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On the formation of porous structure during the synthesis of macroporous copolymers based on glycidyl methacrylate  [PDF]
Jovanovi? Slobodan M.,Nastasovi? Aleksandra B.
Hemijska Industrija , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/hemind0411487j
Abstract: The results obtained during the investigation of the influence of the inert component composition and the type of copolymerization reaction on the porosity parameters of the macroporous copolymer of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGMA) [abbreviated poly(GMA-co-EG-DMA)] are presented. A mixture of cyclohexanol and aliphatic alcohol or non-ionic surfactants with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance values (HLB) of 5 or 9 was used as the inert component. The copolymerization was performed in suspension and in a cast. It was shown that poly(GMA-co-EGDMA) samples with enhanced porosity were obtained in the case of copolymerization in a cast, compared with samples obtained by suspension copolymerization. Also, it was concluded that the inert component solubility parameter cannot be used as the only criterium which determines the formation of the macro porous structure in poly(GMA-co-EGDMA).
Characterization of amyloglucosidase immobilized on the copolymer of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and glycidyl methacrylate in simulated industrial conditions
Milosavi? Nenad B.,Prodanovi? Radivoje M.,Jovanovi? Slobodan M.,Maksimovi? Vuk M.
Hemijska Industrija , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/hemind0411493m
Abstract: The application of amyloglucosidase immobilized on the macroporous co-polymer of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and glycidyl methacrylate (poly (GMA-co-EGDMA)) in an enzyme reactor was shown. The higher thermostability of immobilized glucoamylases than the soluble one was demonstrated. Immobilized amyloglucosidase obtained by the periodate method shows two times higher thermo stability than the soluble form. Glucoamylases immobilized on poly (GMA-co-EGDMA) have good mechanical and chemical features in the reactor and when applied in a continuous flow reactor for 28 days no changes are observed. In this period periodate immobilized amyloglucosidase shows no decrease in activity. It showed potential for the continuous production of glucose from starch over a prolonged period of time.
Scavenging Properties of the Polyamine Functionalized Gels Based on the Glycidyl Methacrylate Terpolymers  [PDF]
Agnieszka Bukowska, Wiktor Bukowski, Maciej Pytel
Open Journal of Polymer Chemistry (OJPChem) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpchem.2015.54008
Abstract: Scavenging abilities of the ethylenediamine, diethylenetriamine and tris(2-aminoethyl)amine functionalized resins derived from the low cross-linked glycidyl methacrylate-styrene gels in relation to the selected transition metal ions and organic (acid chlorides) electrophiles were explored. The synergetic effects of the solvents were found for the metal ion uptake. In this case a pair of solvents capable simultaneously to swell the hydrophobic core of the resins and interact with the polar amine groups turned out to be a more effective medium for activation of the nucleophilic functionalities of the resins. The resin with ethylenediamine moieties proved to be effective in scavenging acyl chlorides from methylene chloride as well. However, it did not provide complete removing sulphonyl chlorides from the solutions. These organic electrophiles were removed effectively by the resins bearing tris(2-aminoethyl)amine functionalities.
Modification of Poly(Glycidyl Methacrylate-Divinylbenzene)Porous Microspheres with Polyethylene Glycol and Their Use as HIC Medium for Protein Adsorption

ZHANG Ying,WANG Ren-wei,MA Guang-hui,TAN Tian-wei,SU Zhi-guo,

过程工程学报 , 2006,
Abstract: 用悬浮聚合方法合成了富含环氧基团的多孔聚(甲基丙烯酸环氧丙酯-二乙烯基苯)Poly(Glycidyl Methacrylate-Divinylbenzene),P(GMA-DVB)]微球,为了消除其对蛋白质的不可逆吸附,探索用聚乙二醇(Polyethylene Glycol,PEG)对微球进行改性,制备了带有PEG配基的P(GMA-DVB)微球.实验考察了反应条件对PEG固载量的影响规律,发现最适反应温度为80℃.以牛血清白蛋白(Bovine Serum Albumin,BSA)和胰蛋白酶作为模型蛋白,考察了PEG改性前后P(GMA-DVB)微球对蛋白质的吸附性能.改性前P(GMA-DVB)微球有30%~40%的不可逆吸附,蛋白质回收率仅为60%~70%.改性后介质消除了不可逆吸附,对蛋白质的吸附作用表现为可逆的疏水相互作用,吸附BSA和胰蛋白酶的质量回收率和活性回收率都在97%以上.结果表明,PEG-P(GMA-DVB)微球可以作为一种新型介质进一步应用于蛋白质的吸附与分离.
