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The Causes of Dormancy and the Changes of Endogenous Hormone Content in Cephalotaxus sinensis Seeds  [PDF]
Qianqian Si, Yan Ma, Dekui Zang
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/as.2016.712076
Abstract:
In many wild species, seeds are dormancy at maturity and will not germinate even under favorable environment conditions. Dormancy is a complex trail that is determined by many factors. Some studies have shown that cold stratification and the application of gibberellic acid (GA) can break seed dormancy and promote seed germination. The present study investigated the causes of plant dormancy and the effect of cold stratification and different concentrations of exogenous GA3 in regulating Cephalotaxus sinensis seed germination. Results showed that C. Sinensis seeds have good water permeability, which suggested that seed coats were not the main cause that inhibited the seed germination. There were germination inhibitions in all parts of seeds, and the order of inhibitory effect was: testa < endosperm (embryo), which indicated that existence of germination inhibitions was the main reason causing seed dormancy. Endogenous GAs and IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) content increased, while ABA (abscisic acid) content decreased over the experiments. ZR (zeatin riboside) content decreased in the early phase of cold stratification, but rebounded by the end of the experimental period. The changes of endogenous hormone indicated that GA, IAA and ZR played a positive role in seed germination, whereas ABA was associated with seed dormancy. Besides, the relative ratio of GA/ABA, IAA/ABA and ZR/ABA may play a more important role than their absolute level during the seed development.
Development and Validation of a HPLC Method for Determination of Flavone Glycoside-Camellianin B in Cephalotaxus Sinensis
Development and Validation of a HPLC Method for Determination of Flavone Glycoside-Camellianin B in Cephalotaxus Sinensis
 [PDF]

Yongqian Zhang,Zhihui Xu,Chao Wei,Yan Chen,Yulin Deng
- , 2017, DOI: 10.15918/j.jbit1004-0579.201726.0119
Abstract: A simple, rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of camellianin B in Cephalotaxus sinensis (C. sinensis) a natural plant with anti-hyperglycemic effect, was developed and validated by reversed phase liquid chromatography. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column and an isocratic elution was carried out at a flow-rate of 1.0 mL·min-1 with the acetonitrile-water containing 0.1% formic acid (19:81, v/v). The detection wavelength was set at 330 nm. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 0.25-50 μg·mL-1 with correlation coefficients larger than 0.999 5. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.09 μg·mL-1and 0.25 μg·mL-1, respectively. The precisions and accuracy for all samples were acceptable. The validated method has been successfully applied for the quantification of camellianin B in C. sinensis harvested in different months and may also be used as the quality evaluation of this herb medicine.
A simple, rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of camellianin B in Cephalotaxus sinensis (C. sinensis) a natural plant with anti-hyperglycemic effect, was developed and validated by reversed phase liquid chromatography. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column and an isocratic elution was carried out at a flow-rate of 1.0 mL·min-1 with the acetonitrile-water containing 0.1% formic acid (19:81, v/v). The detection wavelength was set at 330 nm. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 0.25-50 μg·mL-1 with correlation coefficients larger than 0.999 5. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.09 μg·mL-1and 0.25 μg·mL-1, respectively. The precisions and accuracy for all samples were acceptable. The validated method has been successfully applied for the quantification of camellianin B in C. sinensis harvested in different months and may also be used as the quality evaluation of this herb medicine.
Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de três cultivares de trigo submetidas à inocula o e diferentes tratamentos Physiological quality of seeds of three wheat cultivars for different treatments  [cached]
Leandro Rampim,Andréia Cristina Peres Rodrigues-Costa,Herbert Nacke,Jeferson Klein
Revista Brasileira de Sementes , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/s0101-31222012000400020
Abstract: Objetivou-se avaliar a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de trigo submetidas aos tratamentos com bioestimulante, triadimenol e Azospirillum brasilense. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, quatro repeti es, esquema fatorial 3x8, três cultivares de trigo e oito tratamentos de sementes. As cultivares foram CD-150, CD-116 e CD-104, e os tratamentos foram obtidos da combina o entre: 150 g.L-1 de triadimenol (TRI); 90 mg.L-1 de cinetina + 50 mg.L-1 de ácido giberélico + 50 mg.L-1 de ácido indolbutírico (CGA) e estirpes Ab-V5 e Ab-V6 de A. brasilense na concentra o de 2,0 x 10(8) células viáveis mL-1 (AZO), organizados da seguinte forma: testemunha; TRI; CGA; AZO; TRI+CGA; TRI+AZO; CGA+AZO e TRI+CGA+AZO. Foi avaliada a germina o e plantulas anormais (%); comprimento da parte aérea, hipocótilo e raiz; diametro do hipocótilo; número de raiz; massa seca da parte aérea e raiz, e a rela o raiz/parte aérea. Os resultados evidenciaram que: os tratamentos n o influenciaram a germina o; o bioestimulante e Azospirillum brasilense isolados ou em associa o proporcionaram incrementos no desenvolvimento inicial de plantulas de trigo, e o triadimenol isolado ou associado com bioestimulante ou A. brasilense proporcionou menores valores de comprimento da parte aérea, hipocótilo, raiz e número de raiz, independente da cultivar testada. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological quality of wheat seed treated with plant growth regulators, triadimenol and Azospirillum brasilense. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications in a 3x8factorial: three wheat cultivars and eight seed treatments. The cultivars used were CD-150, CD-116 and CD-104, and the treatments were a combination of three different substances: 150 g.L-1 triadimenol (TRI), 90 mg.L-1 kinetin + 50 mg.L-1 giberellic acid + 50 mg.L-1 indolebutyric acid (CGA) and strains Ab-V5 and Ab-V6 of A. brasilense at a concentration of 2.0 x 10(8) viable cells mL-1 (AZO), as follows: control, TRI, CGA, AZO, TRI+CGA, TRI+AZO, AZO+CGA and TRI+CGA+AZO. Germination and abnormal seedlings (%), shoot and hypocotyl length and the diameter, length and number of roots, dry weight of shoot and root/shoot were determined. The results showed that: the treatments did not affect seed germination; the treatments did not increases the early development of wheat seedlings and triadimenol alone or in combination with A. brasilense plant growth regulator resulted in lower values for shoot, root and hypocotyl length and root number for all the cultivars.
Physiological potential of cauliflower seeds
Kikuti, Ana Lúcia Pereira;Marcos-Filho, Julio;
Scientia Agricola , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-90162008000400008
Abstract: the assessment of seed physiological performance is essential to provide consistent information to compose quality control programs conducted by seed companies and allow prompt decisions to reduce post-harvest and commercialization problems. this research was carried to evaluate the efficiency of different procedures to determine cauliflower seed vigor. six lots of the cultivar sharon were initially characterized by germination and seedling emergence, and subsequently subjected to traditional and saturated salt accelerated aging, controlled deterioration, electrical conductivity, and potassium leachate tests, in two evaluation times. the traditional accelerated aging (41oc/48 h), the saturated salt procedure (45oc/72 h), the controlled deterioration (moisture content adjusted to 20% or 22% and aging at 45oc/24 h), the electrical conductivity (50 seeds/75 ml water and evaluation after 4 h) and the potassium leakage (25 seeds/50 ml of water and evaluation after 30 min) laboratory tests are sensitive to detect differences in the physiological potential of cauliflower seeds. however, those results did not relate to the percentage seedling emergence in greenhouse controlled conditions, as a consequence of the favorable conditions for emergence. however, the differences identified in the tests may be related to the ability of seed lots to perform in less favorable environments.
