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Study on Survival Strategies of Farmers Engage in Small-Scale Household Cultivation of Edible Mushrooms: Take Shandong Province as an Example  [PDF]
Min Li, Jilian Hu
Modern Economy (ME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/me.2014.512100

Small-scale household production of edible mushrooms by farmers is the major source of edible mushrooms in China. However, large-scale enterprises who engage in commercial cultivation of edible mushrooms has been growing at a relatively fast pace, bringing about challenges for small-scale farmers. With the purpose of help maintain small-scale farmers’ ability to survive in this fiercely competitive landscape, this paper first analyzes their competitive advantages, disadvantages and survival strategies, employing the methods of field survey and comparative observation. Based on these analyses, suggestions concerning how to strengthen the survivability of small-scale farmers are proposed, focusing on further lowering production cost and optimizing cooperative modes.

Study on Co-Opetition in China’s Edible Mushroom Industry: Take Shandong Province as an Example  [PDF]
Min Li, Jilian Hu, Yanxiang Ge
Modern Economy (ME) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/me.2018.91001
Abstract: During the last few years, large-scale enterprises that engage in commercial cultivation of edible mushrooms have been growing at a very fast pace, bringing about new changes to the industrial structure of the edible mushroom industry. Co-existence of large-scale enterprises and small-scale farmers has become the long-term status quo of the edible mushroom industry. How to promote proportional development for these two important industrial bodies has become a pressing issue for the edible mushroom industry in Shandong Province. This paper studies Co-opetition in the edible mushroom industry in Shandong Province, in regard to aspects and effect on industrial competition pattern, motives, benefits, potential challenges and evolution of co-opetition. This paper concludes that by carrying out price insurance on edible mushrooms, developing intermediary organizations and reinforcing government support, co-opetition between the two will become more efficient, which in turn, will promote the evolution to the mode of “balanced co-opetition” and optimize the organization of the edible mushroom industry.


菌物学报 , 1988,
Abstract: China has a vast area with various natural conditions in climate, geography and ecology etc. The resources of edible fungi are rich and widely distribute throughout the country. Mycological research in recent years discovered that many edible fungi possess pharmaceutical value and are called "healthy food". Out of these pharmaceutical fungi, about 100 species are recognized to have anticancer property.In this paper 657 species of wild edible fungi are recorded which belong to 132 genera of 41 families. Among them, 620 species (94.4%) are Basidiomycetes. 37 species (5.6%) are Ascomycetes. All of them are macrofungi belonging to the families such as Tricholomotaceae, Russulaceae, Boletaceae, Agaricaceae, Pleurotaceae, Clavariaceae, Cortinariaceae, Strophariaceae, Hygrophoriaceae, Morchellaceae, Cantharellaceae, Hydnaceae, Polyporaceae etc.According to their habitat, these wild edible fungi may be grouped into the following types: lignicolous 138 species; geophilous 128; coprophilous 9; entomophilous 12 and ectomycorrhizal 352.
A revised checklist of edible fungi in China

DAI Yu-Cheng,ZHOU Li-Wei,YANG Zhu-Liang,WEN Hua-An,BAU Tolgor,LI Tai-Hui,

菌物学报 , 2010,
Abstract: The publications on Chinese edible fungi were critically reviewed, and 187 previously mentioned edible fungi were excluded and 82 newly found species were added. As a result, 966 taxa including 936 species, 23 varieties, 3 subspecies and 4 forms from China were enumerated in the present checklist. All of the names were checked or revised in accordance with the contemporary taxonomy and the latest version of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna Code).
Advances in studies of edible mycorrhizal fungi