Functionalized macroporous copolymer of glycidyl methacrylate: The type of ligand and porosity parameters influence on Cu(II) ion sorption from aqueous solutions  [PDF]
Sandi? Zvjezdana P.,Nastasovi? Aleksandra B.
Hemijska Industrija , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/hemind0903269s
Abstract: The removal of heavy metals from hydro-metallurgical and other industries' wastewaters, their safe storage and possible recovery from waste- water streams is one of the greater ecological problems of modern society. Conventional methods, like precipitation, adsorption and biosorption, electrowinning, membrane separation, solvent extraction and ion exchange are often ineffective, expensive and can generate secondary pollution. On the other hand, chelating polymers, consisting of crosslinked copolymers as a solid support and functional group (ligand), are capable of selectively loading different metal ions from aqueous solutions. In the relatively simple process, the chelating copolymer is contacted with the contaminated solution, loaded with metal ions, and stripped with the appropriate eluent. Important properties of chelating polymers are high capacity, high selectivity and fast kinetics combined with mechanical stability and chemical inertness. Macroporous hydrophilic copolymers of glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate modified by different amines show outstanding efficiency and selectivity for the sorption of precious and heavy metals from aqueous solutions. In this study poly(GMA-co-EGDMA) copolymers were synthesized with different porosity parameters and functionalized in reactions with ethylene diamine (EDA), diethylene triamine (DETA) and triethylene tetramine (TETA). Under non-competitive conditions, in batch experiments at room temperature, the rate of sorption of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solutions and the influence of pH on it was determined for four samples of amino-functionalized poly(GMA-co-EGDMA). The sorption of Cu(II) for both amino-functionalized samples was found to be very rapid. The sorption half time, t1/2, defined as the time required to reach 50% of the total sorption capacity, was between 1 and 2 min. The maximum sorption capacity for copper (2.80 mmol/g) was obtained on SGE-10/12-deta sample. The sorption capacity of Cu(II) ions increases with increasing pH and has maximum at pH ~5. In the experimental pH range, the maximum sorption capacity of Cu(II) ions again is reached on SGE-10/12-deta. By comparing literature data and obtained results it is possible to conclude that amino-functionalized macroporous copolymers based on glycidyl methacrylate are efficient for sorption of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solutions and sorption capacity for copper mostly depends on type of amine with which the basic copolymer is functionalized.
Preparation of Novel Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate)-Grafted Core-Shell Magnetic Chitosan Microspheres and Immobilization of Lactase  [PDF]
Wei Zhao,Rui-Jin Yang,Ting-Ting Qian,Xiao Hua,Wen-Bin Zhang,Wendy Katiyo
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijms140612073
Abstract: Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate- co-glycidyl methacrylate)-grafted magnetic chitosan microspheres (HG-MCM) were prepared using reversed-phase suspension polymerization method. The HG-MCM presented a core-shell structure and regular spherical shape with poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate- co-glycidyl methacrylate) grafted onto the chitosan layer coating the Fe 3O 4 cores. The average diameter of the magnetic microspheres was 10.67 μm, within a narrow size distribution of 6.6–17.4 μm. The saturation magnetization and retentivity of the magnetic microspheres were 7.0033 emu/g and 0.6273 emu/g, respectively. The application of HG-MCM in immobilization of lactase showed that the immobilized enzyme presented higher storage, pH and thermal stability compared to the free enzyme. This indicates that HG-MCM have potential applications in bio-macromolecule immobilization.