中国粗榧杀虫活性初步研究
Preliminary study on insecticidal activity of extracts from Cephalotaxus sinensis
 [PDF]

马树杰,李雪娇,马志卿,
- , 2016,
Abstract: 【目的】明确中国粗榧的杀虫活性并初步探索其活性成分分离条件,为进一步深入研究中国粗榧的杀虫作用奠定基础。【方法】采用室内生物活性测定方法,评价中国粗榧丙酮提取物对小菜蛾、粘虫、玉米象、淡色库蚊、家蝇、烟蚜和酢浆草茹叶螨等7种重要害虫的杀虫活性;并以粘虫3龄幼虫为试虫,采用活性追踪初步探索中国粗榧中杀虫活性成分的分离条件。【结果】中国粗榧丙酮提取物对供试的7种重要害虫均具有一定的生物活性,其中对小菜蛾和粘虫幼虫的杀虫活性较好,处理48 h后,其对小菜蛾3龄幼虫的胃毒致死中浓度(LC50)为74.94 mg/mL,拒食中浓度(AFC50)为45.39 mg/mL,对粘虫3 龄幼虫的胃毒LC50为 562.28 mg/mL,AFC50为 71.96 mg/mL;处理24 h后,对粘虫3 龄幼虫的触杀致死中量(LD50)为0.22 mg/头;初步分离结果表明,中国粗榧杀虫活性成分主要集中在石油醚萃取物中的Y5和Y6组分中,点滴量为0.05 μg/头时,其触杀死亡率均为100%。【结论】中国粗榧丙酮提取物具有较好的杀虫活性,其作用方式表现为拒食、胃毒及触杀,活性成分主要是非极性亲脂物质。
【Objective】This research preliminarily evaluated insecticidal activity of extracts from Cephalotaxus sinensis against seven pests and explored the separation conditions.【Method】Activities of C.sinensis against seven pests (Plutella xylostella,Mythimna separate,Sitophilus zeamais,Culex pipiens pallens,Musca domestica,Myzus persicae and Tetranychina hani) were determined by laboratory bioactivity method,and the separation conditions of main active ingredients in C.sinensis extracts were explored by bio-assay guided method.【Result】C.sinensis extracts had high toxic effects against all tested pests,among which larva of P.xylostella and M.separate were more susceptive than others.After 48 h,the LC50 and AFC50 against 3rd larva of P.xylostella were 74.94 mg/mL and 45.39 mg/mL,and those against 3rd larva of M.separate were 562.28 mg/mL and 71.96 mg/mL,respectively.C.sinensis extracts also exhibited contact poisoning activity against 3rd larva of M.separata with LD50 of 0.22 mg/larva after 24 h.The main active ingredients existed in the Y5 and Y6 fractions of petroleum ether extracts by column chromatography isolation under bioassay guided method, with the contact mortality of 100% at the dosage of 0.05 μg/larva.【Conclusion】C.sinensis extracts showed potentially insecticidal activity against many pests through antifeedant,stomach poisoning and contact poisoning.The active ingredients were nonpolar lipid materials
粗榧种子油脂抗氧化性及其脂肪酸组成分析
Study on Antioxidant Property and Fatty Acid Compositions of Cephalotaxus sinensis Seed Oil
 [PDF]

刘晓娇,,,何鸿举,樊明涛
- , 2016, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1004-1389.2016.03.015
Abstract: 以粗榧种子为试材,分析不同浓度的粗榧种子油脂提取物对常用食用油(核桃油、大豆油和花生油)过氧化值的影响,并与维生素E抗氧化性进行比较,探究粗榧种子油脂的抗氧化性,并通过气相色谱(GC)和高效液相色谱(HPLC)分别测定粗榧种子油脂的脂肪酸组成与脂溶性维生素质量分数。结果表明:粗榧种子出油率达31.45%,高于大豆等油料作物;3种食用植物油在16 d内的抗氧化效果均随粗榧种子油脂提取物添加量的增加而增强,而粗榧种子油的过氧化值几乎没有变化;在核桃油中进行粗榧种子油脂和维生素E抗氧化性比较发现,粗榧种子油抗氧化性明显高于维生素E。此外,GC分析结果表明,粗榧种子油的脂肪酸组成以棕榈酸质量分数最高,达24.31%,其次是质量分数不等的硬脂酸(12.74%)、珠光脂酸(8.18%)、十五烷酸(7.69%)等脂肪酸;HPLC检测结果表明:粗榧种子油脂中维生素E质量分数为9.73 mg/kg, 维生素A质量分数为0.63 mg/kg。可见,粗榧是一种天然抗氧化物质的良好来源,值得进一步开发和利用。
By analyzing change of peroxide value of Cephalotaxus sinensis seed oil,the antioxidant property of Cephalotaxus sinensis seed oil was investigated by adding Cephalotaxus sinensis seed oil into walnut oil, soybean oil and peanut oil, respectively, and compared with vitamin E in the walnut oil. Besides, the fatty acid compositions and fat-soluble vitamins of Cephalotaxus sinensis seed oil were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) method and High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that the oil yield of Cephalotaxus sinensis seed was 31.45%, which was higher than those of soybean and other oil crops. The antioxidant capacities of the three tested edible vegetable oil were improved with the increase of Cephalotaxus sinensis seed oil. Changes of the peroxide value seed oil were not found in the Cephalotaxus sinensis in the sixteen days. Besides, the antioxidant capacity of Cephalotaxus sinensis seed oil was better than vitamin E in the walnut oil. In addition, the GC results showed that the fatty acids of Cephalotaxus sinensis seed oil were mainly composed of palmitic acid (24.31%), stearic acid (12.74%), heptadecanoic acid (8.18%), pentadecanoic acid (7.69%), etc. HPLC results showed that the content of vitamin E in the Cephalotaxus sinensis seed oil was 9.73 mg/kg, vitamin A 0.63 mg/kg. It was concluded that Cephalotaxus sinensisn oil is a good source for natural antioxidants and worth development and utilization in the future.