TANG Chao,CHEN Ying-Long,LIU Run-Jin,

菌物学报 , 2011,
Abstract: Edible mycorrhizal fungi (EMF) play a vital role in forest ecosystem and generally have nutritional, economic and ecological values. This report summarizes current advances in the study of EMF with particular references to China. Topics covered in this review include resource distribution and utilization, physiological and ecological functioning of EMF, as well as advanced techniques in fungal domestication and cultivation. Opportunities and challenges in the development of EMF in China, and global hotspots in research and development of EMF, are discussed.
Collection, marketing and cultivation of edible fungi in Spain  [cached]
M. de Román,E. Boa
Micología Aplicada Internacional , 2004,
Abstract: We report a total of 61 species of wild edible fungi collected and eaten in Spain. It may no longer be considered a mycophobic country. A tradition of wild edible fungi has existed in Catalu a and País Vasco for many years, but now includes significant consumption and marketing of Boletus spp., Cantharellus cibarius and Lactarius deliciosus, and others, from Aragón, Castilla-León, Madrid, Andalucía and Valencia. The most successful attempts cultivating edible ectomycorrhizal fungi, have been made with Tuber melanosporum Vitt., the black truffle. Its cultivation involves the inoculation in the nursery of seedlings of Quercus ilex L., Q. faginea Lam., Q. humilis Miller and Corylus avellana L. Truffles appear 8-10 years after the seedlings are planted in fields, and are harvested with the aid of trained dogs. The average annual production of black truffle in Spain is 22,400 kg, and prices range from 100 /kg to 360 /kg paid to the collector. The success with T. melanosporum encouraged mycologists to try to grow other edible ectomycorrhizal fungi to guarantee a stable production able to meet the increasing demand of these products.
Tapping into the edible fungi biodiversity of Central India  [PDF]
Biodiversitas , 2010,
Abstract: Karwa A, Rai MK (2010) Tapping into the edible fungi biodiversity of Central India. Biodiversitas 11: 97-101. Melghat forest in Central India was surveyed for occurrence of wild edible fungi and their prevalent favorable ecological factors. Studies were carried out for three consequent years in the months of June to February (2006-2008). A total of 153 species of mushrooms were recorded, collected, photographed and preserved. The enormous biomass in the forest favors variety of edible and medicinal mushrooms. Dominating species belong to genera Agaricus, Pleurotus, Termitomyces, Cantharellus, Ganoderma, Auricularia, Schizophyllum, Morchella, etc. The biotechnological potential of these important mushrooms is needed to be exploited. These studies will open new avenues in improvement of breeding programs of commercially cultivated mushroom species.
Catalytic Properties of Tyrosinase from Potato and Edible Fungi
Zhen Yang,Fengyin Wu
Biotechnology , 2006,
Abstract: Tyrosinase (EC was extracted from potato (Somanum tuberosum) and four edible fungi such as Agaricus bisporus (Ab), Lentinus edodes (Le), Voluariella voluacea (Vv) and Pleurotus eryngii (Pe). The activity, kinetic parameters (Km, Vmax), optimum pH and temperature, activation energy and stability of the enzyme from different sources were determined. Comparatively, tyrosinase from Ab presented the highest activity and stability. The activity order was related to the intrinsic specific activity of the enzyme, the extraction efficiency and the assay conditions.
Research on the International Competitiveness and Potential Development of Edible Fungi Products in China

- , 2016,
Abstract: 基于1992-2014年联合国商品贸易统计(UN COMTRADE),从全球贸易视角出发,利用MS指数、TC指数、RCA指数、DTL指数以及TCI指数,分析了中国食用菌产品贸易现状、竞争力及贸易潜力,并在此基础上进行国别比较。结果发现:1992-2014年,中国食用菌出口额的国际市场占比呈现“持续上升 波动下降 波动上升”态势,年均市场占有率保持在36.55%水平上,是世界重要的食用菌出口大国;与法国、美国、波兰和韩国相比,中国在世界食用菌贸易中的竞争力明显;中国与日本食用菌贸易存在互补性并具有较大的贸易潜力。基于以上分析,提出稳定现有品种,加大野生珍稀食用菌良种培育研发;巩固传统贸易市场,积极开拓中国食用菌贸易新领域;健全食用菌产品生产标准体系,做好出口监管与稽查工作,推进中国食用菌产品贸易的进一步发展。
On the basis of United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Database (UN COMTRADE),this paper employed International Market Share Index (MS),Trade Competitive Index (TC),Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA),Degree of Trade Linkage (DTL) and Trade Complementarity Index (TCI) to analyze the current situation,competitiveness and potential development of edible fungi products in China and to make a comparison between China and other countries.Results show that: ① the international market share of China’s edible fungi from 1992 to 2014 has experienced three major phases,namely the rising phase,the fluctuating decreasing phase and the fluctuating rising phase,and annual market share has remained at 36.55%.② compared with France,USA,Poland and South Korea,China’s edible fungi trade is a stronger worldly competitive power.③ the trade of edible fungi between China and Japan is complementary and has great trade potentiality.On the basis of analysis,suggestions are put forward to maintain the current species,promote research and development of China’s thoroughbred breeding of rare edible fungi,consolidate the traditional trading market and actively explore new trade markets,establish and improve the edible fungus production standard system,strictly implement export supervision and inspection work so as to promote the further development of China’s edible fungi product trade.
Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Main Edible Fungi Species in China——Based on Shiitake Mushroom and Oyster Mushroom

- , 2015,
Abstract: 运用空间统计学相关方法对中国及31个省区2001-2013年两大食用菌主要品种(香菇和平菇)的时序演变规律和空间分布变化进行分析。结果显示,中国食用菌产业发展迅速,总体差距缩小,但区域间差异明显;食用菌主产区由原来的东部沿海、中部、华南和东北为主的格局,逐渐演变为以东部沿海、华中、华北和东北地区为主的新格局,福建的“中心”地位被河南和山东所代替,“南菇北移”的现象异常明显;香菇和平菇在空间上均呈现明显的空间正相关性和集聚现象,平菇的集聚现象更为明显。
This paper analyzes the spatial and temporal evolution of two main edible fungi species——the shiitake mushroom and oyster mushroom,from 31 provinces in China between 2001 and 2013 by employing the method of spatial statistics.The result shows that the edible fungi industry is developing rapidly in China,the general gap is narrowing,but the difference between regions is evident.The main edible fungi producing areas is gradually evolved from the eastern coastal,central,south China and northeast China to the eastern coastal,central China,north China and northeast of China,and Fujian’s core location status was replaced by Henan and Shandong provinces.The phenomenon of edible fungi producing areas changing from south to north is obvious at the same time.Shiitake mushroom and oyster mushroom have the obvious spatial correlation in space and agglomeration phenomenon,and the aggregation of oyster mushroom is more obvious than that of shiitake mushroom.
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