definition of Kuhn's concept of paradigm, it is evident that librarianship and information science are on the pre-paradigmatic level. I Iowever,some authors mention the existence of at least two paradigms in library and information science, i.e. physical and cognitive paradigm.The hi torical overview of cognitive oriented research works of Brookes, De Mey,Belkin, Ingwersen and others enables the insight into the development of library and information scientific thought up to the present.
A Kind of Ellipsis in Shahnameh  [cached]
Dr. A. Mohammadi,E. Parastegari
Literary Arts , 2013,
Abstract: Some consider ellipsis as a Phenomenon to avoid redundant words, but poets look at it not only as a valuable point which is avoidance of redundant words, but also sometimes as a linguistic technique.Perhaps the main and initial goal of ellipsis had been the least effort principle according to linguistics. However, in 10th to 13th century AD, there had been a kind of ellipsis in Persian that involved a specific structure and poets have looked at it as a literal and linguistic technique. Writers and linguists have rather indicated different kinds of ellipsis.The ellipsis which is mentioned in this study is not addressed in any grammatical and linguistic topic. Although, this grammatical and linguistic feature is not attributed exclusively to Shahnameh; but its frequency of occurrence in Shahnameh are more than other texts. A reader who is not aware of such an ellipsis may not communicate with text naturally. There are two advantages in knowing such an ellipsis: First, the reader can communicate with text easily. Second, being acquainted with this structure, the editor of the text can have a better realization of a fake version.Background of ellipsis provided in this studyThe kind of ellipsis provided in the present study is not mentioned in our old grammatical research. This specific grammatical structure is not derived from the necessity of rhythm and rhyme that some researchers mentioned in poetry. The ellipses, consider in this article, are those that can be found in conditional. We have called this ellipsis "odd ellipsis" in this article. According to accomplishments of this study. This kind of ellipsis includes a clear and known farm a work for poets and writers of previous periods. It can be said that the structure of this kind of ellipsis is plotted in compound or conditional sentences. The first conditional sentence +[components of first condition which is omitted]+ second condition whose content is omitted; but linking words are present + the components of second condition: this formulae can be applied on these two verses from Shahnameh: In these two verses, we face a noteworthy sentence. The first sentence is conditional. Simple meaning of the verses is "If you come without bearing any grudge and kill the enemies", the sentence in quotation is the first part conditional sentence. This sentence needs an answer for the condition but it’s not followed by the answer; on the other hand another condition has raised and this condition contains its o
ParseTalk about Textual Ellipsis  [PDF]
Michael Strube,Udo Hahn
Computer Science , 1995,
Abstract: A hybrid methodology for the resolution of text-level ellipsis is presented in this paper. It incorporates conceptual proximity criteria applied to ontologically well-engineered domain knowledge bases and an approach to centering based on functional topic/comment patterns. We state text grammatical predicates for ellipsis and then turn to the procedural aspects of their evaluation within the framework of an actor-based implementation of a lexically distributed parser.