Ring opening polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate by Maghnite-H+ a solid catalyst
Lahcene Souli,Amine Harrane,Rachid Meghabar,Mokhtar B. Lahrech
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry , 2011,
Abstract: In the present work the ring-opening polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) using Maghnite-H+, a proton exchanged montmorillonite clay as initiator is reported. The influences of solvent, weight ratio of initiator/monomer and reaction time on the conversion of monomer and on the molecular weight are investigated. Increasing Maghnite-H+ proportion increases (GMA) conversion and decreases the average molecular weight of resulted polymer. A cationic mechanism for the reaction was proposed.
Effect of Melt Mixing Time in Internal Mixer on Mechanical Properties and Crystallization Behavior of Glycidyl Methacrylate Grafted Poly (Lactic Acid)  [PDF]
Nguyen Chi Thanh, Chaiwat Ruksakulpiwat, Yupaporn Ruksakulpiwat
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering (MSCE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/msce.2015.37013

Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) was grafted onto poly (lactic acid) (PLA) by melt mixing in internal mixer using dicumyl peroxide (DCP) as an initiator. The results from proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy indicated that the grafting reaction of GMA onto PLA took place successfully. The impact strength of PLA-g-GMA was significantly higher than that of pure PLA. The crystallinity of PLA, obtained from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), decreased after grafting. In order to obtain the optimal mixing conditions, the mixing time was varied into 7, 10 and 14 min. The optimum mixing time of 10 min was found to give the optimum mechanical properties of glycidyl methacrylate grafted poly (lactic acid) (PLA-g- GMA). However, the mixing time played no important role in impact behavior of PLA-g-GMA. In addition, the highest crystallinity was obtained with the PLA-g-GMA prepared with the mixing time of 7 min.

Polypropylene grafted with glycidyl methacrylate using supercritical CO2 medium
Kunita, M. H.;Girotto, E. M.;Muniz, E. C.;Rubira, A. F.;
Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-66322006000200015
Abstract: films of polypropylene (pp) were grafted with glycidil methacrylate (gma) using supercritical co2 as swelling agent and solvent. different pressures and temperatures were used to study their effects on the soaking and grafting process. ftir results showed signals at 1726 and 1640 cm-1, assigned to c=o and c=c (after the soaking process), and a decreased signal at 1640 cm-1 (after the grafting procedure), suggesting the effective grafting of gma. for the grafted material immersed in ethylenediamine, peaks in the 3600 to 3250 cm-1 range (n-h stretching) were evident. contact angle measurements showed an increasingly hydrophilic nature in the direction from pure pp to grafted pp/gma (pp-g-gma) to pp-g-gma immersed in ethylenediamine (pp-g-gma/en). x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy provided evidenced of the effective incorporation of ethylenediamine in the grafted material.
Selective Controlled/Living Photoradical Polymerization of Glycidyl Methacrylate, Using a Nitroxide Mediator in the Presence of a Photosensitive Triarylsulfonium Salt  [PDF]
Eri Yoshida
Polymers , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/polym4031580
Abstract: The controlled/living photoradical polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) was attained using 4-methoxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (MTEMPO) as the mediator and (2RS,2'RS)-azobis(4-methoxy-2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) as the initiator in the presence of (4- tert-butylphenyl)diphenylsulfonium triflate ( tBuS). Whereas the polymerization in the absence of MTEMPO yielded a gel-containing polymer, the MTEMPO-mediated polymerization produced poly(GMA) bonded at the vinyl site, and retained the oxirane ring structure. No occurrence of the cationic ring-opening photopolymerization of the oxirane ring even in the presence of the photosensitive onium salt indicated that tBuS served as the photoelectron transfer agent between MTEMPO in their excited states at the propagating chain end. The resulting polymers had comparatively narrow molecular weight distributions of M w/ M n = 1.46–1.48. The living nature of the MTEMPO-mediated polymerization was confirmed on the basis of a linear increase in the conversion-molecular weight plots and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis.
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