Treatments to prevent the dormancy of tento seeds
Valeria Veras Ribeiro,Maria do Socorro Souto Braz,Noelma Miranda de Brito
Biotemas , 2009,
Abstract: This work aimed to evaluate the infl uence of pre-germinative treatments on the prevention of tento seed dormancy (water impermeability of the seed coat). Accordingly an experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Seed Analysis and Greenhouse of the Department of Fhytotechics of CCA-UFPB, in Areia-PB, in a completely randomized design with 4 replications of 25 seeds for the two environments. The treatments were: mechanical scarifi cation with emery cloth, immersion in concentrated sulfuric acid (98%) for 15 and 30 minutes, and the control (without previous treatment of the seeds). In the laboratory, the seeds were incubated at 25°C in damp paper, and in the greenhouse they were sown in plastic trays among sand. Germination and vigor tests were used, and the following parameters were analyzed: percentage of germination, fi rst germination count, and length and day weight of the root and aerial parts of the seedlings. The results indicated that the immersion treatments in sulfuric acid for 15 and 30 minutes and the scarifi cation were the most effi cient in preventing seed dormancy.
Physiological quality of soybean and wheat seeds produced with alternative potassium sources
Toledo, Mariana Zampar;Castro, Gustavo Spadotti Amaral;Crusciol, Carlos Alexandre Costa;Soratto, Rogério Peres;Nakagawa, Jo?o;Cavariani, Cláudio;
Revista Brasileira de Sementes , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-31222011000200019
Abstract: the use of unconventional sources of k for plants has been widely studied, but the effects of alternative materials on physiological seed quality are still relatively unknown. the objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological quality of soybean and wheat seeds after using different potassium sources in a crop succession. the experimental design was a completely randomized block with four replications. treatments consisted of three k sources (kcl, alkaline rock and ground phonolite, with 58%, 11% and 8.42% of k2o, respectively) applied in four doses (0, 25, 50 and 100 kg k2o ha-1). potassium doses were applied in soybean and their residual effects were evaluated on the following wheat crop. soybean and wheat seeds were evaluated immediately after harvesting by tests for moisture content, seed weight, germination, first count, electrical conductivity, seedling length and seedling dry matter. soybean plants fertilized with alternative sources of k produced heavier seeds with a lower coat permeability compared to kcl; the physiological quality of soybean seeds and the weight of wheat seeds increase due to higher k2o doses, independently of their source.
Priming and physiological performance of rocket salad seeds
Jarbas Alves,Rafael Marani Barbosa,Denis Santiago da Costa,Marco Eustáquio de Sá
Biotemas , 2012,
Abstract: Rocket salad is a leafy vegetable that has become a popular food in various regions of Brazil. Its multiplication is only possible with seeds and, therefore, high quality propagation material is necessary for establishing a good crop. Studies show that seed conditioning promotes physiological improvements in the speed and uniformity of seedling establishment in the field. The present work was carried out in order to verify the effect of priming on the performance of rocket salad seeds. Five seed lots of rocket salad, cultivar Cultivada, were primed for 24 hours, using the potentials of 0.0, -0.1, -0.2, -0.3MPa, in a polyethylene glycol (Carbonax 6000) solution. A completely randomized design with 20 treatments (5 seed lots × 4 potentials) was used, with four replications. Means were compared by Tukey’s test and regression analyses were conducted for the osmotic potential. The data showed that priming improved germination and the percentage of strong plants in relation to vigor.
Physiological potential of soybean seeds treated with thiamethoxam and submitted to storage  [PDF]
Lilian Gomes de Moraes Dan, Hugo de Almeida Dan, Gleberson Guillen Piccinin, Juliana Marques Voroniak, Alessandro Lucca Braccini, Alberto Le?o de Lemos Barroso
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.411A003
Abstract:

Bio-activators such as thiamethoxam have been used to increase the productive potential of plants, by means of metabolic and plant morphology modifications. Nevertheless, very little is known regarding the effectiveness of this insecticide when incorporated into lower quality level soybean seeds, particularly during storage. The objective of this work was to assess the influence of thiamethoxam on the physiological potential of soybean seeds with different initial vigor levels during four storage periods. Three vigor levels of cultivar Anta—low (35%), medium (70%) and high (85%) vigor—of soybean seeds were utilized in this experiment. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 3 × 2 × 4 factorial scheme—3 levels of vigor (low, medium and high); 2 seed treatments (with and without thiamethoxam) and 4 storage periods (0, 30, 60 and 90 days). The analyzed variables were: germination, first germination count, accelerated aging test, seedling length and emergence speed index. Thiamethoxam-treated soybean seeds benefit the physiological potential of both medium and high vigor seeds during storage up to 30 days. Whereas, the use of thiamethoxam was shown to be ineffective in improving the physiological quality of initial low vigor seeds.

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