El significado de la preposición 'de': un enfoque cognitivo-prototípico THE MEANING OF THE PREPOSITION 'DE: A COGNITIVE-PROTOTYPE FOCUS  [cached]
María Soledad Funes
Boletín de Filología , 2012,
Abstract: El carácter léxico de la preposición 'de' no siempre ha sido reconocido debidamente por cuanto las preposiciones no pueden funcionar independientemente y por la variedad de significados que se les atribuye. Considerando este vacío teórico, el presente trabajo, enmarcado en el Enfoque Cognitivo-Prototípico (Lakoff 1987; Langacker 1987, 1991; Hopper 1988; Geeraerts 2007; entre otros), plantea las siguientes hipótesis: a) los distintos valores semánticos de la preposición 'de' (en construcciones adnominales) están organizados sistemáticamente y configuran un ítem polisémico; b) el ítem polisémico 'de' se caracteriza por organizarse (1) mediante una estructura de categoría radial (Lakoff 1987), (2) sobre la base del modelo cognitivo idealizado del punto de referencia (Langacker 1991) y (3) a partir de los atributos de Taylor (1995) para el uso posesivo, que es el uso prototípico; c) finalmente, las construcciones con 'de' que se alejan del valor prototípico siguen guardando relación semántico-pragmática con este por 'semejanza de familia' (Wittgenstein 1988[1953]; Lakoff 1987). Esta relación de semejanza contempla tanto la pérdida como el agregado de atributos no presentes en la zona prototípica. Para demostrar estas hipótesis, se analizaron cualitativamente diversos ejemplos de las extensiones semánticas surgidas del sentido central de posesión. Los ejemplos fueron seleccionados de un corpus oral del espa ol de Buenos Aires. The lexical nature of the preposition 'de' has not always been recognized duly. This is because prepositions cannot work independently and also because of the variety of meanings that they convey. In view of this theoretical gap, the present study -in line with the Prototypical-Cognitive Approach (Lakoff 1987, Langacker 1987, 1991, Hopper 1988, Geeraerts 2007, among others)- formulates the following hypotheses: a) the different semantic values of the preposition 'de' (in nominal constructions) are systematically organized and constitute a polysemous item; b) the polysemous item 'de' is characterized by being organized (1) by a radial structure (Lakoff 1987), (2) on the basis of the idealized cognitive model of 'reference point' (Langacker 1991); and (3) through Taylor's (1995) attributes for possessive use, which is its prototypical meaning. Finally, the constructions with 'de' which deviate from the prototypical values maintain a semantico-pragmatic relationship with them by means of the notion of 'family resemblance' (Wittgenstein 1988[1953]; Lakoff 1987). This resemblance relationship includes both the loss and addition of attribute
О первом актанте русского предлога
(On the First Actant of the Russian Preposition)

Lennart L?nngren
Poljarnyj Vestnik , 2007,
Abstract: n the typical case, semantic (i.e., valency-carrying) prepositions are two- place predicates. The noun governed by the preposition can be regarded as its second actant. This is the actant together with which the preposition forms a syntactic preposition phrase. The first actant often, but not always, precedes the preposition. Unlike the second actant, the form of the first actant is not determined by the preposition. In the article, the inventory of possible forms of the first actant is established. Moreover, special attention is paid to ambiguous constructions. For example, the preposition together with its second actant can function as an attribute of the first actant. Under certain circumstances, however, the preposition phrase may become detached, so that it is no longer syntac- tically, only semantically, connected with the first actant.
An Inventory of Preposition Relations  [PDF]
Vivek Srikumar,Dan Roth
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: We describe an inventory of semantic relations that are expressed by prepositions. We define these relations by building on the word sense disambiguation task for prepositions and propose a mapping from preposition senses to the relation labels by collapsing semantically related senses across prepositions.
Cognitive Semiotics Approach for Communication Development of Language Learners
T. Uvaraj,Mumtaz Begum,Gopi @ Pavadai. K
Theory and Practice in Language Studies , 2011, DOI: 10.4304/tpls.1.10.1420-1423
Abstract: Communication is a two way mode of expression between the encoder and the decoder. The role of communication in the human society is sharing the affective and cognitive attributes to interact. Many times communicated message failed to understand or process by the receiver. Researches proved that lack of skills in communication results to false understanding. The language has four communication skills (Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing) where the representations are in the forms of signs and symbols. The task of the language teacher is making the learner to construct meaningful semantic and syntactic representations by signs and symbols to enhance the communication competencies. The lack of thematic, vocabulary and grammatical structures insists the language learners to struggle in expressing their thinking in written and spoken form. Thinking depends on the cognition activities, i.e., Representation and Computation. Cognitive is an interdisciplinary study of the mental phenomena involving human mind in terms of perception, memory and language. Semiotics is the study of signs or symbols and Cognitive semiotics studies the relations between signs and language. This paper explores the role of cognition and semiotics in developing better and effective communication in spoken and written forms of Language learners by the Language teachers.
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